The method of determining the velocity of capillary blood flow

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to medicine and can be used when evaluating the appropriateness of the use of drugs, as well as evaluating the overall condition of the patient. When implementing the method of the limb of the patient is placed on the holder. The nail plate is led to the focus of the optical system. Choose the capillary, in which the dynamics of blood flow. Determines the size of the departments of the capillary channel. Using the calculated data calculated blood flow velocity. The method allows precise objective diagnosis of the patient's condition and to optimize his medication. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to medicine, namely to the field of medical diagnostics, and can be used for diagnostic purposes, namely to determine the condition of the patient, as well as the impact of drugs on the body of the patient.

The known method of determining the velocity of blood flow in microvessels using optical systems for imaging and recording the motion of the blood in the capillary on the media /1/.

The disadvantage is it is.

The technical result consists in increasing the accuracy of the method, the possibility of holding an objective diagnosis of the patient's condition and the optimization of its medical treatment.

To achieve the technical result prompted to place the limb of the patient (leg or arm) on the holder with the preferred fixed by the fixing fingers of the limb. The fixing may be provided with a form fit to accommodate the limb of the patient. To the nail plate of one of the fingers, limbs sum up the focus of the lighting and the receiving optical systems. Choose the capillary and Orient the focus of the lighting and the receiving system, so that at the receiving system to obtain the clearest image of the selected capillary with the subsequent registration of the dynamics of capillary blood flow by fixing the image. The main requirement to the selected capillary is his presence in the field of view in the analysis of blood flow. The image recording can be performed on individual images (frames) and on the film. It is also possible recording in the computer memory. Then spend processing the recorded information. Further to simplify the material is Rimonim for any way of fixing the image of the capillary. Initially, each shot will conduct a search of the selected capillary. Search the selected capillary necessary, because in the process of monitoring the limb of the patient is moved (in particular, due to the respiration of the patient), with the corresponding movement of the capillary in the field of research. Search the selected capillary can be carried out using well-known algorithm of the correlation search in the binary image. However, it is preferable to use the method of finding the minimum of the absolute error between the current and reference image. To do this, in the first step, get known by the binary image. Next, taking a reference image of the selected area, which is allocated capillary, for each element of the big picture carry out the calculation of the following expression:

|C2(i+m,j+n)-C1(i,j)|,

where C2- array of elements of the search area (in this case, the entire frame),

C1- array of elements of the reference image,

(m,n) - values that define the position of the window (the standard) in the search area,

MxN is the number of elements in the array C1.

Calculations carried out successively from point to point. After researching all Windows LASS="ptx2">

To accelerate the search procedure can black and white image consisting of h elements, convert to image h element. The conversion is carried out as follows. In the cell 10x10 large image calculate the sum of elements and, if it exceeds 50, then decide on the black dot in the small image, if not exceeds, then decide on the white point in a small image. This procedure significantly reduces the number of operations in the search.

After selecting the frame of the selected capillary conduct the selection of the channel of the capillary. On the frame of the capillary must be oriented from left to right, and the capillary break (transition team) is on the left. To obtain the boundaries of the transition of the division image is scanned in the vertical plane. Upon the receipt of two sustainable changes (transitions from black to white and Vice versa), the decision about the starting point of the transition of the Department. Then, continuing the scanning in the vertical plane and moving in the horizontal plane, is determined by four sustainable difference. When reaching a decision about the definition of the end of the transition section. The process of moving in horizontal and vertical scanning p is ichino diameter of the transition of the Department of the capillary is defined as the distance from the starting point to the ending point of the transition of the Department, defined as shown above, when determining the capillary channel. The magnitude of the diameter of the venous or arterial departments is defined as the average distance between the points defining the boundaries of departments.

To calculate the flow velocity initially determine its direction. To determine the direction to take into account two factors: the blood always flows from the arterial Department in venous and arterial Department in 90% of cases thinner than venous. To conditionally select the first frame of the measuring zone, approximately 20% of the length Department. On the next frame to determine the offset of the measuring zone, and known interframe time to calculate the speed. In addition, the definition of speed, you can optionally specify the number of sludge. It implies a blood clot, whose length is from one - half diameters of the capillary to half the length of the capillary, and bounded on two sides of the light, compared with the blood flow, over a time interval of up to one diameter of the capillary. Determining the amount of sludge is carried out on previously obtained binary image. In order to take into account several times the same sludge carry out the following sequence of operations is SS="ptx2">

Because the length of the sludge cannot be changed instantly, and he can't move against the direction of blood flow, then the next frame it is possible to accurately determine a new sludge on the frame.

However, the method is not only because with the same success rate can be defined by the nature of the movement of sludge through the capillary by the formula V = S/t.

To determine the sludge, as indicated above, it is necessary to know the diameter of the capillary. When scanning capillary with a predetermined diameter identified in the capillary areas with inhomogeneous optical density, comparing their sizes and the intervals between these sections with the diameter of the capillary and make a judgment whether the optical heterogeneity of the sludge. In case of recognition of the revealed plot sludge use control over its movement to determine the flow velocity, as indicated above.

The invention can be illustrated by the following example implementation.

The drawing shows a device for the automatic registration of capillary blood flow, comprising a housing 1, an illumination system 2 for generating and focusing the optical radiation of the nail bed of the finger p of the optical system 4, the holder arm of the subject with 5 adjustment system 6 that allows you to move the whole arm, including the observed finger relative to the focus 3 optical recording system, the recording optical system 4 for zoom images of the capillaries located above the patient's finger, system control and status record in the form of a sensor head 7 on the basis of the CCD sensor, located on enhancing the image of the optical system, the processor 8, converting the signal from the CCD sensor into a standard video signal, the RF amplifier 9, which allows to enhance the image contrast, the external computer 10 with standard - input video input connected to the output of the processor CCD, which performs processing of a received video image using special software, with the aim of obtaining numerical characteristics of capillary blood flow, and the computer monitor simultaneously performs the functions of a television monitor for visual observation of capillary blood flow, and the computer device accumulating the video data with a view to their subsequent playback and storage.

The holder of the hand of the patient 5 can be performed combined with automatically is a host computer, making the fixation image of capillaries, which allows, by changing the pressure in the measuring cuff to adjust the speed of capillary blood flow and to investigate the dynamic characteristics under load.

If the level of the signal output from the CPU 8, the processing signal from the CCD 7 is sufficient for the operation of the video input external computer 10, it is necessary in the RF amplifier 8 no, and then the output of the processor 8 of the CCD sensor 7 is directly connected to the input of the video processing computer 10.

Source 2 optical radiation can be made in the form of an incandescent lamp with a set of color filters and focusing the radiation optical system, and as a source of coherent radiation, such as low-power laser, optical fiber, or without it.

Tool 5 holding hands and the patient's finger may be in the form of recesses in the form of hands and fingers at the base of the movable plate located on the movable adjustment system 6, and movable stop 14 for the arm of the subject to record individual dimensions of the hand of the subject.

When using the above TA. Move the nail plate in the area of focus of the optical system. Through the CCD register the dynamics of the movement of blood under the nail plate. Allocate on the first frame image of the capillary and perform the above operations on the study of the capillary.

Literature

1. SU 950309, class A 61 B 5/026, 15.08.82.

1. The method of determining the velocity of capillary blood flow, including the use of optical systems for viewing and recording on the storage media and the dynamics of blood flow in the capillary, characterized in that place the limb of the patient on the holder, striking the nail plate to the focus of the optical system, choose under the nail plate capillary to measure the speed of blood flow, allocate transition, arterial and venous sections of the capillary channel, determine the diameters of the departments of the capillary, and calculates the blood flow velocity using previously measured diameters of the departments of the capillary.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as media use photographic film, film or computer memory.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the dynamics of the movement of blood is determined by comparing consecutive frames.

 

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SUBSTANCE: method involves applying ultrasonic Doppler echolocation techniques for scanning blood circulation at selected area of cardiovascular system, determining blood circulation velocity vector projections and calculating blood circulation speed. Echolocation is carried out by using at least three non-complanar probing ultrasonic rays set at angles relative to selected area of cardiovascular system in the range of 0-80°. Selected blood circulation area orientation angles are measured relative to scanning ultrasonic rays and Doppler frequency shifts in each measuring channel are determined. Blood circulation speed is calculated as where ω0i is the radiation frequency of ultrasonic oscillation in ray I, Δωi is the Doppler frequency shifts in measuring channel i, V is the ultrasonic wave propagation speed in the medium, ϑk is the blood circulation speed in selected area, ϑki is the blood circulation velocity projection to scanning ray i, a,b,c,h,k,n11,n12,n13 are the coefficients depending on ultrasonic rays orientation. The device has measuring unit having ultrasonic transducers and electronic unit having switch, high frequency oscillator, calculating unit, indication and control unit. The measuring unit is manufactured as bracelet which segments are connected to each other by means of adjustable hinges and has gages for measuring lateral segment orientation angles relative to the central segment and gages for measuring ultrasonic transducer orientation angles relative to the i-th segment where i = 1,2,3, connected to calculating unit, switch, indication and control unit connected to high frequency oscillator, ultrasonic transducers of the measuring unit are connected via the switch to the high frequency oscillator.

EFFECT: high accuracy of measurements; wide range of functional applications.

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EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of differential diagnosis.

9 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

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EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of differential diagnosis.

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SUBSTANCE: method involves recording dental pulp blood vessels rheodendogram and determining vascular tone index value. Patient electrocardiogram is recorded during the whole dental treatment course before and after tooth odontopreparation concurrently with dental pulp blood vessels rheodentogram recording. Parasympathetic division of nervous system activity index is measured. Vascular tone index ratio with respect to parasympathetic division of nervous system activity index value is determined. The value is compared to a reference value corresponding to its value measured before carrying out odontopreparation. The received value deviating from norm and being not greater than 30%, inflammation process progress in dental pulp is considered to be the case and removal of tooth pulp is advised.

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1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

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EFFECT: high accuracy of assessment results.

6 dwg

FIELD: medicine, functional diagnostics.

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EFFECT: higher accuracy of diagnostics.

3 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves evaluating blood microcirculation parameters in urethral mucous membrane before tuberculin test and 48 h thereafter. The microcirculation parameters growing worse by 8-12% and higher, tuberculosis is to be diagnosed. The value remaining unchanged or their values not exceeding 8%, nonspecific urinary tract inflammation is to be diagnosed.

EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis.

2 tbl

FIELD: medicine, urology.

SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out the echo-dopplerographic study of the male genital system before physiotherapy course followed by carrying out pharmaco-echo-dopplerography of genital system vessels by using vardenofil in an average single dose 10-20 mg given in 30-45 min after oral administration of the preparation. In case of increasing linear blood stream rates in the genital system vardenofil is prescribed in one-half single dose, once time per 24 h additionally to physiotherapy during all course of treatment, and also prostatilen, rectal suppositories and microenemas and every day massage of prostate by fingers. Also, the rational psychotherapy of "syndrome in waiting failure" and "examination syndrome" is carried out; then administration of vardenofil for 6 months is prescribed in one-half single dose in each other 24 h or 2 times per a week and then similar course is repeated 4-5 times with break for 6 months. Method provides improving results of treatment due to carrying out the selective vasoactive therapy of genital system in patients suffering with chronic prostatitis and with parallel decreasing erectile and psychosexual function. Invention can be used in treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis in combination with copulative disorders.

EFFECT: improved and enhanced treatment method.

6 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

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EFFECT: higher accuracy of diagnostics.

6 ex

FIELD: medicine, surgery, traumatology, anesthesiology, physiotherapy, curative physical training.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency of rehabilitation.

2 ex, 4 tbl

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