Artificial island, bearing artificial islands and the method of construction of artificial islands

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and is intended for development and offshore shelf for production and deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials. In the construction of artificial Islands offshore in place for the construction of artificial Islands are leveling the bottom of the sea. Artificial island comply with the internal Bay. This set prop artificial Islands in the shape contour of the shell and the supporting piles. Okonjoiweala membrane is accomplished by the installation of the main pontoons in the form of diverging beams. Facing the inner Bay side of these pontoons connect ambalavanan ring. On the outer periphery of the latter opposite the main pontoons hammer floating piles and rigidly securing them to said pontoons. On the inner perimeter of obvalovannoe rings except for the places designed for overlapping navigable canals, hammer anchor piles to solid load-bearing rocks in the bottom of the sea. Then they carry out the formation through the excavation of at least one covered channel for internal communication of the Bay with the open sea, over vnutrikitayskoy security development and offshore shelf for production and deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, combined with the full utilization of industrial and household waste by reducing emissions of harmful substances, improve the ecological environment of the population in accordance with international standards, to improve the living conditions of the population in ecologically unfavorable regions, as well as to rehabilitate contaminated sites. 3 S. and 56 C.p. f-crystals, 19 ill.

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and is intended for development and offshore shelf for production and deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, combined with the full utilization of industrial and household waste, recovery of biological resources of the sea, including the improvement of the landscape, environment and construction of social and industrial infrastructure.

The famous artificial island, containing a support installed on the seabed, which is being built from separate blocks by filling the soil of the individual sections of the casing (U.S. patent N 2043452, N. CL. 405-222, 09.06.1936). This artificial island has very limited use as part of the breakwater.

The famous artificial island building, which is being built by way of injection from a moving ship at sea woori movement of the vessel is chosen to the gel mass is formed to the desired configuration support (U.S. patent N 4583882, M CL E 02 D 21/00, 22.04.1986). This method requires a large consumption gelling agent for the erection of artificial Islands, even of small size, and the resulting bearing is used only for protection of the inner part of the artificial island from sea waves and ice, because the strength of support from the gel mass is insufficient for building large structures.

From the patent of Russia No. 2107773 (M CL E 02 In 17/00, 27.03.1998) famous artificial island, containing support.

From the same patent of Russia No. 2107773 known bearing artificial Islands, containing mounted on the bottom of the sea and towering above the contour of the shell and the supporting piles.

From the same patent of Russia No. 2107773 known method of construction of artificial Islands offshore, including the installation of a towering above the sea level contour of the shell and the driving of the supporting piles.

These objects are chosen as prototypes for objects of this application.

The disadvantages of all three of these objects is the inability to avoid environmental pollution in case of emergency emissions of hydrocarbons, dobnig island, which in turn is determined by the size of its support, not raising her isolation structures, and especially any equipment in addition to the drilling or mining; as a consequence, the extracted hydrocarbon raw materials must be transported in tankers during loading is also possible emissions of hydrocarbons into the environment, such as oil spills in the open sea, especially when the excitement of the sea.

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, is to increase the environmental safety of the development and construction of offshore production and deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, combined with the full utilization of industrial and household waste, by reducing emissions of harmful substances, improve the ecological environment of the population in accordance with international standards, to improve the living conditions of the population in ecologically unfavorable regions, as well as in rehabilitation of contaminated territories.

The problem is solved in that the artificial island, which contains towering above the sea level support according to the invention provided with a dome, while the support is executed in the form of a ring with obaldenny with the possibility of overlap, and the dome is mounted on a support above the inner Bay. However, in some cases, perform artificial Islands it forms a dome over the inner Bay grotto in the form of a tower, which is made of stepped conical or cylindrical, the upper part of the tower is made of glass, the inner space of the grotto in the tower is made of at least one overlap, which in turn has a Central hole, and is designed to accommodate drilling equipment and/or equipment for oil and gas, and/or equipment for the oil and gas refining, and/or unit; in the tower along its lateral posted by forming a production and/or accommodations; for overlapping navigable canals artificial island and is equipped with gates chandernagor type; artificial island made according to the type of terrain mountainous volcanic Islands covered with vegetation; artificial island is provided with at least one peripheral artificial island formation, which is made either in the form of pontoons installed in a separate radiating from the center of the artificial island rays and floating piles, to which is rigidly attached at the nodal points of the peripheral artificial about tonov, installed on the outer periphery of obvalovannoe ring, with baffles installed in the form of diverging from the additional pontoons rays and are connected by channels with an internal Bay for the passage of her ships in the open sea, side walls, facing away from additional pontoons blocked by gates chandernagor type and connected restrictive barrier is made from a chain of additional pontoons and bermed with the external side of the bottom, the sectors bounded by the outer perimeter obvalovannoe the rings on the sides by walls and on the outer side - restrictive barrier forming area, and artificial Islands made the wrong form of additional pontoons and alluvial soil and erected in these areas; additional pontoons made hexagonal shapes of reinforced concrete; the peripheral artificial island formation are intended for the construction of the marine Park, consisting of a basin of technological complexes for industrial reproduction of marine flora and fauna, sport and tourism and recreation complexes.

The task is also solved by the fact that reliance on artificial island that contains the set is equipped with a floating piles, overcontouring the shell is made with the possibility of formation of internal bays located around the ring in the form of diverging beams of the main pontoons, whose sides facing the inner harbour, connected ambalavanan ring, anchor piles are hammered on the inner perimeter of obvalovannoe ring to solid load-bearing rocks in the bottom of the sea and floating piles hammered on the outer periphery of obvalovannoe ring and connected with the corresponding main pontoons. However, in some cases, execution support its fringing jacket are made of at least one navigable channel with the possibility of overlap from the open sea through the gates chandernagor type; the main pontoons made of rectangular shape made of reinforced concrete with internal compartments to fill them removed when leveling seabed soil; obvalovannoe ring made of concentrically formed on the inner bounds of the specified ring to the external ground height above the upper level of the main pontoons, from the outside, except for the places designed for navigable canals, obvalovannoe ring strengthened macro-grained rock rock delivered with continental deposits, and from the inside pursued artificial Islands offshore, including the installation of a towering above the sea level contour of the shell and the driving abutment piles, according to the invention in place of the construction of artificial Islands are leveling the bottom of the sea, fringing shell execute with the formation of the inner harbour by setting the main pontoons in the form of diverging beams directed toward the inner Bay side of these pontoons connect ambalavanan ring, on the outer perimeter of which in front of the main pontoons hammer floating piles and rigidly securing them to said pontoons, on the inner perimeter of obvalovannoe rings, except for the places designed for overlapping navigable canals, hammer anchor piles to solid load-bearing rocks in the bottom of the sea, then they carry out the formation through the excavation of at least one covered channel for internal communication of the Bay with the open sea, and then over the inner Bay on the abutment piles erected the dome. However, in some cases, execution of method main pontoons perform rectangular reinforced concrete with internal compartments, the place of installation is transported by water and then sink by filling their int is Nivki soil concentrically from the inner bounds of the specified ring to the external height, exceeding the upper level of the main pontoons; obvalovannoe ring, except for the places designed for navigable canals, the outer side strengthen macro-grained rock rock delivered with continental deposits, and from the inside to strengthen the supporting wall of concrete slabs; after installing the contour of the shell with its outer side perform at least one peripheral artificial island formation, intended for the construction of the marine Park, consisting of a basin of technological complexes for industrial reproduction of marine flora and fauna, sport and tourism and recreation complexes, peripheral artificial island formation is done either in the form of additional pontoons, set in a separate radiating from the center of the artificial island rays, while peripheral artificial island formation in nodal points rigidly attached to additional floating piles, either in the form of additional pontoons, partitions with channels, a restrictive barrier gates chandernagor type and artificial islets, with additional pontoons set by external PE the additional pontoons rays and connect the TV with an internal Bay for the passage of her ships in the open sea; side walls, facing away from additional pontoons, overlapping gates chandernagor type and connect the restrictive barrier is made from a chain of additional pontoons and bermed with the external side of the ground, and in sectors that are restricted by external perimeter obvalovannoe the rings on the sides by walls and on the outer side - restrictive barrier forming area, build artificial Islands of the wrong form of additional pontoons and alluvial soil; additional pontoons carry out the hexagon shape of reinforced concrete; the dome over the inner Bay erected for the education of the grotto and deliver it in the form of stepped conical or cylindrical tower, which is erected by the method of continuous casting of concrete or composition of large prefabricated elements, fixed to the frame structure, recruited from the supporting columns, the upper part of the tower is made of glass; after the erection of the dome in the shipping channel to overlap set the shutter chandernagor type, in the inner Bay on a floating support installing drilling equipment, overlap the specified Bay from the open sea and carry out drilling at least one well, probota channel, in the tower, the interior of the grotto perform overlap with the formation of three levels to accommodate the equipment and mounted on the first level - equipment for oil and gas reservoirs, on the second level - equipment for processing oil and gas, and on the third level of the unit, while along the side forming the tower on the second and third levels is mounted accommodations, and on the first level and production premises; after installation of the equipment are carried out by wiring the grid from the power unit, the layout of water supply and Sewerage networks; artificial island is done on the type of terrain mountainous volcanic Islands covered with vegetation, and the extracted raw materials and/or products of its processing are sent using the appropriate shipping vessels through the channel.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which depict step-by-step construction of artificial Islands, namely: Fig.1 - stage I (hydraulic work on leveling the bottom of the sea at the place of construction of artificial Islands), and Fig.2 - stage II (core installation of pontoons around the ring in the form of diverging beams), and Fig.3 - section a-a of Fig.2; Fig.4 - phase III (execution obvalovannoe to the Fig.8 - Stage V (dome) of Fig.9 - VI stage (formation of the marine Park, consisting of a basin of technological complexes for industrial reproduction of marine flora and fauna); Fig. 10 - VII phase (installation of drilling equipment on a floating bearing in the center of the inner Bay), and Fig. 11 - VII also the stage (the overlap of the inner harbour from the open sea gates chandernagor type); Fig. 12 - VIII phase (drilling operations); Fig. 13 - IX stage (removal of the drilling equipment); Fig. 14 - X phase (closing the internal cavity of the grotto is the creation of three levels), and Fig. 15 - XI phase (installation on the first level of equipment for oil and gas reservoirs, the second level of the equipment for processing of oil and gas and in the third level of the unit, along side forming a tower on the second and third levels - residential premises, and on the first level - production facilities); Fig. 16 is a scheme of functional zoning stepped conical tower; Fig. 17 - XII phase (wired grid from the power unit, the layout of water supply and Sewerage networks), and Fig. 18 - thirteenth step (isolating the inner harbour from the open sea gates chandernagor type); Fig. 19 - stage XIV (construction production, editing is an Artificial island comprises a support 1, which is made in the form towering above the sea level 2 rings with the formation of the internal Bay 3. On the support 1 is mounted dome 4, which forms on the internal Bay 3 grotto height more than 30 meters of the support Ring 1 is made in the form of anchor piles 5, floating piles 6 and mounted on the bottom 7 of the sea and towering above his level 2 contour of the shell 8. The latter forms the internal Bay 3 and made of spaced around the ring in the form of diverging beams of the main pontoons 9, the sides of which facing the internal Bay 3, connected ambalavanan ring 10. The main pontoons 9 made of reinforced concrete (W/W) of a rectangular shape with dimensions HH m or more internal compartments to fill them removed when leveling the seabed soil. Obvalovannoe ring 10 made of concentrically formed on the inner bounds of the specified ring to the external ground height above the upper level of the main pontoons 9, and fortified with the external side of the macro-grained rock 11 rock delivered with continental deposits, and the inner side by a retaining wall of concrete slabs. Anchor piles scored 5 on the inner perimeter of obvalovannoe ring 10, except for the places designed for smacznego ring 10, except for the places designed for navigation channels 12, in soft base 14 of the seabed and associated with the corresponding main pontoons 9. In contouring sheath 8 made four channel 12 with the possibility of overlap from the open sea through gates 15 chandernagor type. The dome 4 is made in the form of step 16 conical or cylindrical tower, which is associated with a floating piles 6. The upper part 17 of the tower is made of glass. The inner space 18 of the grotto in the tower made with beams 19, which form three levels and are designed to accommodate drilling equipment 20 equipment 21 for oil and gas equipment 22 for processing oil and gas, and power unit 23. These overlap 19 has a Central hole for moving loads during the erection and dismantling of equipment with lifting devices. In the tower along its lateral posted by forming other production 24 and 25 residential premises. Artificial island made according to the type of terrain mountainous volcanic Islands covered with vegetation. On the outer side contour of the shell 10 is made of the peripheral artificial island formation 26 which may BH additional hex W/W pontoons 28 size 9,HH m, which is rigidly attached at the nodal points of the peripheral artificial island formation 26 additional floating piles 29, scored in soft base 14 of the bottom of the sea. Another embodiment of the peripheral artificial island formation 26: on the outer periphery of obvalovannoe ring 10 is installed additional pontoons 28, performed with the band; they are moving away in different directions in the form of radial rays up to 5000 m partitions with 30 channels 31, associated with the internal Bay 3 for the passage of her ships in the open sea and made of basic reinforced concrete pontoons 9; the outer ends of the partitions 30 are connected restrictive barrier 32 from a chain of additional pontoons 28, deboned with external parties soil 33; four sector 34, limited external perimeter of additional pontoons 28, side walls 30, and the outer side - restrictive barrier 32, form areas, where built of additional pontoons 28 and upstream of the artificial soil Islands 35 irregular shape; the ends of the partitions on the external side of diverging rays blocked by the stoppers 15 chandernagor type. Used in the construction of these peripheral artificial australianthe perform peripheral artificial island formation 26. These peripheral artificial island formation 26 is intended for the construction of the marine Park, consisting of a basin of technological complexes for industrial reproduction of marine flora and fauna (plantation lotuses 36, hatchery station-nursery 37 cages 38 for rearing fry, designated 39 sport fishing, etc), sports and tourism 40, industrial complexes (such as transport complex 41, caviar plant 42, a fish cannery 43, knitting factory, 44, 45 plants for the production of polyethylene and products made of polyethylene, etc.,), the housing 46, household 47, administrative 48 blocks, and telecommunications 49, environmental, banking, health care, landscape complexes, etc.

Artificial island constructed in the following way in several stages.

Stage I: hydraulic work on leveling the bottom of the sea at the place of construction of artificial Islands.

Immediately after completion of the engineering-geological surveys for the construction of the industrial sites and development based on the research of the master plan and plan of foundations carry out BR>
a) leveling the bottom of the sea 7 at a depth of 1.5 m below land on his main pontoons 9, as well as additional pontoons 28, which represents a main load-carrying elements of the Foundation of the artificial Islands;

b) leveling the bottom of the sea 7 under navigable channels 12, leading to the internal Bay 3 artificial Islands, with four sides, and the depth of the leveling is determined by the draught of metal floating pontoons transporting into the internal Bay drilling equipment 20;

b) leveling the bottom of the sea 7 under the waters of the inner Bay 3 in depth leveling is determined by the draught of the floating objects imported into the internal Bay 3.

Leveling is produced through the use of dredges 45 and cargo barges 46, used for the transportation of excavated soil. Further excavated soil is used for embankment support elements constructed artificial Islands.

Stage II. Installation of the main pontoons around the ring in the form of diverging beams.

In the second stage, the towing of water through the core 9 and the additional pontoons 28 to the installation site. Towing is carried out in weather conditions, relevant operational couples who individually or by type of caravan orders. On the very place of installation, each pontoon being driven pusher. The main pontoons 9 are arranged in the form of diverging from a single center rays. A single center in this case is the internal waters of the Bay 3. After building the main pontoons 9 in a predetermined configuration to produce their final installation in the soil by filling the internal compartments of the soil, the previously selected at the first stage in the process of leveling the bottom of the sea 7.

Stage III. Execution obvalovannoe rings.

The main pontoons 9 facing the internal Bay 3, connect ambalavanan ring 10, which is performed by nanyuki soil concentrically from the inner bounds of the specified ring to the external peripheral. Height obvalovannoe ring 10 exceeds the upper level of the main pontoons 9. After nanyuki outer side obvalovannoe ring 10 produce strengthening macro-grained rock rocks 11 delivered with continental deposits barges 46 unloading with the help of a ladle. Macro-grained rock rocks 11 does not strengthen the areas of external borders obvalovannoe ring 10, designed in the future to remove and open the passages of navigable channels 12, leading the b/W plates. In the retaining wall also leave gaps under the aisles of navigable canals 12.

IV stage. Driving the reference and floating piles.

On the outer periphery of obvalovannoe ring 10 in the seats in front of the main pontoons 9 score to the soft base 14 of the bottom of the sea 7 floating piles 6 and rigidly attach them to their corresponding main pontoons 9 to ensure precise configuration of arrangement of the main pontoons 9. Then construct the peripheral artificial island formation 26 which perform additional pontoons 28 installed in a separate radiating from the center of the artificial island rays 27, while peripheral artificial island formation in nodal points rigidly attached to additional floating piles 29, which clog up the soft base 14 of the bottom of the sea to ensure precise configuration of the peripheral artificial island formation 26. Peripheral artificial island formation 26 can also be made in the form of additional pontoons 28, partitions 30 channel 31, a restrictive barrier 32, the valves 15 chandernagor type and artificial islets 35, with additional pontoons 28 established nalivajut as divergent from additional pontoons rays and connects the channels 31 with the internal Bay 3 for the passage of her ships in the open sea; side walls 30, converted from additional pontoons 28, block valves 15 chandernagor type and connect the restrictive barrier 32, made of a chain of additional pontoons 28 and bermed on the outer side ground 33, and the sectors 34, limited external perimeter obvalovannoe ring 10, side walls 30, and the outer side - restrictive barrier 32, form a water area in which the erecting of additional pontoons 28 and upstream of the artificial soil Islands 35 irregular shape. On the inner perimeter of obvalovannoe ring 10 with the exception of areas under navigable channels clog anchor piles 5, which unlike floating piles 6 hammer until the moment of contact with a solid load-bearing rocks of the 13 bottom of the sea and serve as supporting elements of the dome 4. Then produce the excavation sites obvalovannoe ring 10 for the formation of navigable channels 12, leading to the internal Bay 3. In the navigable channels 12 are available for posting boats.

V stage. Execution of the dome.

In an area of the waters of the inner Bay 3 move plasterscene, as well as construction, building elements, construction and mate the i.i.d. stationary in the previous steps. Then by floating the rig by the method of continuous casting of concrete with tab reinforcement and inserted to produce the monolithic and the construction of the dome 4. The construction of the dome 4 is also possible by way of the layout of large prefabricated elements, attached to the supporting frame structure, recruited from the supporting columns. In this case, the Assembly produced using heavy cargo helicopter aviation, and the result is dramatically reduced Assembly time, but this method inevitably leads to a significant increase in cost. Constructed dome 4 in General is a stepped hollow conical tower 16 with a grotto with a height of over 30 m and with a Central hole in its upper part, and subsequently overlapping the glass. Durability of reinforced concrete structures, forming the dome 4, sufficient for long-term resistance point to external and internal shock loads.

VI stage. Education marine Park, consisting of a basin of technological complexes for industrial reproduction of marine flora and fauna.

In the center under construction marine Park on a Foundation of additional pontoons 28 erect fish breeding station-nursery 37, the shape representing the mi shikami for growing fry, in terms of round shape. Then mount and increasing length (up to 5000 m) partitions 30 channel 31 in the form of radial rays originating from the inner dike fish breeding station-nursery 37. Partition mount of the main pontoons 9. On the outer ends of the walls 30 on the side opposite the fish station-nursery 28, install shutters 15 chandernagor type for isolation from the open sea. On bottom of Podlasie partitions 30 place a system of nets with automatic drive. The water area of the partition walls 30 is designed to fish is the main element of the technological chain ryboposadochnogo complex, providing both the production of fish products, and the replenishment of marine biological resources through the issuance of fish in the open sea. Then the outer ends of the partitions 30 are combined restrictive barrier 32, which is made of a chain of additional pontoons 28 and outer side obvarovivaut ground 33. Waters formed four sectors 34 randomly scattered erect artificial Islands 35, intended for planting Lotus and create conditions for sport fishing. Thus, in the framework of the IV stage are working on obrazovatelnaya technological complexes for industrial reproduction of sturgeon and ordinary species of fish;

b) fish breeding station-nursery;

C) cages for rearing fry;

g) place the sport fishing Mellotron home, etc.

VII stage. Installation of drilling equipment on a floating bearing in the center of the inner Bay and the overlap of the inner harbour from the open sea Santorini gates.

VII the stage start in parallel with the VI stage. Navigable channels 12 in their intersections with ambalavanan ring 10 is equipped with gates 15 chandernagor type, made of steel, with independent drives and ensure the full integrity of the internal Bay 3 if they are closed. Carry out the wiring according to the shipping channel 12 drilling equipment 20, placed on the floating steel pontoons in a vertical or in a horizontal position, and then hold its positioning in the internal Bay 3. Then make the sealing of the internal Bay 3 by closing valves 15 chandernagor type.

VIII stage. Drilling operations.

Drilling operations produce the selected type of drilling equipment 20 to the passage of the underground reservoir and entering the lens oil fields.

IX stage. The dismantling of Oia 20, then open the shutter 15 chandernagor type channel 12 and drilling equipment 20, placed on the floating steel pontoons, take to the open sea.

X stage. Overlap the inner cavity of the grotto is the creation of three levels.

In the internal Bay 3 and the edges of the Central openings in the upper part 17 of the tower place lifting mechanisms through which produce further overlap the inner space 18 of the grotto through reinforced concrete floors 19 with the formation of three levels. In the Central part of the concrete slab 19 grotto provided through holes for moving loads during the erection and dismantling of equipment with lifting devices that have these holes.

XI stage. Installation of equipment for the extraction and processing of oil and gas, tanks, units, and residential and industrial premises.

First santeclaus the upper part 17 of the tower, closing the top of the grotto. Then at the third level, place the power unit 23, the second level equipment 22 for processing oil and gas, on the first level - equipment 21 for oil and gas reservoirs, and along the side forming the tower on the second and third levels - residential p the Ute on a steel floating platform with retractable jacks, enter into the internal Bay 3 through a shipping channel 12 when the shutter is open 15 chandernagor type, after which the platform position and push jacks, based on them, the platform is above the water level. There may be other options platform for equipment for oil and gas.

XII stage. Wired communications.

This phase begins during the execution of the works XI stage after completion of installation of the power unit 23 on the third level. At this stage, parallel work on the wiring of the communications grid from the power unit, water supply network, Sewerage network with the installation of transformer substations, main switchboard, distribution boards, sewage and water pumping stations, valves, etc. Should be noted that drinking water is taken from artesian wells of water reservoirs located in the area of industrial production facility, and the liquid fraction of the waste is injected into a subterranean oil-bearing layers to maintain pore pressure, which ensures 100% autonomy and isolation of water circulation, liquid waste and residential structures. The grid, sewage network TSW artificial island formations, in a single closed self-contained complex.

XIII stage. Isolating the inner harbour from the open sea gates chandernagor type.

XIII stage partially time overlaps XII stage. After the cessation of transportation of bulky components to complete energy, water supply, sewage networks in the area of artificial grotto island closures 15 chandernagor type cover, thereby isolating the internal Bay 3 from the external environment.

The fourteenth stage. Construction and commissioning of auxiliary systems.

At this stage of commissioning placed on the peripheral artificial island formations 26 and the tower housing, hospitality, industrial, administrative, banking, etc. complexes.

This embodiment of the artificial Islands, his bearing and method of its construction during the development and construction of shallow marine shelf will combine production and deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials with full utilization of industrial and household waste, to restore the living resources of the sea, including the improvement of the landscape, environmental conditions, psychological and medico-biological rehab is of economic importance for the improvement of the environment in zones of ecological crisis, protected areas and marine waters, including oil and gas fields on the shallow shelf of the Caspian sea. The proposed artificial island can be used to create a chain of artificial constructions island type, made in the style of the scenery of volcanic Islands covered with vegetation, to place them in the oil, gas and processing industries while restoration of marine biological resources, to create a closed production-production facility with social infrastructure, providing a complete recycling of industrial and household waste with 100% utilization by injection of liquid waste into the ground to maintain pore pressure and solid waste fractions to be used as filler in the manufacture of concrete products for further expansion of the territory of constructed artificial structures.

1. The artificial island, which contains towering above the sea level support, characterized in that it is equipped with dome, with this reliance is made in the form of a ring with the formation of the inner harbour, the latter is connected with the open sea at least odni Bay.

2. Artificial island under item 1, characterized in that the dome forms over the inner Bay grotto.

3. Artificial island under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the dome is made in the form of a tower.

4. Artificial island on p. 3, characterized in that the tower is made of stepped conical.

5. Artificial island on p. 3, characterized in that the tower is cylindrical.

6. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.3-5, characterized in that the upper part of the tower is made of glass.

7. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.3-6, characterized in that the tower is designed with overlapping inner space of the grotto with the formation of three levels to accommodate the equipment.

8. Artificial island under item 7, characterized in that the overlap of the internal space of the grotto is made with a Central hole.

9. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.2-8, characterized in that the inner space of the grotto is designed to accommodate drilling equipment, and/or equipment for oil and gas, and/or equipment for processing oil and gas and/or power.

10. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.3-9, characterized in that Bali island according to any one of paragraphs.1-10, characterized in that it is equipped with gates for blocking the shipping channel.

12. Artificial island on p. 11, characterized in that the gates of navigable canals made chandernagor type.

13. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.1-12, characterized in that it is performed according to the type of landscape is mountainous volcanic Islands covered with vegetation.

14. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.1-13, characterized in that it is provided with at least one peripheral artificial island formation.

15. Artificial island under item 14, characterized in that the peripheral artificial island formation is made of pontoons, the last installed as a separate radiating from the center of the artificial island rays.

16. Artificial island on p. 15, characterized in that it is equipped with a floating piles, to which is rigidly attached at the nodal points of the peripheral artificial island formation.

17. Artificial island under item 14, characterized in that the peripheral artificial island formation is made in the form of walls of the main pontoons with channels, additional pontoons, a restrictive barrier, gates, chandoga ring, baffles are installed in the form of diverging from the additional pontoons rays and are connected by channels with an internal Bay for the passage of her ships in the open sea; the side walls, drawn from the said pontoons blocked by gates chandernagor type and connected restrictive barrier is made from a chain of additional pontoons and bermed with the external side of the ground, while the sectors bounded by the outer perimeter obvalovannoe the rings on the sides by walls and on the outer side - restrictive barrier forming area, and artificial Islands made the wrong form of additional pontoons and alluvial soil and erected in these areas.

18. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.14-17, characterized in that the additional pontoons made hexagonal in shape.

19. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.14 to 18, characterized in that the additional pontoons are made of reinforced concrete.

20. The artificial island according to any one of paragraphs.14-19, wherein the peripheral artificial island formation are intended for the construction of the marine Park, consisting of a basin of technological complexes for industrial via artificial Islands, contains mounted on the bottom of the sea and towering above the contour of the shell and anchor piles, characterized in that it is equipped with a floating piles, contouring sheath made with the possibility of formation of internal bays located around the ring in the form of diverging beams of the main pontoons, whose sides facing the inner harbour, connected ambalavanan ring, anchor piles are hammered on the inner perimeter of obvalovannoe ring to solid load-bearing rocks in the bottom of the sea and floating piles hammered on the outer periphery of obvalovannoe ring and connected with the corresponding main pontoons.

22. Reliance on p. 21, characterized in that the contour of the shell is made of at least one navigable channel with the possibility of overlap from the open sea.

23. Reliance on p. 22, characterized in that it is provided with valves for shutoff of navigable canals.

24. Reliance on p. 23, characterized in that the valves for shutoff of navigable canals made chandernagor type.

25. Bearing according to any one of paragraphs.21-24, characterized in that the main pontoons made of rectangular shape.

26. Bearing according to any one of paragraphs.21 to 25, characterized in that one pontoons are made with internal compartments to fill them removed when leveling the bottom of the sea ground.

28. Bearing according to any one of paragraphs.21-27, wherein obvalovannoe ring made of concentrically formed on the inner bounds of the specified ring to the external ground height above the upper level of the main pontoons.

29. Reliance on PP.21-28, wherein obvalovannoe ring from the outside, except for the places designed for navigation channels, strengthened macro-grained rock rock delivered with continental deposits.

30. Bearing according to any one of paragraphs.21-29, wherein obvalovannoe ring reinforced on the inner side of the supporting wall of concrete slabs, except for the places designed for navigable canals.

31. The method of construction of artificial Islands offshore, including the installation of a towering above the sea level contour of the shell and the driving abutment piles, characterized in that in place of the construction of artificial Islands are leveling the bottom of the sea, fringing shell execute with the formation of the inner harbour by setting the main pontoons around the ring in the form of diverging beams directed toward the inner Bay side of these pontoons connect ambalavanan ring, external am, on the inner perimeter of obvalovannoe rings, except for the places designed for overlapping navigable canals, hammer anchor piles to solid load-bearing rocks in the bottom of the sea, and then carry out the formation through the excavation of at least one covered channel for internal communication of the Bay with the open sea, and then over the inner Bay on the abutment piles erected the dome.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the main pontoons perform rectangular shape.

33. The method according to p. 31 or 32, characterized in that the main pontoons are made of reinforced concrete.

34. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-33, wherein the main pontoons comply with internal compartments, the place of installation is transported by water and then sink by filling their internal compartments soil, previously selected by the leveling of the bottom of the sea.

35. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-34, wherein obvalovannoe ring performed by nanyuki soil concentrically from the inner bounds of the specified ring to the external height above the upper level of the main pontoons.

36. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-35, wherein overproportionally rocks delivered with continental deposits.

37. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-36, wherein obvalovannoe ring from the inside to strengthen the supporting wall of concrete slabs, except for the places designed for navigable canals.

38. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-37, wherein after installation of the contour of the shell with its outer side perform at least one peripheral artificial island formation.

39. Method p. 38, characterized in that the peripheral artificial island formation is performed in the form of additional pontoons that are installed in a separate radiating from the center of the artificial island rays, while peripheral artificial island formation in nodal points rigidly attached to additional floating piles.

40. Method p. 38, characterized in that the peripheral artificial island formation is performed in the form of additional pontoons, partitions with channels, a restrictive barrier gates chandernagor type and artificial islets, additional pontoons installed on the outer periphery of obvalovannoe rings, septum perform basic Pei Bay for the passage of her ships in the open sea; side walls, facing away from additional pontoons, overlapping gates chandernagor type and connect the restrictive barrier is made from a chain of additional pontoons and bermed with the external side of the ground, while the sectors bounded by the outer perimeter obvalovannoe the rings on the sides by walls and on the outside - a restrictive barrier, form a water area in which the erecting of additional pontoons and alluvial soil artificial Islands of irregular shape.

41. The method according to any of paragraphs.38 to 40, characterized in that the additional pontoons carry out the hexagon shape.

42. The method according to any of paragraphs.38-41, wherein the additional pontoons are made of reinforced concrete.

43. The method according to any of paragraphs.38-42, wherein the peripheral artificial island formation is intended for the construction of the marine Park, consisting of a basin of technological complexes for industrial reproduction of marine flora and fauna, sport and tourism and recreation complexes.

44. The method according to any of paragraphs. 31-43, characterized in that the dome over the inner Bay erected for the education of the grotto.

47. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that the tower fulfill cylindrical.

48. The method according to any of paragraphs.45-47, wherein the tower erected by the method of continuous casting of concrete.

49. The method according to any of paragraphs.45-47, wherein the tower erected by the method of composition of large prefabricated elements, attached to the supporting frame structure, recruited from the supporting columns.

50. The method according to any of paragraphs.45-49, characterized in that the upper part of the tower is made of glass.

51. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-50, characterized in that after the erection of the dome in the shipping channel to overlap set the shutter.

52. The method according to p. 51, characterized in that the overlapping channel use shutter chandernagor type.

53. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-52, characterized in that after the erection of the dome in the inner Bay on a floating support installing drilling equipment, overlap the specified Bay from the open sea and carry out drilling at least one well.

54. The method according to p. 53, characterized in that the drilled wells temporarily preserved, drilling equipment deliciousity fact, in the tower, the interior of the grotto perform overlap with the formation of three levels to accommodate the equipment.

56. The method according to p. 55, characterized in that the turret mounted at the first level of the equipment for oil and gas and the tanks on the second level - the equipment for processing of oil and gas and on the third level of the unit, while along the side forming the tower on the second and third levels is mounted accommodations, and on the first level and production premises.

57. The method according to p. 55 or 56, wherein after installation of the equipment are carried out by wiring the grid from the power unit, the layout of water and Sewerage networks.

58. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-57, characterized in that the extracted raw materials and/or products of its processing are sent using the appropriate shipping vessels through the channel.

59. The method according to any of paragraphs.31-58, characterized in that the artificial island is done on the type of terrain mountainous volcanic Islands covered with vegetation.

 

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The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction, in particular to the construction of offshore platforms offshore freezing seas

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FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly building bases and foundations, namely bridge piers, in water.

SUBSTANCE: method involves monitoring water obstacle in support building place, including investigating water parameters, recording water level in the course of year, determining floor shape, investigating floor ground, influence of outer disturbing forces and calculating weight and dimensions of support foundation case on the base of above parameters; producing hollow case with several cavities; moving case to installation place; submerging case in water; pacing thereof on floor; fixing case by piles and smoothing floor. Case submerging and placing operations are performed simultaneously with stabilizing vertical case position by performing control and filling of corresponding cavities. Bottom smoothing process is carried out by forcing artificial material, such as concrete layers with crushed stone interlayers, under case bottom. During case placing case is secured by blades built in case bottom and by piles inserted in cavities. Correspondence between case weight, number of blades, head resistance and side friction thereof for particular ground is determined to provide case stability on ground. Upper edge of submerged case is located above maximum possible water wave height. Rock fill is formed around underwater case part.

EFFECT: reduced time of support erection, increased reliability and stability, safety and service life, reduced labor inputs, possibility to erect supports in Arctic basin.

3 cl 1 ex

FIELD: stationary sea oil platforms.

SUBSTANCE: block has underwater support, made in form of two-level bench, formed by vertical beam cases and horizontal links, and also has support columns, connected to support. Horizontal links of bench are made in form of floating tanks, while links, placed along perimeter of lower level of bench, are separated by water-impenetrable walls on sections, provided with ballasting means. Method for mounting support block at the bottom of continental shelf includes transporting, ballasting of floating tanks and fixing support block at the bottom of water body. Support block is transported into wells drilling zone in planned position, sections of floating tanks are ballasted until lower level of support lowers into bottom of water body for 0.3-0.7 of its height, different and slants are evened and holding beams are inserted into cases of support with their following forcing into hard bottom portion and fixing in cases. Ballasting of sections of floating tanks and forcing of holding beams can be performed in pairs in diagonal planes relatively to center of lower level of support.

EFFECT: simplified assemblage, higher reliability.

2 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for forming temporary structures for enclosing closed in plane water area bottom part and space above the bottom part through the full water thickness.

SUBSTANCE: method of shallow tunnel construction involves forming structure enclosing closed in plane bottom part; removing water from the structure; performing works in dry structure and demounting above structure. Method of enclosing structure forming involves producing bottomless hydraulic enclosure with controlled floatability; transporting and moving thereof to tunnel path; immersing the enclosure in water up to reaching water area bottom by reducing floatability thereof and fixing enclosure with fastening means and anchor system; leveling upper enclosure part with horizon line and arranging cranage and platforms for building material storage on upper enclosure part; erecting cutoff walls inside space defined by enclosure; removing water from the enclosure; developing bottom ground by trench digging; constructing pile tunnel base; building foundation grill on pile tunnel base; locating composite or precast reinforced concrete tunnel sections on foundation grill; recovering initial floatability of the enclosure. Enclosure structure has movable fastening means formed as blades along vertical walls thereof.

EFFECT: increased tunnel reliability, reduced time of erection thereof.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: production of ice.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises producing a hollow near the ship's side, delivering air under the ice cover, the air volume does not exceeding the volume of the space defined by ice covering from the top, water from the bottom, and ice walls from the sides over the contour of the future hollow. The walls are frozen from top to bottom by means of direct nonseparable heat exchangers mounted in advance into the covering immediately behind the contour up to the bottom of the future hollow. The delivery stops and the bottom of the future hollow is frozen with the use of L-shaped nonseparable heat exchangers set into the covering simultaneously with the direct heat exchangers. As a result, a closed space is defined, which is stripped, and ice blocks are removed.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly underwater structures adapted for oil and gas well operation, preferably on shallow continental shelf having bottom covered with thick silt layer and in ice-covered period.

SUBSTANCE: platform comprises base, vertical pile holders connected with the base and positioning unit for drilling string and well-control equipment fixation. Base is formed as a structure with cavities filled with ballast. The structure is composed of hollow members and functionally divided into two areas. Positioning unit is arranged in the first area, another area including catching opening. Platform is additionally provided with removable mounting frame with production equipment installed on the frame. Arranged in lower frame part are inclined guiding means to provide access into catching opening during mounting frame connection with support platform base in underwater position.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs for production equipment mounting and maintenance, increased reliability.

7 dwg

FIELD: offshore oil-field hydraulic structures, namely for building fixed platforms.

SUBSTANCE: support substructure comprises three-dimensional latticed structure having prismatic shape and composed of tubular members. The structure has vertical panels with posts, cross-pieces, struts and horizontal diaphragms connected one to another. Horizontal diaphragms have guiding nets for marine risers. The structure is secured to ground by main piles arranged in vertical posts and by foundation having additional piles, which is rigidly connected to tubular members of side edges of above structure. The structure is provided with ice-protection means formed as two truncated prisms of sheet steel and having beveled side ribs rigidly connected one to another by major bases. Marine risers are arranged inside prisms. Each prism of ice-protection means is rigidly connected with tubular members of corresponding diaphragms of three-dimensional latticed structure.

EFFECT: increased resistance to wave, seismic and ice loads, improved manufacturability and, as a result, reduced cost of permanent offshore structure building.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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