The system and method of data collection and management excavator

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to computing and earthmoving equipment and is designed to collect geological data and location data, as well as to control the digging machine. The technical result is to increase the efficiency of excavation and increase the accuracy of the estimate of the cost of earth works through the collection and processing of geological and geophysical information. For this system collection contains the block the collection of geophysical data, the control unit of the machine and the main control unit of the machine. The method consists in the fact that determine characteristics of the subsurface Geology predetermined route through the system of collecting geological information and change the mode of operation of the machine in response to information obtained during the passage of earth-moving body on a given route. 2 C. and 10 C.p. f-crystals, 20 ill.

The invention relates to the field of excavation and relates, in particular, the system and method of collecting geological data and location data, as well as control the excavator in accordance with the collected data.

Review of the known technical solutions

Different types of excavators have been developed which perform. One type of excavator, often called a crawler trencher, usually used when digging a long continuous trenches with the aim of laying and subsequent backfilling of pipelines of various types. Manufacturer excavation or contractor is sometimes necessary to dig a few miles or even hundreds of miles of trenches in areas with different types of unknown subsurface Geology.

Typically, the contractor shall perform a limited examination of the specified designated excavation to assess the nature of the terrain and the size or length of the site on which you want to perform the excavation. Can be analyzed one or more samples of the cores along the selected route earthworks to better assess the type of soil that you dig. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative information of various kinds contractor is usually a financial budget, which pre-determines the financial resources necessary to perform excavation work. When you bid on a contract earthworks such contractor is often fixed financial proposal.

It is clear that insufficient, inaccurate or misleading associated with a particular project earthworks. For example, the initial examination may show that the subsurface Geology for the whole or the greater part of the specified route earthwork consists of sand or loose gravel. Accordingly, the estimate of the contractor and the proposed cost will reflect the costs associated with excavation of relatively soft subsurface soil. But instead, during excavation can be determined that a substantial part of the specified route earthwork consists of a relatively hard ground, such as granite. Additional costs associated with excavation undetected solid ground, usually fall on the contractor's expense. It is known that in an industry related to the execution of earthworks, unexpected costs may jeopardize the financial viability of the contractor.

Various techniques have been developed for the analysis of subsurface Geology to establish the type, nature and structural characteristics of the underlying soil. Radar probing of the soil and infrared thermography are examples of two popular methods of outlier detection in subsurface Geology. However, these and other non-destructive analysis methods suffer from a multitude of the trench or excavation on relatively large areas. In addition, traditional instruments subsurface analysis usually provide only the display of the Geology of a particular subsurface area and do not provide information on the structural or mechanical properties of the underlying surface, which is critical when trying to determine the characteristics of the soil, which will have to dig.

In the book vul C. J. and others "Adjustment of electric excavators, edited Klucheva Century I. - M.: Nedra, 1969, describes the data collection system and control for a machine having a digging body and containing a means of bringing in traffic to the movement of the machine along a given route. However, the known system does not provide sufficient performance excavator, because it does not allow to obtain the exact characteristics of the subsurface Geology at the site earthworks.

The producers of works and contractors that use machines for excavation, there is a need to minimize the difficulties of determining the characteristics of the subsurface Geology in given areas of earthworks. There is also the additional need to increase the productivity of the excavator using accurate harich needs.

The invention

The present invention provides a system and method of data collection and management for characterizing the subsurface Geology at the site of earthwork, and to use the collected data while optimizing the efficiency of the excavator. The system of formation of geological images and geo-location are used for initial exploration of a given area or highway excavation. The unit receiving the geological characteristics can also be used to improve data reflecting the Geology. The collected data are processed in order of receipt for site excavation detailed geological data and location data. The data obtained are used in the main control system to optimize the operation of the excavator. In one form of the invention, in the analysis of unknown subsurface Geology the main control unit accesses a database of geological filter that includes the data of geological profiles for many types of Geology. Destruction of geological data filter corresponding to the known Geology, from the data collected, showing getelem case, the system of formation of geological images contains a radar system for sensing soil, with multiple antennas, oriented orthogonal to obtain three-dimensional images of subsurface Geology. Software for determining correlation is used to correlate the collected data, showing Geology, with previous data about the performance of the excavator to determine the mechanical properties of the structure of the subsurface Geology. Precise application on the geographical map of the site excavation is provided a system for determining geographic location, which in the preferred case contains mobile transponder mounted on the excavator, and many ground-based transponders. In one form of the invention, the signals transmitted by one or more satellites of a global navigation system (GPS), are used together with the control signals generated by many ground-based transponders.

Brief description of drawings

In Fig. 1 shows a side view of one form of embodiment of the excavator, called a crawler trencher and having a wheel device for digging trenches.

Fig. 2 is a generalized block shangnyu user interface to control the crawler trencher, view the collected geological data and location data, as well as for interfacing with various electronic and Electromechanical unit excavator.

In Fig. 4 shows a block diagram of the main control unit of the new system of data collection and management excavator.

In Fig. 5 shows a block diagram of the block the collection of geological data that is part of a new system of data collection and management for excavator.

In Fig. 6 shows a graph of reflected electromagnetic signals received radar system sensing of soil using conventional single-axis antenna system.

In Fig. 7 shows a block diagram of the unit geo-location that is part of a new system of data collection and management excavator.

In Fig. 8 shows a block diagram of the control unit excavator, part of the new system of data collection and management excavator.

In Fig. 9 shows a block diagram of various databases and software, has access to the main control unit and which they are processed.

In Fig. 10 shows an example of a given section of earthworks, with heterogeneous pumpable specified tracks earthworks using the new block collection of geological data and unit of geo-location.

In Fig. 12 shows an example of the performance profile of earthwork in the form of a diagram corresponding to the diagram of the exploration profile shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 13 is an illustration of a given section of earthworks, with heterogeneous subsurface Geology and unknown buried object.

Fig. 14 illustrates a conventional single-axis antenna system is commonly used in radar system sensing a ground for the formation of two-dimensional images of subsurface Geology.

In Fig. 15 shows an example of a new antenna system with multiple antennas, oriented orthogonal relative to each other, and intended for use in a radar system sensing of soil, forming a three-dimensional image of the subsurface Geology.

In Fig. 16 shows an example of a partial network of city streets and excavator, equipped with a new system of data collection and management excavator, used to produce accurate maps of a given area of earthworks.

Fig. 17-20 explain in the form of a block diagram of the algorithm the generalized operation of the new method of data collection and management excavator.

Potnah and control excavator provides a significant improvement in the efficiency of the excavation (i.e., excavation and preliminary assessment of their costs through the collection and processing of geological and geophysical information and geographical location information for the individual site excavation works. The excavator is preferably optimized by changing its operating parameters based on the data collected intelligence and input commands received from the operator of the excavator. The accuracy of estimates of resources and costs associated with the dredging of the earth on a separate site excavation, is significantly increased by performing computational analysis of the collected data exploration to start excavation at the site. Thus the contractor is significantly reduced associated with a specific project excavation the risk of not identifying its value due to the lack of accurate and detailed information regarding the Geology of the site under consideration earthworks.

Advantages and distinctive features of the new system and method of data collection and management excavator will be mainly considered on the example of one particular type of excavator, called a crawler trencher. However, it should be clear that the crawler trencher previ below new system of data collection and management. Thus, advantages and features of the described new system and method are not limited to applications related to crawler trencher.

Refer now to the drawings and particularly to Fig. 1, which shows an example of one of the designs excavator, well suitable for installation of a new system of data collection and management. A typical crawler trencher shown in Fig. 1 and 2, includes a motor 36 associated with the actuator 32 right caterpillars and actuator 34 left caterpillars, which together form a traction portion 45 of the track trencher 30. Earthmoving device 46, typically attached to the front side of the traction part 45, usually performs the specified type of operations the excavation.

Pelton circuit 50 or other digging device 46 is often used to dig trenches of different width and depth at a suitable speed. Pelton circuit 50 in the transport configuration 56, when the trench excavator 30 manoeuvring on the site of earthwork, usually remains above ground. During excavation the chain 50 is lowered, passes through the soil and dig a trench to the required depth and speed, while in configuration 5 rocky rotor, can be managed in a manner analogous to the way management screener circuit 50. The track trencher 30 is well suited for efficient digging of trenches along the specified line of earthworks order of laying of various types of pipes and utility conduits.

In Fig. 3 shows the main user interface 101 track trencher 30. Control translational movement of a track trencher 30 and its direction during operation in the transport mode is usually carried out by manipulating the levers 64 and 66 of the left and right caterpillars, which respectively control the actuators of the left and right tracks 34 and 32. For example, the movement of the lever 66 right caterpillars forward usually causes the drive right caterpillars 32 to operate in the forward direction and, depending on the relative speed of the drive left caterpillars 34 runs the track trencher 30 so that it is moved to the left or right. Reversing drive right caterpillars 32 usually performed by pushing the lever 66 to the right tracks back and forcing the drive right caterpillars 32 to operate in the reverse direction. The message of the movement to drive the left of the tracks 34, essentially, is carried out in the same manner as described in relation to the principal use of the levers 64 and 66 caterpillar crawler trencher 30. Alternatively, the main user interface 101 may be configured to provide independent control of the movement direction and movement respectively drives the right tracks 32 and left tracks 34.

During excavation it is often desirable to maintain the engine 36 at a constant optimum power level that, in turn, allows the fixture 46 to run at its optimal performance level in the excavation. According to the prior art remote control usually contains many controls and switches, including the switch speed range, the knob regulate the number of revolutions per minute, the fine adjustment knob to control the direction of movement and the fine adjustment knob movement. As a rule, they should be adjusted during normal operation of digging trenches to keep the engine at the desired power level when the load changes on the device 46 and to control the direction of movement of the track trencher 30 in a desired direction. In addition, a pair of potentiometers, the left and right pumps usually requires regulation and podregulirovan to align the work of characteristi trencher is associated with the need for rapid operator response to changes in engine load 36 usually first by defining a suitable switch for regulation and then the degree of regulation. Usually small changes of the translational motion performed by the fine adjustment knob movement. Average changes in the level of the forward crawler trencher 30 is normally produced by the tuning knobs regulate the number of revolutions per minute. A significant change in the level of translational motion tracked trencher 30 is generally performed by a switching switch speed from the high speed position of the medium or low speed and tuning again handles fine adjustment movement and handles regulate the number of revolutions per minute, to avoid stopping of the engine 36.

The new system of data collection and management eliminates the need for continuous manual control and podregulirovan many switches, knobs and levers. Instead, the intelligent control unit earthwork is used for continuous monitoring of a network of sensors that convert the various functions of the excavator into electrical signals and processes these and other electrical signals so that only minimal operator intervention excavator to optimize management direction and vyemchatoy about the excavator, as well as geological data and information regarding the geographical location, preferably with a display, such as liquid crystal display or the display on the cathode-ray tube. On the user interface provides the keyboard and other levers and switches to communicate with the data acquisition system and control and manage the operation of the excavator.

The system of data collection and management

Refer now to Fig. 4, on which the new system of data collection and management is shown in the form of a flowchart. In a broad and General sense shown in Fig. 4, the system greatly improves the operation of the excavator by collecting geological and geophysical information and location information related to a specific area of earthworks, and by using this information to increase the efficiency of excavation works. The collection of such data for site excavation works significantly reduces the risk associated with cost estimation and planning a specific project earthworks. The collection of data on the geographical location in real-time provides an accurate mapping of the area of excavation in order to accurately identify the location and is from. These and other significant advantages and distinctive features provided by the new system and method of data collection and management excavator, discussed below in more detail.

As shown in detail in Fig. 4, the main processing component in a new system of data collection and management is the main control unit 250, which in the preferred case has a Central processing unit 264, random access memory 266 and non-volatile storage device 286, for example electrically erasable programmable permanent memory (EEPROM). The main control unit 250 preferably contains suitable ports I / o to interact with many other subsystems that collect and process data of different types, as well as interfaced with the control system of the excavator, to slow and to optimize the process of excavation works. The main control unit provides reception of geological information from the block collection of geological information and information about the work from the control unit machine capable of excavating the body (i.e., unit 255 controls the excavator). The main user interface 101 in the preferred case rasplavnym unit 250 controls. Unit 255 controls the excavator is designed for controlling the mode of operation of the propulsion. Block 255 communicates with the main control unit 250 and responds to the input signals of the operator taken from the main user interface 101 to jointly control the operation of the excavator. With this, the main control unit 250 estimates the parameters of the machine in response to geological information and information about the work, and the block 255 control excavator changes the mode of operation of the propulsion in response to the estimated parameters of the machine. In the preferred case, the unit 255 controls the excavator to turn a computer or programmable controller 182 that is used to control the operation of the excavator and its deceleration.

The movement of the excavator and its direction of movement in the preferred case is monitored and, if necessary, moving down the block 254 to determine geographic location. Block 254 geo-location, connected to the main control unit 250 to determine the geographical location of the machines on a given route, in the preferred case contains mobile transerv. The reference location signals generated by the reference transponders, are processed by the CPU 270 of the block 254 geo-location and converted into data of a geographical location, such as data latitude, longitude, height, and data offset from one or more base stations. The main control unit 250 connects collect geological information with information about the geographical location, adopted from block 254 geo-location, to obtain estimates of the parameters of the machine.

The main control unit 250 may be connected to a storage device containing a filter geological information corresponding to the known Geology, while the main control unit 250 filters the collected geological information using the filter geological information to remove the collected geological information, which corresponds to the known Geology. Next, the main control unit 250 may be connected to a storage device that contains information about the previous work of the machine, the block 255 control excavator changes the mode of operation of the propulsion of the ora data and control for the machine, with earth-moving body may also contain a navigation means for driving the machine with the card given route.

An important part of the new system of data collection and management is a block 256 the collection of geophysical data, which collects various types of geological and geophysical data for site-specific earthworks. In one form of the invention, the block 256 the collection of geophysical data can be detached from the main control unit 250 to provide an initial exploration of a given area of earthworks. After the initial exploration data collected by block 256 the collection of geophysical data, preferably loaded into random access memory 266, or electrically erasable programmable permanent memory 286 main control unit 250. Alternatively, the block 256 collecting geophysical data preferably permanently connected to the excavator directly to the main control unit 250, to provide real-time collection of geophysical and geological data and location data during excavation. Another form of domestic geofizicheskih and geological data, and location data that are loaded into the main control unit 250 after the initial exploration. Onboard unit 256 collecting geophysical data, which preferably contains blocks used in the initial exploration, provides real-time data collection, which in combination with collected during the initial exploration of the data can be used to optimize the performance of the excavator. In the preferred case, the block 256 the collection of geophysical data has a Central processing unit 276, the operational storage device 278 and electrically erasable programmable permanent storage device 280.

Among the various kinds of data collected by block 256 the collection of geophysical data, while optimizing the performance of the excavator and the valuation of costs and resources in a specific project earthworks of particular importance are the data corresponding to the specific Geology of the place earthworks and complementary physical characteristics such Geology. Block 258 display of geological information in the preferred case is connected to the block 256 collecting geophysical data to provide information relating to identified the particular Geology of the site excavation, in the preferred case are determined by the block 260 obtaining geophysical characteristics. Auxiliary user interface 262 is preferably connected to the block 256 the collection of geophysical data for viewing on the place of the collected data and images and to provide the operator a means of interaction with block 256 collecting geophysical data. Auxiliary user interface 262 is particularly useful in the embodiment of the invention, in which block 256 the collection of geophysical data is detached from the main control unit to perform an initial exploration of the site excavation. It should be noted that the lines of serial data RS-232 provide sufficient bandwidth for effective communication between electronic modules and devices of the new system of data collection and management.

Block the collection of geophysical data

As shown in Fig. 5, the block 256 collecting geophysical data in the preferred case contains block 258 display of geological information and the block 260 to determine the geophysical characteristics. Block 260 retrieve geophysical parameters in the preferred case contains several geophysical instruments, which provide seismic card contains electronic devices, composed of numerous geophysical sensors pressure. The network of these sensors is installed with a certain orientation relative to the excavator to create direct contact with the soil. The network of sensors measures the pressure wave generated in the soil under the excavator and the walls of the trench formed by the excavator. Analysis of pressure waves in the ground taken by the network of sensors, provides the basis for determining the physical characteristics of the subsurface region at the site of excavation works. In the preferred case, these data are processed by the CPU block 276 256 collecting geophysical data or, alternatively, the Central processor 264 main control unit 250.

Tester 288 point loads can be used to retrieve geophysical characteristics of the subsurface region at the site of excavation works. In the preferred case, the tester 288 point load uses a lot of conical heads for point load, which in turn are introduced into contact with the ground, to determine the degree of resistance of a particular subsurface area calibrated load level. Data collected by the tester 288 point load is also transmitted in block 256 the collection of geophysical data for recording in the memory device 278 or electrically erasable programmable permanent storage device 280.

Block 260 to determine the geophysical characteristics in the preferred case contains hammer 290 Schmidt, which is a geophysical instrument which measures the characteristic relaxation hardness for sample subsurface Geology. Other geophysical instruments can also be used for measuring performance relative energy absorption of the rock masses, abrasive characteristics, volume of stones, rocks and other physical characteristics, which together provide information regarding the relative difficulties associated with excavation work at a given Geology. Data collected using a hammer 290 Schmidt, in the preferred case, also written in the random access memory 278 or electrically erasable programmable permanent memory block 280 256 collecting geophysical data.

Block 258 display of geological information in the preferred case contains radar system 282 sensing of the ground and the antenna system 284. Radar system 282 sensing ground works in conjunction with the antenna system 284 for emitting electromagnetic signals into the subsurface region of the plot zemljama 284. Reflected electromagnetic signals received by the antenna system 284, amplified and converted to the desired view radar system 282 sensing of soil. In one form of the invention, the reflected analog electromagnetic signals to be processed by the radar system 282 sensing of soil, preferably converted to digital form and quanthouse quantizing device 281. In another form of the invention, the digital radar system 282 sensing of soil performs analog-to-digital conversion of the reflected analog electromagnetic signals. Digitized data collected by block 258 display of geological information, in the preferred case is recorded in the random access memory 278 or electrically erasable programmable permanent memory 280 in block 256 the collection of geophysical data.

Refer now to Fig. 6, which shows a graphic illustration of a typical data showing the geological information obtained from the radar system 282 sensing of soil using conventional single-axis antenna system 284. In Fig. 6 shows the data of the radio is the only obstacles buried at a depth of about 1.3 m in sandy soil with groundwater level is located at a depth of approximately four to five meters. It should be noted that the data shown in Fig. 6, are typical of data, usually obtained by using a PulseEKKO system manufactured by Sensors and Software, Inc., using single-axis antenna with a center frequency of 450 MHz. Other radar systems 282 sensing of soil that may be suitable for this application, owned by SIR System-2 System-10A firm Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. and model 1000B STEPPED-FM radar for remote sensing of soil produced by the firm GeoRadar, Inc.

Each of buried obstacles, shown in Fig. 6, is connected with its characteristic hyperbolic curve time - location. The top characteristic hyperbolic curve indicates how the location and depth of buried obstacles. From the graph in Fig. 6 one can see that each of the buried obstacle is located approximately 1.3 m below the ground surface, and each of the obstacles is separated from neighboring obstacles at a horizontal distance of about five meters. These radar systems 282 sensing of soil, shown in Fig. 6, predstavlyalka these provide only two-dimensional representation of the subject subsurface region. As will be described in detail below, a new antenna system 284 containing multiple antennas located orthogonal, provides improved three-dimensional image of the subsurface Geology, corresponding to a particular plot of earth works.

The unit geo-location

Refer now to Fig. 7, which illustrates in greater detail a block 254 geo-location, providing the geographic location information concerning the position, movement and direction of movement of the excavator at the site of excavation. In one form of the invention, the block 254 geo-location communicates with one or more external sources of reference signals to determine information relating to the location of the excavator relative to one or more known reference points. Relative movement of the excavator on a certain highway earthworks in the preferred case is determined by the CPU block 270 254 geo-location and recorded in the form of location data in random access memory 272 or elektrane of the invention the geographical location for a given track earthworks preferably'm going to excavation on the track. Location data can be entered into the navigation controller 292, which works together with the main unit 250 control unit 255 controls the excavator, to implement a similar autopilot control and maneuvering of an excavator on the specified line of earthworks. In another form of the invention, the information regarding the geographical location, collected by block 254 geo-location, preferably transmitted to the database 294 data to display the route on the map that stores the site excavation data about the location of objects such as the network of city streets or Playground for a game of Golf, which laid the various utilities, water supply, communication and other pipelines. The data stored in the database 294 data to display the route on the map, can then be used for mapping land surveying shooting, which specifies the exact location and depth of the various utility pipelines, buried in a certain area of earthworks.

In one form of the invention, the supply unit 254 geo-location data location is used sputn communications satellites in three orbital groups, called global radio navigation system GPS or NAVSTAR, various signals transmitted by one or more satellites of this system can be indirectly used to determine the displacement of the excavator relative to one or more reference points. It is known that global satellite radio navigation system GPS U.S. government has concealed or protected range and civilian band. As a rule, protected range provides positioning with high accuracy, from about 0.3 to 3 m, However, the protected range is generally reserved exclusively for military and government purposes and objectives of the monitoring and use of such modulation, to make it essentially useless for civil applications. Civilian band uses this modulation, which greatly reduces its usefulness in high-precision applications. In most applications, the typical accuracy of the positioning when using the civic range is approximately from 30 to 90 m

However, the range of global civil radionavigation system can be indirectly used for relatively high the navigation system in combination with one or more signals from ground-based reference sources. When using various known signal processing techniques, commonly called methods of processing differential signals of a global navigation system, can be achieved accuracy of about 0.3 m and better. As shown in Fig. 7, global radio navigation system 296 uses the signal generated by the at least one satellite 302 global radionavigation system, together with the signals generated by at least two basic transponder 304, although in some applications it may be sufficient to use one basic transponder 304. Various known methods use differential signals of global positioning that uses one or more baseline transponder 304 together with the signal 302 of the satellite of this system and a movable receiver 303 global radio navigation system installed on the excavator can be used to accurately determine the movement of the excavator relative to the reference base transponder 304 using the signal of the satellite global navigation system.

In another form of the invention can be applied to ground-based navigation system that uses galement many basic radio frequency transponder 306 and mobile transponder 308, mounted on the excavator. Basic transponder radio frequency signals, which are received by a moving transponder 308. Mobile transponder 308 in the preferred case contains a computer, which calculates the distance from the rolling transponder 308 to each of the basic transponder 306 through various radar methods and then calculates its location with respect to all basic transponder 306. Location data collected by the ranging radar system 298, in the preferred case is recorded in the random access memory 272 or electrically erasable programmable permanent memory block 274 254 geo-location.

In another form of the invention, the ultrasound system 300 location may be used along with the base transponders 310 and a movable transponder 312 mounted on the excavator. Basic transponder 310 emits a signal with a known time base synchronization and accept rolling transponder 312. Mobile transponder 312 in the preferred case contains a computer, which calculates the distance the AI ultrasonic wave source. Computer rolling transponder 312 calculates the location of the excavator with respect to all baseline transponders 310. It should be clear that other known terrestrial and satellite systems can be used to accurately determine the movement of an excavator on a given highway earthworks.

The control unit excavator

Refer now to Fig. 8, which shows a block diagram of block 255 control excavator, which communicates with the main control unit 250 to coordinate the management of the excavator. In accordance with the shown in Fig. 1 and 2 form of the track trencher 30, the drive left caterpillars 34 typically includes a pump 38 left of the belt connected to the engine 42 left caterpillars, and drive right caterpillars 32 typically includes a pump 40 right caterpillars connected to the engine 44 right caterpillars. The sensors 198 and 192 in the preferred case is connected to the motors 42 and 44 of the left and right tracks, respectively. The pumps 38 and 40 of the left and right caterpillars, discharging power from the motor 36, in the preferred case, adjust the oil flow to the motors 42 and 44 of the left and right caterpillars, which, in turn, drive the actuators 34 and 32 of the left and the right is the exercise. In the preferred case, the fixture 46 selects the output of the engine 36. The sensor 186 is preferably connected to the engine 48 fixtures. Actuation of the motor 42 of the left track motor 44 right track and motor 48 fixtures controlled by sensors 198, 192 and 186, respectively. The output signals generated by the sensors 198, 192 and 186, are transmitted to the computer 182.

In response to the control signals by the movement direction and the movement generated by the device 92 control the direction of motion and the device 90 motion control, the computer 182 transmits the control signals, usually in the form of the control current, the pumps 38 and 40 of the left and right caterpillars, which, in turn, regulates the speed at which the motors 42 and 44 of the left and right caterpillars. The sensors 198 and 192 motors left and right caterpillars transmit signals measurement modes engines caterpillars on the computer 182 indicating the actual speed of the motors 42 and 44 of the left and right caterpillars. Similarly, the sensor 208 of the engine connected to the engine 36, the signal measurement mode to the computer 182, thus ending with a control system with feedback for part 45 of the drive tractor crawler trencher 30. Derivative configuration to make changes in the translational motion of a track trencher 30 and its direction in response to appropriate signals, generated by the devices 90 and 92 traffic control and management direction.

Earthmoving device 46 crawler trencher 30 includes a motor 48, the device 98 management and at least one sensor 186. The motor 48 of the fixture preferably responds to commands on the device 98 of the control device from the computer 182. The actual power of the engine 48 fixtures controlled by a sensor 186 device that generates a signal measuring device mode taken by the computer 182.

In one form of the invention, the sensors 198 and 192 motors left and right caterpillars are sensors of this type, which in the art are usually called magnetic pulse sensors. Magnetic pulse sensors 198 and 192 converts the motor rotation caterpillars in a continuous sequence of pulse signals, and a sequence of pulses in the preferred case represents the engine speed caterpillars, measured in revolutions per minute. If you select the transport mode of travel, the device 90 motion control generates the control signal traffic, otah per minute. The conversion control signal traffic in a given speed of rotation of the engine can be carried out by the device 90 traffic control or in the preferred case, the computer 182. The computer 182 typically compares the signals of the measurement modes of the motors of the right and left tracks formed respectively magnetic pulse sensors 198 and 192, with a given speed of the engine caterpillars, represented by the signal traffic. The computer 182 supplies appropriate control signals to the pumps on the left and right pumps 38 and 40 in response to the comparison result, to compensate for any differences between the actual and predetermined speed engines caterpillars.

Display 73 is connected to the computer 182, collection of geophysical data for displaying the image of a subsurface region, obtained using the reflected signal) or, alternatively, to the main control unit 250, and in the preferred case displays a message which indicates the operating status, diagnostics, calibration, fault, security, and other such information for the operator. Display 73 provides the operator with a fast, accurate and easily understood information tchikov crawler trencher and various geological and geophysical instruments. On the display 73 visually displayed, for example, data showing the geological characteristics and the corresponding geophysical information. In addition, the display 73 displays information relating to the location of the excavator when it moves along a set path earthworks, as well as information about the quality of the signal received from block 254 to determine geographic location. The main user interface 101 also provides keyboard 75, to enable the operator to conduct a dialogue with the unit 255 controls the excavator and the main control unit 250.

The main control unit

Refer now to Fig. 9, which shows a block diagram of various databases and software that are used by the main control unit 250 when access to geological and geophysical data, data about the location and also to work data relating to the exploration of the chosen site earthworks and implementation of these earthworks, and the processing of these data. For example, the data block of 256 collecting geophysical data preferably is stored in the data 326, which includes a base 328 data radar system zondirovanii 282 sensing of soil, as discussed above, in the preferred case is converted to digital form and stored in the database 328 data radar sensing of soil in a suitable digital format, suitable for correlation with data stored in other databases of the system. Database 330 Geology of the filter, as will be discussed below, the filter contains data generated during the implementation of the data correlation radar system sensing of soil with the appropriate data performance excavator stored in database 324 data earthmoving works. Program 320 correlation and optimization performs data correlation radar system sensing of soil data about the actual performance of the excavator, to develop a range of tailor geological digital filters that can actually be superimposed on the geological images collected in real-time. This allows you to exclude or filter out" proven geological data, thus leaving that unchecked image characteristic of one or more underground obstacles. For example, a particular type of soil creates the characteristic reflected the RA, such as the speed of the motor 48 earthmoving devices, the load on the engine 36 and the change of speed of the motors 42 and 44 of the left and right caterpillars.

Parameter or set of parameters difficulties earth works" in the preferred case is calculated on the basis of operating parameters of the excavator. Settings difficulty excavation works then associated with the data characteristic of the reflected radar image corresponding to a separate Geology, such as, for example, granite. The set of filter parameters "difficulties earth works" and the corresponding values of the characteristic of the reflected radar images in the preferred case, be prepared for a wide range of soils and rocks and stored in the database 330 geological data filter.

The base 316 statistics excavation works in the preferred case accepts data files from the program 320 correlation and optimization and compiles statistical data to reflect the actual performance characteristics of the excavator for specific Geology, maintenance and equipment. In one form of the invention, the data of the radar system ash intelligence given route excavation works. The data in the preferred case is loaded into the database 316 data statistics excavation prior to excavation of a given route. The data stored in the database 316 data statistics excavation work, can be considered as performance evaluation in the model geological conditions based on the past performance of the excavator.

Main unit 250 performs control program 318 unit control control excavator, which receives data files from the program 320 correlation and optimization and input commands received from the main user interface 101. Program 318 unit control control excavator generates the current working standard for the operation of the excavator on the line specified tracks earthworks. If the input data received from the main user interface 101, cause a change of the working standard, the program 318 unit control control excavator modified forms teams for excavator, which is transmitted to the main control unit 250 and the block 255 control excavator, which, in turn, modifies the operation of the excavator in accordance with the modified working standard.

zavisimoe storage device for storing various types of information about maintenance of the excavator. In the preferred case, the composition of the storage device 314 log maintenance is included indicator operating time, which shows the elapsed time of operation of the excavator. After specific time intervals of operation, which in the preferred case is stored in the storage device 314 log maintenance on the main user interface 101 is prompted to the operator about the need for routine maintenance. Confirmation of scheduled maintenance, type of service, date of service and other information relevant to this issue, in the preferred case are entered through the main user interface 101 for permanent storage in the storage device 314 log maintenance. In one form of the invention, the storage device 314 log maintenance preferably contains a table is assigned at the factory working values and ranges of operating values corresponding to the nominal mode of operation of the excavator. With each work value and range of values associated counter state whose content is incremented whenever work eksk the distribution degree of the shovel out of the ranges, indicated on the plant, which is especially useful in determining the admissibility of warranty repair.

Geological exploration and mapping of the results

Typically, as shown in Fig. 10, given the track earthworks initially examined using block 254 to determine the geographic location and unit 256 collecting geophysical data. In one form of the invention, these blocks 254 and 256 are placed on the transport trolley 340, which is towed along the specified line of earthworks vehicle 342. In the illustrative example shown in Fig. 10, the slope excavation is a rural road, which should pave the utility pipe. When the transport unit 340 is towed on the road 344, the data is taken from block 258 display of Geology, are going to determine the soil properties of a subsurface region under the road 344.

Block 258 mapping Geology in the preferred case contains radar system 282 sensing of soil, which is usually calibrated for sensing at a predetermined depth corresponding to the depth of digging. Depending on predetermined depth wykupywa the Loy road embankment 346, which lies directly under the road 344, associated with the characteristic geological profile GP1and with the same profile GF1geological filter, which, as discussed earlier, represents the correlation between these performance characteristics during earthwork operations and data of the reflected radar images for a specific type of soil. When the transport unit 340 moves along the road 344, found various types of soils and subsurface structures, such as sand layer 354, gravel 352, bedrock 350 and natural soil 348, each of which has a characteristic geological profile geological profile of the filter.

After the initial exploration, the data stored in block 256 the collection of geophysical data and the block 254 to determine the geographical position, in the preferred case is loaded in a separate personal computer 252. Personal computer 252 preferably includes a statistical processing for earthworks and a database 316 data for correlation of data collected intelligence with previous data the performance of the excavator to arasakmarisi can be used as the basis for calculating time and cost, related to performing excavation work in a separate area, based on actual geological data and the previous data performance characteristics of the excavator.

After the initial exploration and prior to beginning excavation on the proven track block 256 collecting geophysical data preferably is connected to the main control unit 250 on the excavator. During excavation, as discussed above, various database containing geological and geophysical data, location data, and data on the performance of the excavator are processed by the main control unit 250. The main control unit 250 in cooperation with the unit 255 controls the excavator adjusts the mode of operation of the excavator, when he moves and performs excavation on the proven route to optimize dredging.

Refer now to Fig. 11, which shows an example of the exploration of the profile obtained when the transport block 256 the collection of geophysical data and block 254 to determine the geographical position along the specified line of earthworks. It should be noted that in this illustrative example, the length of the route Zemlyanoy performance excavator for a given highway earthwork shown in Fig. 12.

If we consider Fig. 11 in more detail, in paragraphs (L1, L2, L3and L4you can observe some changes in the geological characteristics of the subsurface region, which are associated with corresponding changes in the parameter difficulties earthworks", plotted on the y-axis of the graph exploration profile. For example, between points L0and L1geological profile 362 GP1subsurface region is associated with a corresponding parameter difficulties earthwork" D1. Data display and geological conditions in paragraph (L1show the transition to the ground with the geological profile 364 GP2and the corresponding parameter difficulties earthwork" D2and thus show the transition from the relatively soft ground.

Profile data assessment of performance during earthwork operations, shown in Fig. 12 shows the corresponding transition from the initial performance profile 372 PP1to a different performance profile 374 PP2in paragraph (L1. It should be noted that the speed of earthworks deferred on axis of ordinates of the graph profile performance during earthwork operations. On the basis of d is>and L2you can see that the initial velocity of the excavation is equal to R1to plot a given track earthworks between points L0and L1and the speed of excavation increases for the section between points L1and L2due to the lower values of the parameter "difficulties earthwork" D2related to the geological profile 364 GP2. You can see that a similar relationship exists between a specific parameter difficulties earthworks and the corresponding estimated velocity earthworks.

In General, the difficulty settings excavation with elevated values are associated with the appropriate parameters speed earthworks, with lower values. The General inverse relationship reflects the fact that the notch is relatively hard ground, such as granite, leads to a relatively low speed earthworks, while the notch is relatively soft soil, such as sand, leads to relatively high speeds earthworks. It should be noted that in connection with each individual geological profile (GPxand performance profile (PPx) there is a corresponding time of excavation, naprimer PP1. Essentially, the total estimated time of excavation for a single specified route earthworks can be obtained by summing all the individual parameters time of excavation from T1to TN.

Data exploration profile in Fig. 11 associated with the geological profile 368 GP4between points earthworks L3and L4show the gap curve. Data performance profile in Fig. 12, corresponding to the area specified tracks earthworks, show the corresponding gap in the estimates of the rate of excavation, which is shown tending to zero. Data for this section is part of the specified route earthworks indicate the existence of very strong breed or, more likely, artificial obstacles, such as concrete or steel tubing. In this case, you may be authorized for more research and exploration of a particular area, which may require removal of obstacles or changes of the previous tracks earthworks.

More realistic geological profile for a certain length of a given track earthworks listed as a geological profile 370 GP4between points Zemle averaged parameter D5. Accordingly, the average speed of earthwork R5can match the excavation of this part of the specified route. Alternatively, the speed of earthworks associated with the profile 380 PP5performance can be smoothed by block 255 control excavator, in order to optimize the speed of earthworks on the basis of such fluctuations of their difficulties. It is clear that the ability of the excavator to respond to such fluctuations in the speed of excavation is usually constrained by a variety of mechanical and operational reasons.

Refer now to Fig. 13, which shows a heterogeneous

the composition of soils of different types on a predetermined track excavation having a length L5. For example, the soil in the area 1 has a geological profile GP1and the corresponding geological profile filter GF1. Each of the soil types shown in Fig. 13 has a corresponding value of the geological profile geological profile of the filter. It is assumed that the base 330 geological data filter contains geological data filter for each of the areas 1, 2, 3 and 4 shown in Fig. 13. A significant advantage of the new method of detection Estafania unknown underground structure 401. Program 320 correlation and the optimizations performed by the main control unit, in the preferred case of filters known Geology, using the appropriate known geological profile filter to exclude data known or proven Geology of the data related to the scanned image. The filter or exclusion of data known or proven Geology results in displaying only untested underground structures 401. When excluding the data of the known Geology of the scan data are clearly visible unknown or suspicious underground structure.

Refer now to Fig. 14, which shows the configuration of a conventional antenna, designed for use in a radar system sensing of soil. Typically, single-axis antenna, such as antenna shown 382, which is oriented along the Z axis, is used to perform multiple passes 384 shooting when attempting to locate possible underground obstacles 386. Usually radar system for sensing soil has a function of measuring time, which allows to measure the time required for a signal to propagate from plumage which grow in the conditions of a particular subsurface area in order to measure the distance to subsurface object or horizon. Calculations can be used to convert the time values in the result of distance measurement, which represents the depth of the target based on user defined field properties of soils, such as dielectric constant and the speed of propagation of waves in a certain type of soil. A simplified method that can be used when calibrating a radar system sensing of soil for depth measurement includes taking core samples of the best goals, measuring its depth and establish a connection with the number of nanoseconds that you want the wave to pass.

After the time functions of the radar system sensing of soil will provide the operator of the depth information, the radar system is moved sideways in the horizontal (X) direction, thereby making it possible to build a two-dimensional profile of the subsurface region. When performing multiple passes of shooting over a certain area in the form of a series of parallel lines 384 can be found buried obstacle 386. However, it can be understood that the two-dimensional image when the normal antenna configure.lineno direction passes 384 shooting.

New antenna configuration to display geological information provides a significant advantage of obtaining a three-dimensional display of a subsurface region, as shown in Fig. 15. A pair of antennas 388 and 390 are preferably used for three-dimensional display of underground obstacles 386. It is important to note that the characteristic hyperbolic distribution data time - the location shown in Fig. 6 for a case of using a single-axis antenna in two-dimensional form may instead be displayed as a three-dimensional hyperbolic surface, which gives the dimensions found buried obstacles 386 width, length and height. It should also be noted that the buried obstacle 386, such as a drain pipe that runs parallel to route 392 shooting, will be immediately detected radar system 382 sensing of soil from the three-dimensional display. In the preferred case in the antenna system block 284 258 display of geological information are corresponding pairs of orthogonally oriented transmitting and receiving antennas.

Map of site excavation works

Refer now to Fig. 16, which shows acesta new block 254 to determine the geographical position of the excavator 410 refers to the ability to accurately guide the excavator along the specified line of earthworks, such as city street 420, and accurately apply the track earthworks on the map in the database 294 data to display the route on the map associated with block 254 location. Often it may be desirable to first interrogate the network 422 city streets in order to accurately establish the route earthworks for each of the appropriate city streets 420, for example, members of the network 422 city streets. The data in the preferred case is loaded into the navigation controller 292 block 254 location.

When the excavator 410 moves forward along the excavation determined for each of the city's streets 420, data about the actual location is collected by block 254 location and stored in the database 294 data to display the route on the map. After completion of the excavation data stored in the database 294 data is loaded into the personal computer 252 to write the "built" maps earthworks for network 422 city streets.

Thus, an accurate map of the capture utility and other pipelines laid along the route of the excavation, can be built according to the mapped trails and vposledstvie them. You must understand that the excavation work on one or more streets with the aim of laying of utility pipelines, as shown in Fig. 16 presented only for the purpose of explanation and do not limit the possibilities of geo-location and application of the route on the map in a new system of data collection and management excavator.

As shown in Fig. 16, accurate navigation excavator and map a given route excavation can be carried out worldwide radio navigation system 296, radar system 298 determine the distance or the ultrasound system 300 positioning, as described above with reference to Fig. 7. The system of data collection and management for excavator using configuration global navigation system 296, in the preferred case contains the first and second transponders 404 and 408, are used together with one or more signals of a global navigation system 296, taken from the appropriate number of its satellites 302. Mobile transponder 402, preferably mounted on the excavator 410, is provided for receiving the signal 412 of the satellite global navigation system and signal is prohibited above, to improve location accuracy to 0.3 m and more specifically can be used and modified differential method of determining location using a global navigation system.

In another form of the invention, the ground-based radar ranging system 298 contains three basic transponder 404, 408, 406 and mobile transponder 402 mounted on the excavator 410. You should pay attention to the fact that the third ground transponder 406 may be provided as a backup transponder system using signal 412 of the global satellite navigation system, when the transmission signal 412 of the satellite global navigation system is temporarily interrupted. Location data is preferably processed and stored in block 254 geolocation using three reference signal 414, 416 and 418, taken from three terrestrial base transponder 404, 406 and 408. The form of the invention, using the ultrasound system 300 location will also use three basic transponder 404, 406 and 408 with the moving transponder 402 mounted on the excavator 410.

the algorithm we explain the operation of the generalized method of work, associated with the new system and method of data collection and management for excavator. In the initial position, as shown in Fig. 17, in step 500 a few ground-based transponders are placed at suitable points along a given route earthworks. Then in step 502 block 256 the collection of geophysical data (block SRS) and block 254 to determine the geographic location (block Ohm) are located in the original paragraph (L0tracks earthworks. Next, block 258 display of Geology, block 260 to determine the geophysical characteristics and block 254 to determine the geographical position is initialized or calibrated in step 504. After initialization block 256 the collection of geophysical data and the block 254 to determine the geographical position is transported along the excavation. During this transportation on the steps 506, 508 and 510 collect data radar sensing of soil, location data and geophysical data. Data collected by the radar system 282 sensing of soil, preferably converted to digital form and quanthouse at step 512. Data collection continues at step 516 as long as you reach the end of highway earthworks, which corresponds to a step 518. Then from the main control unit 250.

In step 530, shown in Fig. 18, the program runs aggregation for earthworks, in the preferred case for data collected during the reconnaissance of the route of earthworks. In step 532, the data on previous performance are sent from the database 316 statistics earthworks in the personal computer 252. Data collected during exploration are also loaded in the personal computer at step 534. The program of statistical processing for earthwork then carries out the correlation between the data collected with radar sensing of soil, and data about the previous performance of the excavator at step 536.

In one form of the invention, the correlation between the data collected with radar sensing of soil, and data about the previous performance of the excavator is performed using various known methods of matrix operations. Matrix data about previous performance in a preferred case is created in step 538 by correlation data showing Geology, (Idxwith the appropriate data performance excavator (PDx). The correlation value (CVxx) the barb. For example, the correlation value CV22is the correlation value associated with the statistical correlation between the parameter ID2data reflecting the Geology, and the parameter PD2performance data of the excavator. Each data parameter reflecting the Geology associated corresponding time parameter and the parameter of location, such as the parameters T1and L1associated with the parameter ID1data reflecting the Geology. You can see that the correlation values associated with multiple pairs of data parameters, showing Geology, and performance data can be obtained for increments of time and location along the specified line of earthworks.

At step 540 the real data, showing Geology, going on the highway earthwork and in the preferred case is treated as a matrix of discrete data showing Geology, for the corresponding discrete increments of time and distance. In step 542 above obtained at steps 538 and 540 matrix operations are performed to form the correlation matrix, in which the parameter data estimated or expected performance (PDxx) is associated with a pair of corresponding the real Tr PD3data assessment of performance associated with the parameter ID3data reflecting the Geology, and the parameter CV3correlation values. It should be noted that each parameter data estimated performance associated with the corresponding increment of time and distance.

The estimated performance parameters for individual tracks earthworks are calculated at step 550, as shown in Fig. 19. Total estimated time (ETT) digging out the entire route can be calculated by summing the discrete increments of time from T1to TN. Production costs associated with the excavation of a given track earthworks, can be determined by summing the costs of production associated with each discrete part of the track. The estimated costs of salary (LCT) can be calculated by multiplying the total estimated time (ETT) digging for a total hourly cost of labor. The total cost (GTE) can be determined by summing all production costs and salary costs associated with the excavation of the entire route.

In step 552 calculates the estimated parameters of the excavator. For example, for part of the route excavation skorosti left caterpillars (VL) 38.1 m/min and the speed of the right caterpillars (VR) 38.1 m/min in Addition, the estimated performance data can offer an optimal speed earthmoving device 110 rpm and a given engine speed of 2250 rpm it Should be noted that the velocities of the left and right caterpillars VLand VRequal to 38.1 m/min, correspond to the movement of the excavator on a straight line on the highway earthworks.

You can see that the parameter estimates on the part of the track earthworks between points L1and L2indicate that the excavator moves, turning to the right, as the speed of the left caterpillar VL= 70,1 m/min more than the right caterpillar VR= 45,7 m/min They also indicate that the speed of the earth moving device is increased to 130 rpm and that the set speed of rotation of the engine is increased to 2400 rpm, showing thus the presence of a relatively soft ground within the area between points L1and L2. These parameters show that part of the track earthworks between points L2and L3the excavator is moving in the forward direction with a relatively low speed of 18.3 m/min and thereby indicate the presence of selenia 100 rpm and a given engine speed 2100 rpm indicated due to the lower speed of the excavator.

In step 560, as shown in Fig. 20, the estimated parameters of the excavation work, obtained in step 552, loaded into the main control unit 250. Excavation of the earth begins in the reference item L0in step 562. In step 564, the main control unit 250 controls the operating parameters of the excavator, and the modes outside the permissible range, is recorded in the storage device 314 log maintenance. The actual performance parameters collected by block 255 control excavator at step 568 and sent to the main control unit 250. All input signals received from the main user interface 101, is also sent to the main control unit in step 570. If at step 572 established that the actual performance parameters received from block 255 control excavator, differ by a specified amount from the estimated parameters of the excavation work, the main control unit 250 optimizes the estimated parameters in step 574, and transmits the optimized parameters in block 255 control excavator to perform the necessary changes in the operation of the excavator in step 576. Excavation work continues at step 578 to until the end point of the specified track earthworks but various changes may be made in the above preferred form of the invention within its nature and scope. Accordingly, the scope of the present invention is not limited to the above, certain forms of exercise, and is determined only by the following claims and equivalents of the described forms of embodiment of the invention.

1. The data collection system and control for a machine having a digging body and containing means driving to the movement of the machine along a given route, characterized in that it contains the block the collection of geophysical data to collect geological information along the predetermined route, containing the display unit of geological information for the formation of penetrating into the ground of the source signal is directed into the subsurface region of a given route, and to receive reflected signals from subsurface region, the control unit of the machine for controlling the mode of operation of the propulsion and the main control unit for receiving the geological information from the block the collection of geophysical data and information about the work from the control unit of the machine, the main control unit estimates the parameters of the machine in response to geological information and the information about the job, and the control unit of the machine changes the operation mode of the CPE is the lasting themes that the display unit of geological information connected with two antennas oriented mutually orthogonal and designed to provide a source of penetrating into the ground signal through the subsurface region and to receive reflected signals from subsurface region.

3. The system under item 1, characterized in that it additionally contains connected to the block the collection of geophysical data display to display images of a subsurface region, obtained using the reflected signal.

4. The system under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises a unit for determining the geographical location, connected to the main control unit to determine the geographical location of the machines on a given route, and the main control unit associates the collected geological information with information about the geographical location, adopted from a unit of geo-location, to obtain estimates of the parameters of the machine.

5. The system under item 4, wherein the block of determining the geographical location contains a transponder global radionavigation satellite system installed on the machine, RIT device determine the geological characteristics, connected to the block the collection of geophysical data to determine the physical characteristics of the subsurface region.

7. The system under item 1, characterized in that the main control unit connected to a storage device containing a filter geological information corresponding to the known Geology, and the main control unit filters the collected geological information using the filter geological information to remove the collected geological information, which corresponds to the known Geology.

8. The system under item 1, characterized in that the main control unit connected to a storage device that contains information about the previous work of the machine, and the control unit of the machine changes the mode of operation of the propulsion in response to the estimated parameters of the machine and the data on the previous work of the machine.

9. The system under item 1, characterized in that it further includes means for mapping a given route and deviation of the machine from the given slopes during excavation.

10. The system under item 9, characterized in that it further comprises navigation means for driving the machine with the use of cart connector, which Rethimno connected with mating connector connected to the main control unit.

12. The method for determining characteristics of subsurface Geology predetermined route and the control of the machine, with earth-moving body, characterized in that the transport system for the collection of geological information along the predetermined route, determine characteristics of the subsurface Geology predetermined route by collecting geological information for a predefined route using the system of collecting geological information and change the mode of operation of the machine in response to the collected geological information with the passage of earth-moving body on a predetermined track.

 

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