The method of purification of crude alcohol and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method of purification of crude alcohol used in pharmaceutical, food and other industries. The process involves the separation of the components, cooling, removal of impurities, the collection of ethyl alcohol, the improvement of the fortress. The separation is carried out in the channel are sequentially exposed to ultraviolet irradiation heating, injected aluminium hydroxide, filtered in a constant magnetic field through active charcoal, ozoniruyut, then introduce a solution of baking soda, again filtered through activated charcoal, bubbled air and defend. The device for implementing the method includes a tank of raw material, the installation for the separation of raw materials into components, removal of impurities, the drive. Installation for the separation of the raw material contains a block ultraviolet radiation heating, the averager with a metering device for aluminium hydroxide, filter column with a permanent magnet, in addition, the drive placed the camera processing the ozone neutralizer with dispenser feed solution of baking soda, a second filter-column bubbler air and sump. In the proposed method achatcialis production of alcohol, in particular a process for the production of the distilled spirits used in pharmaceutical, food and other industries.

The known method of separation of multicomponent mixtures in catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol and containing ethyl and butyl alcohols (see ed. St. N 1536741, bull. N 17, 1995). The mixture is subjected to azeotropic distillation (complex distillation in the presence diisopropylamido ether. The disadvantage of this method is that ethyl alcohol produced one of the components of a mixture by a double rectification. The disadvantage of this method is that the process is very energy-intensive, complex in design execution.

A known method of purification of alcohol, for example, by means of rectification. (Bachurin P. J. and other Equipment for the production of alcohol and smartproduction.- M. : 1985, S. 196 to 199, prototype). On distillation installations receive condensate spirit and vodka fumes and impurities by repeated bilateral mass and heat transfer between prototechno moving steam and liquid flows. To create steam flow is fed to the heating steam. The condensate is displayed headache fraction of alcohol (purified alcohol - ethyl alcohol). Volatile impurities are concentrated and excreted fusel the creation of steam and water, ie is very energy intensive and not enough alcohol clears from accompanying impurities.

The present invention solves the problem of purification of the crude alcohol using low-temperature physico-chemical effects. The purpose of the invention improve the quality of ethyl alcohol, i.e., the most complete liberation from related volatiles and cheaper process.

The technical result is achieved in the following way. In a known method of purification of crude alcohol separation of components is carried out in a laminar flow mode. When consistently exposed to ultraviolet irradiation with simultaneous exposure to temperatures up to 440oC, injected aluminium hydroxide, filtered over active carbon in a constant magnetic field, ozoniruyut. Then enter in the purified alcohol solution of baking soda, again filtered through active charcoal, bubbled air and defend. Comparative analysis of the prototype allows us to conclude that the claimed method differs from the known methods and sequence effects on raw alcohol to separate it into its constituent components and a more complete separation of impurities. Thus, the home is aemula way not only prototype, but with other technical solutions in this field of technology is not allowed to reveal in them the features distinguishing the claimed method from the prototype, i.e. the use of low-temperature physico-chemical effects on raw alcohol to separate it into components and more complete cleaning from accompanying impurities.

A method of processing liquids, saturated with harmful substances, wet oxidation sonadoras gas and ultraviolet rays. (Application Germany N 3919885, C 02 F 9/00, 1/18, 1/32). Containing dissolved ozone liquid is irradiated with ultraviolet rays for the simultaneous formation of radicals and oxidation radicals in the stream. This method is used for purification of wastewater. Raw alcohol in this way is impossible to clean because water systems differ in their physico-chemical parameters from alcohol.

A known method of purification of waste water treatment by ozone with simultaneous ultraviolet radiation. (Japan's Bid N 2-38279, C 02 F 1/78, 1/32, 1/72). Hard ultraviolet radiation under stirring with a thin layer flow after treatment with ultrasound and ozone with the purpose of disinfection. This way to clean the raw alcohol is not present raspokoval cavitation occurs beyond the destruction of the spirit.

These data allow to conclude that the inventive method has a new property using low-temperature physico-chemical effects of the crude alcohol is much more removed associated volatile and harmful impurities. Therefore, the claimed technical solution meets the patentability criterion of "inventive step". Compliance with the proposed method the patentability criterion of "industrial applicability" there is no doubt, as it can be used for the purification of crude alcohol.

Purification of the crude alcohol in this method occurs in several stages. The first stage is the action on the source material hard ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at temperatures up to 40oC. In the composition of the primary alcohol includes a large number of organic compounds that significantly affect the organoleptic properties and hinder the use of this product in the food industry. In addition to ethyl alcohol can be found here alcohols with a higher number of carbon atoms (higher alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, esters. All these compounds possess to a greater or lesser extent toxic properties. When the queue is destroyed connection type-C=O, and other chemical compounds with high molecular weight.

For example, n-butanol. It consists of 44 carbon atoms

H3C - H2C - H2C - OH

UFI "crushes" this great radical C4H9more simple. This is due to high selectivity of the UFI. Depending on the intensity of radiation in the reaction medium are formed volatile compounds that freely go into the atmosphere. While heating the treated UFI raw spirit is the main constituent of acetaldehyde, a part of which it is additionally formed under the action of UVR. The boiling point of acetaldehyde 21oC, and the temperature specified in the processing, and the time of passing through the working area allow you to remove a significant amount of fusel oils in the first stage of processing due to changes partialing pressure in the working area of installation.

When the output of the first stage in the processing of the alcohol type aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3. Aluminium hydroxide is used in the form of fresh weight of the solution, which is obtained by electrolysis. Al(OH)3adsorb on their surface remains of PR3+so you need to take into account the effect of all components on the alcohol. Aluminum hydroxide is known for its amphoteric properties. It behaves differently in acidic and alkaline media:

Al(OH)3+ 3H+---> Al3++ 3H2O

Al(OH)3+ OH-+ 2H2O ---> [Al(OH)4(H2O)2]-< / BR>
Raw alcohol has a natural beauty and its members already include higher alcohols and aldehydes. Presumably, the storage process is the oxidation of oxygen and alcohols are partially converted to aldehydes, and those, in turn, carboxylic acids. There's a possibility of lowering the pH of the alcohol. It can be assumed that the environment is acidic ions and Al3+located in the reaction mixture.

Aluminum is a very active metal and it can react with organic impurities of the original mixture. In the process, will form aluminum salts, which are removed next stage, filtering through charcoal, which has a large absorption capacity, so you can use it for cleaning solutions from organic impurities. The first filter is in the presence of a constant magnetic field, which increases the quality of cleaning. Then the processed JV is between ozone by the action of an electric discharge in oxygen. The high oxidizing power of ozone is due to the fact that in the reaction medium ozone O3is in the form:

O3O2+ [O]

All organic compounds in the alcohol, well oxidized by atomic oxygen [O]. Schematically oxidation processes occurring in the reaction medium, can be represented as follows

< / BR>
These acids may be in the esterification reaction with alcohols to form esters. Esters, as a rule, are volatile compounds and therefore in the stages of purification there is a slight loss of overall volume of alcohol.

Acid formed during the oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes remaining in the reaction medium, neutralizing the next stage of processing is the addition of sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3(drinking soda)

< / BR>
But not all of the dissolved carboxylic acid can be deactivated soda.

The next stage is the handling of charcoal and filtering. The remaining carboxylic acid and other organic impurities are sorbed on the surface of the coal.

The final stage is again sorption on coal. This last filter leave residual amounts rastvorennoi esters and other compounds sinteziruyushchikhsya in the cleaning process, use bubbling air (blow-off), which speeds up the evaporation of impurities from the reaction medium.

The purified alcohol enters the sump of the pure alcohol.

A specific example of the method.

In laboratory conditions in the pilot plant were obtained from the following data, presented in the table.

The prototype was taken alcohol obtained by distillation (rectification).

The table shows that the raw alcohol, purified by this method has a better performance than the prototype. The purified alcohol indicators exceed the quality indicators according to GOST. Therefore, the proposed method and device for its implementation compared with the prototype more fully clears the alcohol from other volatile impurities for one cycle of operation.

A device for the purification of crude alcohol

A device for the manufacture of moonshine (the Moonshine: apparatus for manufacture, recipes, methods of cleaning.- M.,1994 ). It consists of a furnace, water tank, chimney, hawk moth, idler tube, suchoparek, filter plates, coil, refrigerator and droppers. The PR process is mohameda alcohol, enters suchoparek, where there is a process of fractional condensation. On the bottom settles part of fusel oils. In the upper part of suchoparek on copper plates also settles part of fusel oils and the tube runs down to the bottom of suchoparek. Further, alcohol-containing steam, getting into a coil that is placed in the refrigerator, condenses and drips into the funnel with filter paper and collected in a container. The resulting product requires additional purification, as it contains a lot of harmful organic compounds.

Known two-column distillation apparatus consisting of epuration and distillation columns. (Bajoran P. J. and other Equipment for the production of alcohol and smartproduction.- M.: 1985, S. 196 to 199, prototype). The first one is intended for separation of impurities cerebral in nature and consists of two parts: the lower - vilarnau (distant) and the upper - aldehyde (firming). Distillation column - vivara (distant part) with plates for the distillation of alcohol from the incoming epurate. On the plates vilarnau part of the distillation column distills all head admixture of alcohol. The condenser condenses the vapors of the distillate. The cooled distillate is pumped back into the column, and the part g is pirta consists of esters and aldehydes and is withdrawn continuously. Neskondensirovannyh in the condenser the gases discharged through Sertolovo into the atmosphere. Through multiple bilateral mass and heat transfer between prototechno moving steam and liquid flows receive the rectified spirit. Rectification is accompanied by the interaction of phases: diffusion of the volatile component from the liquid to vapor and volatile ingredients component from a vapor to a liquid.

A disadvantage of this device is that rectified spirit (ethyl alcohol) is not released completely from other volatile impurities. In addition, this process is energy-intensive and costly, because it takes place at multiple return repeated.

The proposed device solves the problem of purification of the crude alcohol using low-temperature physico-chemical effects.

The purpose of the invention improve the quality of ethyl alcohol, i.e., the most complete liberation from related volatiles and cheaper process.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the proposed device is the separation of crude alcohol components is carried out in a duct consistently block ultraviolet radiation heating, the averager with a metering device dctelem posted by equalizing tank with dispenser feed solution of baking soda, the second filter-column bubbler air and sump.

A comparison of the proposed system is not only the prototype, but also with other technical solutions in this field of technology is not allowed to reveal any sign that distinguish the claimed device from the prototype, i.e. the ability to clean the raw alcohol low-temperature physico-chemical effects from accompanying impurities.

Famous is the filter column, the dispenser feed solution of baking soda in the manufacture of vodka. (See, for example, Bachurin P. J. and other Equipment for the production of alcohol and smartproduction.- M.: 1985 , S. 264-266). In a water-alcohol mixture (sorting) add soda, filtered through active carbon. Mixing of the mixtures are compressed air. All this is done to remove fine particles that fall with softened water and forming hardness salts when mixing alcohol with water. In the proposed device the filter columns are used to remove the remnants of the division of raw materials into components that does not install the vodka.

This allows us to conclude that the proposed device has a new property that allows you to more fully cleaned raw alcohol from accompanying impurities. Growing". The compliance of the claimed device to the patentability criterion of "industrial applicability" is not in doubt, since the proposed device is compact and can be used in industry.

In Fig. 1 presents a schematic diagram of a cleaning device of the raw spirit.

The device comprises a reservoir (1) with the raw material, the ceramic emitter for heating block ultraviolet radiation UVR (3), neutralizer, in which the dosing device (5) is aluminum hydroxide, filter column (6) with a permanent magnet (7), memory (8), followed by the ozonizer (9), neutralizer (10) to the dispenser (11) the filing of a solution of baking soda, a second filter-column (12), the bubbler air (13) and a sump (14).

The device operates as follows.

Purification of the crude alcohol occurs in the duct in a continuous laminar motion in turn each of the blocks of the proposed device. From the reservoir raw alcohol enters the block UFI heated. Is the low-temperature (up to 40oC) thermal effect with simultaneous irradiation duct ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 290-2000, i.e. in the vacuum ultraviolet region. In this block straitlaced, hydrogen and carbon when exposed to the original alcohol with ultraviolet light. Then there is a low degree of concentration in the treated alcohol fusel oils and aldehydes. Next in the direction of alcohol in the neutralizer is added to the aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3using the dosing device. The neutralizer has a septum through which shimmers processed alcohol together with aluminum hydroxide, which purifies the water, in alcohol. The raw alcohol is supplied to the processing, is the fortress 64,2 - 47,8oand the radicals that are formed during processing UFI heated. In addition, create the necessary partitions laminar mode of motion of the treated alcohol all the way clean, and the exposure time of the passing process. From averager alcohol gets into the filter column with a permanent magnet, where further treatment is carried out in the fluidized bed of charcoal and then goes into the drive. From the drive alcohol is pumped into the ozonizer, where the oxidation of the formed organic compounds and pre-existing to be removed. In the ozonizer is the regulation of the pH and the preservation of the maximum amount of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in the outcome is in the neutralizer, at the beginning of block preparation introduces a certain amount of an aqueous solution of baking soda (NaHCO3) required concentration. Is the neutralization of acids and increasing the fortress of purified alcohol 2-5o. Further, the spirit of gravity falls in similar to the first activated carbon filter, then in the bubbler air and cleared finally accumulates in the sump.

The advantage of the proposed method of purification of crude alcohol and device for its implementation is the following. Traditional methods of purification of crude alcohol is very energy intensive. The large size of the columns, usually made of stainless steel, copper or other expensive metals. The proposed design of the technology can be designed and performed on any economically beneficial volume of cleaned raw spirit. The unit has a small size and is installed in the gap between capacity-storage of crude alcohol and packing of the finished product in any factory premises and does not require costly reconstruction. The inputs of the invention is hundreds of times lower than that of the prototype. Blocks UVR and ozonation uniform and can be readjusted to the processing of the alcohols TrueType. The result is achieved with a single pass of alcohol across the flow path of the proposed device. In confirmation of the quality of the purification method of crude alcohol and device for its implementation in Fig. 2, 3 shows the data of chromatographic analysis: Fig. 2 is a chromatogram of the crude raw spirit; Fig. 3 is a chromatogram of alcohol after treatment by the proposed method with the device.

1. The method of purification of crude alcohol, including the division into components, cooling, removal of impurities, the collection of ethyl alcohol, increasing the fortress, characterized in that the separation is carried out in the channel are sequentially exposed to ultraviolet irradiation heating, injected aluminium hydroxide, filtered in a constant magnetic field through active charcoal, ozoniruyut, then introduce a solution of baking soda, again filtered through active charcoal, bubbled air and defend.

2. The device for implementing the method, including the tank with the raw material, the installation for the separation of raw materials into components, removal of impurities, drive, characterized in that the installation for the separation of the raw material contains a block ultraviolet radiation heated condition is, for drive hosted the processing chamber by the ozone neutralizer with dispenser feed solution of baking soda, a second filter-column bubbler air and sump.

 

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