The catalytic unit and a device for the purification of gas

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for the purification of gas. The catalytic unit is made by alternately stacking at the foot rectangular catalyst elements formed by cutting the catalytic support plates coated with catalytic material and having edges inclined at an angle of 45° to one specified side edge of each of them, and turned upside down. The catalytic unit is in the gas channel so that the edges of the catalytic elements are at an angle greater than 0° and less than 90° to the direction of gas flow. When the catalytic unit, containing the catalytic elements covered denarium catalyst, is placed in the gas channel ribs catalytic elements block the gas flow and generate turbulent flows downstream gas to facilitate contact of the ammonia contained in the exhaust of nitrogen oxides with a catalyst. When the gas flow is distorted, the thickness of the laminar film covering the surface of the catalytic elements is reduced so that the ammonia and the nitrogen oxides can easily diffuse and catalytic activity can be increased. Katie pressure in the gas stream. 7 C. and 31 C.p. f-crystals, 51 ill., 7 table.

The present invention relates to a catalytic unit for the purification of gas, and more particularly to a catalytic unit that uses plate catalytic elements for efficient recovery of nitrogen oxides (hereinafter everywhere NOx - nitrogen oxides) using ammonia (NH3), and the processing gas using a catalytic unit.

The existing level of technology

Nitrogen oxides NOxcontained in the exhaust produced by the power plants, factories and cars, etc. are a significant cause of photochemical smog and acid rain. The method of denitration of exhaust gas, which uses NH3as a reducing agent for selective catalytic reduction, is already widely used as an effective method of denitration, mainly in thermal power plants. Used catalyst of titanium oxide (TiO2containing vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) or tungsten (W) as the active ingredient. In particular, the catalyst containing vanadium (V), very active, a little prone to damage by impurities contained in the exhaust gases, and is effective even at low temperatures. Therefore, such a catalyst is ravelo, the catalytic elements are produced in the form of a honeycomb or plate. Developed various methods of manufacture of catalytic elements. Well-known catalytic flat plate is formed by covering and cladding mesh base made in the formulation of thin sheet metal, metal mesh, and spraying on the metal mesh, woven or non-woven structure of aluminum together with the catalyst. This catalytic flat plate is produced to obtain a catalytic plate element 1 having alternating ribs 2 a wavy cross-section and the flat part 3, as shown in Fig. 2. Many of these catalytic elements 1 are stacked in layers in the housing 4 so that the ribs 2 are elongated in one direction, whereby is formed a catalytic unit 8 (JP-A N 54-79188 and JPO filed under N 63-324676), as shown in Fig. 43. Because this well-known catalytic unit 8 causes a relatively low pressure loss and can not be easily clogged by soot and coal ash, the catalytic unit 8 is widely used in generiruyushch devices for denitration of exhaust gases from boilers for heat and electricity generation.

In the past, or combinations of (the country: Russia and waste-heat boilers waste heat to meet the maximum summer demand for electricity. Most of these generating power plants are located in the suburbs, and apparatus for processing exhaust gas must be very efficient and compact due to living conditions and pollution control. Under such circumstances, the effective recovery of maintenance for NOxexhaust gases proposed in JP-A N 55-152552, uses catalytic unit 8, assembled, as shown in Fig. 2, the stacking catalyst elements 1 in the stop so that the respective ribs 2 adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, and places the catalytic unit 8 so that the ribs 2 alternating catalytic elements 1 are elongated perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, and the ribs 2 of the other catalytic elements 1 are extended in parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas, as shown in Fig. 44.

The catalytic unit 11, as proposed in JP-Y2N 52-6673, is made by processing a metal mesh or metal sheets for receiving the corrugated sheets 9 having successive protrusions 10 wave-like cross-section and has no flat parts, as shown in Fig. 46; the Assembly of the bearing structure by stacking gofer the yerek another, as shown in Fig. 47; the same catalyst is held on the supporting structure to complete the catalytic unit 11. The catalytic unit 8 in Fig. 43 needs further improvements to build a compact high-performance processing device exhaust gas. Fig. 48 shows some of the gas channels formed by the catalytic elements 1, arranged in the foot with ribs 2, parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas. Catalytic units 8 of this type have a very low pressure loss, and the device processing exhaust gas using a catalytic unit 8 of this type requires very little electricity to work. However, since the gas flow in the gas channels of the catalytic unit 8 is not very turbulent, and the distance of movement of the gas components in the gas channels is small, the rate of catalytic reaction (total reaction rate) is low and the catalyst is unable to fully manifest their activity.

When the catalytic unit 8 is assembled by stacking catalyst elements 1 in the foot, so that the ribs 2, as shown in Fig. 43, elongated parallel to the direction of flow 6 gas, the rigidity of the catalytic unit in the direction in which elongated ribs 2 (longitudinally the WMD there are small differences in width between the gas passage in the direction along the ribs 2 and in a direction perpendicular to it.

In the catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 44, in which the corresponding edges of 2 adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, the ribs 2, elongated perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, enhance the effects of large disturbances gas to facilitate the entry of the gas components in the catalytic reaction. However, these ribs 2 act as barriers to gas flow, which causes a large pressure loss.

A small degree of freedom in changing the loss of traction and performance is a problem in the catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 44. Because the catalytic unit 8 is assembled from stacked in the foot alternating catalytic elements 1 of the same shape, proportion holes catalytic unit 8 is not changed, and therefore, loss of thrust does not increase significantly, even if you change the step between the ribs 2 (the distance between adjacent ribs). Moreover, since the length of the catalytic elements 1 must be equal to the size of the facade of the catalytic unit 8, it is difficult to change the length of the catalytic elements selectively. In fact, two types of catalytic elements 1 various forms, for example, with different steps between the ribs, can interleaved slecet in an increase in production cost.

In the catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 44, the step between the ribs 2 is an important factor which significantly influences the effect of catalyst on reaction rate and pressure loss. Although the ribs 2 are arranged with the same pitch, the distance between the inlet end of the catalytic unit 8 and the last rib 2, and between the last rib 2 and outlet end of the catalytic unit 8 in the direction of flow 6 gas does not exactly defined. Because the catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 44, assembled by laying at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 of a given length obtained by cutting a continuous sheet of a catalyst having ribs 2 with the set step to set the distances, in some cases, the distance between the end of the catalytic unit 8 and the first rib 2 increases when the amount of catalyst necessary for the catalytic reaction increases, for example, when increasing the length of the catalytic elements 1. Therefore, the flat section is bent, and it is difficult to produce the same gas channels, and it is possible that the extreme section of the catalytic element bends, as shown in Fig. 45 for blocking gas channel, lowering the performance of the catalytic unit Eskie elements 9 catalytic unit 11, it is shown in Fig. 47, no parts corresponding to the flat portions 3 of the catalytic elements 1 shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, when the height of the edges 10 in generally equal to the height of the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 shown in Fig. 43 and 44, the flange 10 adjacent corrugated catalytic elements 9 are in contact in a very large number of points of contact. Therefore, when the thread 6 gas flows through the partition cubic catalytic element 11, numerous points of contact between the edges 10 cause resistance to the thrust of the thread 6 of the gas, increasing the pressure loss.

Accordingly, the first aim of the present invention is to solve the problems existing prior art and provision of a catalytic unit capable of increasing the turbulence to be processed gas all gas channels of this unit is to suppress the formation of laminar film and further enhance catalytic reactions.

The second aim of the present invention is to solve the problems existing prior art and obtain a catalytic unit, capable of making to be processed gas is satisfactorily dispersed on the catalytic surfaces without increasing the pressure loss their problems current level of technology and the achievement of the exhaust gas, using catalytic unit capable of enhancing the performance of the catalyst by further alignment distribution in the flow rate of gas to be processed without pressure loss in the gas stream.

Disclosure of the invention

In General, the reaction between the gas stream flowing through the pipe, and the catalyst is held on the pipe wall, expressed as:

1/K= 1/Kr + 1/Kf,

where K is the rate constant of the entire catalytic reaction, Kg is the rate constant for the catalytic reaction in the surface area of the block, a Kf is the film mass transfer coefficient of the gas, which shows the ease of diffusion of gas on the catalytic surfaces.

As can be seen from the equation, the catalytic performance of the catalyst can be increased by increasing the film mass transfer coefficient of gas.

The present invention is directed to solving the problem of increasing the productivity of the catalyst by improving the diffusion of gas through the catalytic surfaces to the greatest possible limit without increasing the pressure loss in the gas flowing through the catalytic unit.

The present invention will be more clearly links the expansion of the scope of invention.

First will be described the catalytic unit, equipped with catalytic elements according to the present invention, which have edges, and that these edges are at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90oin the direction of gas flow.

Will be described a method of laying at the foot of the catalytic elements mentioned oblique (slanted) edges.

Fig. 6(a) to 6(d) show the catalytic units manufactured according to the present invention by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements with their edges inclined at an angle greater 0oand lower 90o. In the catalytic unit, shown in Fig. 6(a), a rectangular catalyst elements 1, each of which has parallel ribs 2, made with a specified spacing between the flat portions 3 so that it passes at an angle satisfying the condition 0< < 90to set the side edge 1A of the flat catalytic element 1 in the form of a rectangular plate, stacked in the foot with alternating catalytic elements 1, rotated by one party down, and catalytic elements 1 between them, turned to the same side up. In the catalytic unit, shown in Fig. 6(b), rectangular catalytic is due 3, to be at an angle satisfying the condition 0< < 90to set the side edge 1A of a flat rectangular plate, and a rectangular catalyst elements 1', each of which is provided with parallel ribs 2', made with a specified spacing between the flat parts 3' so as to be parallel to a particular side edge 1A of a flat rectangular plate, alternately arranged in the foot, in which the catalyst elements 1' are under catalytic elements 1 that are applicable to catalytic blocks shown in Fig. 6(C) and 6(d).

In the catalytic unit, shown in Fig. 6(C), rectangular catalyst elements 1, each of which is provided with parallel ribs 2, made with a specified spacing between the flat portions 3 so as to be at an angle satisfying the condition 0< < 90for a given side edge 1b of a flat rectangular plate, and a rectangular catalyst elements 1', each of which is provided with parallel ribs 2', made with a specified spacing between the flat parts 3' so as to be parallel to a particular side edge 1b of a flat rectangular plate, alternately arranged in the foot. In catalitic the 1', it is shown in Fig. 6(b), and a pair of catalyst elements 1 and 1' shown in Fig. 6(C).

Thread 6 gas flowing in each of the catalytic converters of the present invention, is made by stacking at the foot of catalyst elements 1 and 1' shown in Fig. 6(a) to 6(d), in the direction perpendicular to one side edge 1C of a flat rectangular plate of the catalytic unit.

In the catalytic units of the present invention, shown in Fig. 6(a) to 6(d), the edges of the ribs 2 of two adjacent catalyst elements 1 and edges of the ribs 2 and 2' of two adjacent catalyst elements 1 and 1' are in point contact with each other, and part of the ribs 2 and 2' to the contrary from the point of contacts of a hand, tilted at a given angle to the specified side edge 1A or 1b is a flat rectangular plate (i.e., the catalytic element 1).

Because the ribs 2 and 2' are inclined to the flow direction 6 of the gas in the gas channels are formed slotted passages predetermined width defined by the flat parts 3 and 3' of the catalytic elements 1 and 1' and the ribs 2 and 2' of the respective adjacent catalyst elements 1 and 1', the degree of blocking of the gas is small, although it causes some posestvo with ribs 2 and 2', leveled.

In addition, as shown in Fig. 7, turbulent flows are formed on the downstream side edges of the catalytic unit of the type shown in Fig. 6(a), to facilitate the contact between, for example, NOxand NH3contained in the exhaust gas, and a catalyst.

The perturbation stream 6 gas reduces the thickness of the laminar film formed over the catalytic surfaces, which facilitates the diffusion of NOxand NH3and significantly increases the catalytic activity. Thread 6 gas, disturbed parts of the ribs 2 or ribs 2 and 2' in their point-contact with each other, flows through the slotted passages at a predetermined distance. The degree of turbulence of the flow 6 of the gas decreases as the gas flows through the slotted passages. Therefore, the pressure loss is not excessively large, the thickness of the laminar film on the catalytic surfaces is reduced and, consequently, the gas diffundere satisfactory to greatly increase the performance of the catalyst.

Because to be processed, the gas flows through the catalytic units, manufactured by stacking at the foot of catalyst elements 1 and 1', as shown in Fig. 6(a) to 6(d), sequentially and continuously or gradually, compared with reducing the passage of gas in the catalytic unit, shown in Fig. 50 (front catalytic unit shown in Fig. 44) or Fig. 47, so that the pressure loss is relatively small.

In the existing catalytic unit (JP-A N 55-152552), shown in Fig. 50, slotted passages formed between the catalytic element 1 with the ribs 2, parallel flow 6 gas, and a catalytic element 1' with ribs 2', perpendicular to the flow 6 gas (Fig. 51 shows a cross section along the line a-a in Fig. 50). Because the ribs 2', perpendicular to the flow 6 gas exploded with predetermined intervals, the thread 6 of the gas in the catalytic unit perevarivaetsya ribs 2' so that the pressure loss is very high compared with what is called a catalytic unit shown in Fig. 6.

In the existing catalytic unit 11 (JP-U N 52-6673), shown in Fig. 47, the catalytic elements have no parts corresponding to the flat portions 3 and 3' shown in Fig. 6 or 50, and the flange 10 are in point contact with each other in a much larger number of points than the points of contact between the ribs 2 and 2' of the catalytic unit shown in Fig. 6 or 50. Therefore, when soaked 10 in point contact with each other in the catalytic unit 11, and the pressure loss is manifested much more than caused by the catalytic unit shown in Fig. 6.

In the catalytic unit of the present invention, shown in Fig. 6, the ribs 2 each catalytic element is inclined to the specified side edge 1A or 1b (side edges 1A and 1b are parallel to the flow direction 6 gas) catalytic element 1 at an angle which is greater than 0oand less than 90o. When the angle is defined so that the opposite edge of the longest edge 2a of each catalytic element 1 are in contact with the side walls 12A and 12b at points near the inlet end and outlet end of the gas channel, respectively, as shown in Fig. 14, the thread 6 of the gas which flows through a flat pass (slotted passages), defined by the flat part 3A adjacent to the longest edge 2A, must inevitably flow along the longest edge 2A to the outlet end, whereby the degree of contact of the gas with the catalyst increases.

On the other hand, when the angle Q is defined so that the opposite edge of the longest edge 2A of each catalytic element 1 is located on the inlet end and outlet end of the gas channel, respectively, as p is amym long edge 2A, there is no need to flow along the longest edge 2A, and it can flow through the slit passage to the exhaust end. In this case, the degree of contact of the gas with the catalyst is less than for the case illustrated in Fig. 14.

In the existing catalytic unit shown in Fig. 43, fin 2 all catalytic element 1 parallel to the direction of flow 6. Therefore, each catalytic element 1 has a greater bending strength in a direction parallel to the direction of flow 6 gas, and low bending strength in the direction perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas. Therefore, the catalytic elements easily bend and width of the space between the catalyst elements 1 is uneven, as shown in Fig. 49.

In the catalytic unit of the present invention, in which the ribs 2 alternating catalytic element 1 is inclined at an angle greater 0oand lower 90oto the flow direction 6 of the gas, the rigidity in the direction perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas increases, and catalytic elements 1 do not bend. Accordingly, the area of the gas passage rarely changes unevenly, and can form gas channels with uniformly changing area proch the ribs 2 and 2' significantly reduce the probability of formation of regions, in which the rate of catalytic reactions is low.

Thus, the present invention has not only the effect of preventing the performance degradation of the catalyst, which may be attributed to uneven changes in the field of flow in the gas channels, but also the effect of reducing the likelihood of formation of gas channels having non-uniformly varying sectional area. Although the ribs 2 and 2' are breaking the thread 6 gas to facilitate contact between the components of the catalytic reaction and the catalytic surfaces and enhance the activity, the pressure loss caused by the catalyst elements 1 and 1', less than called laid at the foot of the catalytic elements with ribs 2 and 2', elongated in the direction perpendicular to the direction of flow 6 gas as catalyst elements 1 and 1' with the ribs 2 and 2', stretched out at an angle, large 0oand lower 90oto the flow direction 6 of the gas, are located alternately.

Rib plate of catalytic elements according to this invention can be of any shape, ensuring that the edges and the flat part are alternately parallel to each other. Ribs can be formed with any number of examples.

Although there are no particular restrictions on the height of the ribs from the surface of the flat parts, the desired height of the ribs of the catalytic elements to be used for denitration is in the range from 1.5 to 14 mm Excessively small height increases pressure loss, and excessively high altitude increases the amount of catalyst required to maintain the same performance. The width depends on the bending strength of the catalytic element; breadth is more preferable for ensuring that the catalytic element does not bend as much width is more effective in reducing the pressure loss. The desired width is in the range from 5 to 25 times the height of the ribs from the surface of the flat part. Usually the width of the flat portions of the catalytic element to be used for denitration is in the range of from about 10 to 150 mm

Below will be described the catalytic unit of the present invention, using catalytic elements produced by processing the perforated base plates.

Will be explained an example of using a metal grid as a perforated base plate. Catalytic elemenary plate, are through-hole, is made by processing, for example, a thin metal sheet to obtain a metal grid with holes in increments from 1 to 5 mm, and the direct coating of a metal grid or its surface after roughening the surface by metallization using aluminum or the like with a suspension containing the catalyst, so that the holes are not filled with the suspension, or by completely covering the metal grid suspension containing the catalyst, and blowing with compressed air is completely covered with a suspension of a metal grid to open holes, closed with suspension.

Can be opened all holes catalytic unit, or some may be open, and the rest can be closed. Particularly good catalytic properties have the following catalytic elements.

(1) a Catalytic element having a flat part, covered with catalyst, so that the holes are covered with catalyst, and ribs, for example, one of the cross-sections from the number shown in Fig. 3 held in a fixed direction and having openings not closed by the catalyst.

(2) Catalyti the Ohm, and edges of the above-mentioned shape having apertures closed by catalyst.

(3) a Catalytic element having a flat portion and ribs with holes, closed catalyst.

The catalytic element (3) is used in combination with catalytic elements (1) and (2).

Fig. 16 - 20 typical 6 show the flow of gas between the catalyst elements 1 constituting the catalytic units and formed by processing, for example, metal mesh according to the present invention. Fig. 16 - 19 typically show catalytic units, manufactured by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1, so that the ribs 2 each catalytic element 1 and the underlying catalytic element 1 are perpendicular to each other. In Fig. 16 all holes holding the catalyst metal mesh are open, Fig. 17 open holes in the parts holding the catalyst metal mesh forming the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 of Fig. 18 only open holes in the parts holding the catalyst metal mesh forming the flat part 3 of the catalytic elements 1 of Fig. 19 catalytic elements 1 with all closed holes in Metallica placed on the foot.

Fig. 20 shows a portion of the catalytic unit of the present invention, as it is visible from the side and top from the catalytic unit. This catalytic unit manufactured by stacking in the foot multiple catalytic elements 1 with open holes 4 only in the ribs 2, so that the edges of the ribs 2 of two adjacent catalyst elements 1 intersect each other for the formation of a gas channel between the adjacent catalyst elements 1, with part of the gas continuously or stepwise perevarivaetsya in the flow direction 6 of the gas. Fig. 20 6 shows the flow of gas in the catalytic unit, manufactured by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements alternately, so that the ribs 2 is inclined at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90oin the flow direction 6 of the gas.

As shown in Fig. 16 - 20, when increasing the flow resistance 6 gas side edges 2, elongated perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, or ribs 2 extending at an angle to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the gas flows through the openings 4 (Fig. 20) from one channel to another, related with the previous one, separated from it by the catalytic element 1. Consequently, the flow 6 gas shaken (indignant) to enhance the catalytic AK the practical elements 1, so that the loss of traction of the catalytic element is small. Because the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 shown in Fig. 20, inclined at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90oto the flow direction 6 of the gas, and therefore, the gas flowing through the catalytic unit, faces the ribs 2 at an angle, the area of the gas passage in the gas channels is not reduced dramatically and consistently and continuously or gradually in comparison with reducing the passage of gas in the catalytic blocks shown in Fig. 16 - 19, so that the gas flow is not much perevarivaetsya ribs 2. Therefore, the pressure loss can be further reduced by the effect of stirring, essential to improve the supported activity.

The catalytic unit of the present invention, using such a perforated plate, has a magnificent effect mixing and agitating gas to enhance and support the performance of the catalyst and magnificent effect in reducing loss of traction.

The catalytic unit of the present invention, having a catalytic elements formed by processing of perforated plates arranged in the foot so that their edges inclined at an angle greater than 0omiceski element according to the present invention, manufactured by processing a perforated plate, may be used for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 having a catalytic elements 1' with ribs 2' lesser height and catalytic elements 1 with ribs 2 a greater height, stowed in the foot alternately, as shown in Fig. 21, and for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 having a catalytic elements 1 with two types of edges 2 and 2' of different heights, and laid in a foot so that the edges of the respective ribs 2 and 2' adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, as shown in Fig. 47. The catalytic unit (not shown) may be manufactured by stacking foot in turn catalytic elements 1 with two types of edges 2 and 2' of different heights and catalytic elements 1 with the ribs 2 of the same height.

The present invention includes a catalytic unit 8, as shown in Fig. 21, manufactured by alternately stacking at the foot of catalyst elements 1 and 1' having, respectively, the ribs 2 a greater height and ribs 2' lesser height so that the edges of the ribs 2 and 2' intersect perpendicular to each other (Fig. 21) or at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90o.

In the catalytic unit 8, shown in the GU, the ribs 2 are of the same height and ribs 2 must be arranged with a relatively large step to limit the traction resistance of the catalytic unit 8 to a small value; i.e., the number of edges 2 catalytic unit 8 should be little to limit the traction resistance to a small value, and therefore, the gas cannot be satisfactorily outraged.

The traction resistance of the catalytic unit 8 depends on the loss of kinetic energy of the gas flow caused by the turbulent flow due to the shrinking and expanding of the channels formed by the ribs 2. Because the loss of kinetic energy depends strongly on the properties across the section of passage of the gas (the ratio of the opening of the channel), the increase of the coefficient of holes, i.e., the lower edges 2 reduces the resistance of the rod. Therefore, to reduce the resistance of the thrust effectively produce ribs 2 of the catalyst element 1, the edges of the ribs 2 which are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of gas, reduced height, to increase the ratio of the apertures of the exhaust gas channel.

The inventors of the present invention conducted the following study of the effect of perturbations of the gas stream to maintain the mass transfer. In the and at fixed distances, so that edges of the respective adjacent edges of the catalytic elements perpendicular to each other, the area of passage of the gas in the channel between two adjacent catalyst elements having, respectively, the edges of various lengths were changed to test the relationship between the performance of the catalyst resistance and traction. The result of the study shown in Fig. 23.

The experiments were carried out by using a catalytic unit, manufactured by laying at the foot of two types of catalyst elements 1 and 1' having, respectively, the ribs 2 and 2' of different heights, as shown in Fig. 22, so that the edges of the ribs 2 and 2' are perpendicular to each other. The ribs 2 of the catalyst element 1 have a height of h1from the surface of the flat part 3 and are arranged with a pitch P1. Ribs catalytic element 1' has a height h2from the surface of the flat part 3' and are arranged with a pitch P2.

It was made a comparison of the catalytic unit is made by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 with the ribs 2 of height h1= 6 mm and catalyst elements 1' with ribs 2' of height h2= 4 mm, so that the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular naiskogu block, manufactured by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 with the ribs 2 of height h1= 6 mm and catalyst elements 1' with ribs 2' of height h2= 4 mm, so that the edges 2 edges catalytic element 1 parallel to the direction of gas flow, and the edges 2' of the catalytic elements 1' perpendicular to the direction of gas flow. The comparison results are shown in Fig. 23.

As is clear from Fig. 23, the catalytic unit, manufactured by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 with the ribs 2 of height h1= 6 mm and catalyst elements 1' with ribs 2' of height h2= 4 mm, so that the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to the direction of gas flow, and the edges 2' of the catalytic elements parallel to the direction of gas flow, and the catalytic unit, manufactured by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 with the ribs 2 of height h1= 6 mm and catalyst elements 1' with ribs 2' of height h2= 4 mm, so that the edges 2 edges catalytic element 1 parallel to the direction of gas flow, and the edges 2' of the catalytic elements 1' perpendicular to the direction of gas flow, have essentially the same capability of the denitration and the resistance of the pull catalyt is against the thrust of the catalytic unit with the ribs 2 of height h1= 6 mm

Similarly, the catalytic unit having in combination catalyst elements 1' with ribs 2' of height h3= 3 mm, perpendicular to the direction of gas flow, and catalytic elements 1 with the ribs 2 of height h1= 7 mm, has even less resistance to traction. It is known that the reduction in the traction resistance has little effect on reducing the rate of mass transfer.

Therefore it is not necessarily the preferred catalytic unit with ribs a great height, which promote turbulence; desirable ribs lesser height in order to reduce the resistance of the traction, ensuring that the edges are able to effectively perturb the gas is able to reduce the thickness of the laminar films formed on catalytic surfaces).

In the existing catalytic unit shown in Fig. 44, the distance between ribs 2 (width of flat parts 3) must decrease to maintain a satisfactory ability, when the height of the ribs 2 are reduced. Reducing the distance between the ribs increases the number of edges is 2 more than the required number and increases the resistance to traction.

Accordingly, the present invention includes a catalytic unit, izgotovlenie ribs and many flat parts, parallel edges, in which, as shown in Fig. 22(a) and 22(b), two types of catalyst elements 1 and 1' with edges, respectively, 2 and 2' of different heights, and are alternately arranged in the foot, so that the ribs 2 and 2' are perpendicular to each other.

Although there is no specific prohibition on the height of the ribs of these two types of catalytic elements, the height of the ribs catalytic converters, as shown in Fig. 22(a) and 22(b) intended for use in denitration are in the following ranges.

The height h1(higher ribs 2):

3-14 mm, more preferably 3 to 10 mm

Edges of the ribs 2 is parallel to the direction of gas flow.

The height h2(lower ribs 2'): 2 - 6 mm

Edges of the ribs 2' perpendicular to the direction of gas flow.

If the height h2ribs 2' excessively large compared with the height h1of edges 2, the traction resistance of the catalytic unit is as great as that of the existing catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 44. If the height h2ribs 2' excessively small compared with the height h1of edges 2, the effect of the perturbation of the gas from the edges 2' of the catalytic elements 1' unsatisfactory, although the traction resistance is small, and the amount of cataline catalytic unit of catalyst elements 1 and 1' with the ribs 2 and 2' of different heights are used in combination, it is desirable that the ratio of the height of the higher of the ribs 2 to the height of the lower edges 2' was equal to 3/2 - 7/3.

While it is possible to reduce the resistance of the thrust is advantageous to form the ribs 2' of the catalytic elements 1', located edges of the ribs 2' perpendicular to the direction of gas flow in smaller increments P2usually step P2that is equal to from about 30 to 200 mm, brings satisfactory effect support mass transfer.

There are no special restrictions on step P1ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 located edges higher ribs 2 parallel to the direction of gas flow. Ribs 2 may be arranged in any appropriate step P1ensuring that the catalytic elements 1 have a suitable rigidity and the catalytic unit capable of storing the gas channels.

In the catalytic unit, shown in Fig. 21, the catalytic elements 1 with higher ribs 2 can be located edges of the ribs 2 parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas and catalyst elements 1' with a lower ribs 2' can be placed with the edges of the ribs 2', inclined to the flow direction 6 of the gas at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90ofor example, in the range of 30opologise catalyst elements 1 and 1' are able to perturb the flow 6 gas without further significant increase in resistance to traction. Thread 6 gas cannot be satisfactorily outraged, if the angle of inclination of the edges of the ribs 2' of the catalytic elements 1' to the flow direction 6 gas excessively small.

The catalytic element having two types of ribs of different heights, or two types of catalytic elements, respectively, with ribs of different heights can be formed by treatment of perforated plates, which are used for the catalytic elements shown in Fig. 16 - 20.

The present invention includes a catalytic unit, manufactured by stacking in the foot multiple catalytic elements 1, each of which has, in alternate order, the sets of edges of the higher ribs 2 and lower edges 2', the flat part 3, as shown in Fig. 26, so that the edges of the respective ribs 2 and 2' adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other. The catalytic unit, as shown in Fig. 27, may be made by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 with two types of edges 2 and 2' of different heights, and catalytic elements 1 with the ribs of the same height, so that the edges of the ribs of the catalytic elements 1 and edges of the ribs of the catalytic elements 1' PRA can be of any shape, to ensure that the sets of ribs 2 and 2' and the flat part 3 are formed alternately and parallel to each other. For example, the ribs 2 and 2' can be of shape having any of the shown in Fig. 28(a) 28(e) cross-sections.

Although there is no specific prohibition on the height of the two types of ribs 2 and 2' of the catalytic element 1, having any of the forms shown in Fig. 29, the height of the ribs 2 and 2' catalytic converters are designed to use for denitration and are in the following ranges.

The height h1(higher ribs 2):

3 - 14 mm, more preferably 3 to 10 mm

Edges of the ribs 2 is parallel to the direction of gas flow.

The height h2(lower ribs 2'):

2 - 6 mm

If the height h2lower edges 2' excessively large compared with the height h1higher ribs 2, the traction resistance of the catalytic unit increases. If the height h2lower edges 2' excessively small compared with the height h1higher ribs 2, the effect of the perturbation of the gas from the lower edges 2' of the catalytic elements 1' unsatisfactory, although the traction resistance is small, and the amount of catalyst should be increased to maintain the same ability.m step P1usually step P1that is equal to from about 70 to 250 mm, brings satisfactory effect support mass transfer.

In the catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 44, in which the edges of the respective ribs 2 of the respective catalytic elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, the ribs 2 are of the same height and ribs 2 must be arranged with a relatively large step to limit the traction resistance of the catalytic unit 8 to a small value; i.e., the number of edges 2 catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 44, must be small to limit resistance pull up to a small value, and therefore, the gas cannot be satisfactorily outraged.

Although the energy loss of the gas stream due to turbulent flow caused by the contraction and expansion of the passage of the ribs 2 of the catalytic unit 8, strongly depends on properties across the section of passage of the gas (the ratio of the opening of the channel), the increase of the coefficient of holes, i.e., the decrease of the ribs 2, reduces the resistance to traction, as described above. Therefore, efficient use of catalytic unit 8 shown in Fig. 27, manufactured by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1, each of kotoraya normal stream type 6 gas channel, certain catalytic elements 1, each of which has two types of edges 2 and 2' of different lengths.

From shown in Fig. 23 results conducted by the inventors of the present invention research to support the mass transfer effect turbulence of the gas is known that the catalytic unit, having ribs, i.e., support tools turbulence, a relatively high altitude, it is not necessarily preferred, but if desired the ribs are relatively low height to reduce the resistance of traction, providing the opportunity to reduce the thickness of the laminar films formed on the catalytic surfaces. These facts are also valid for the case when the catalytic unit uses catalytic elements 1 shown in Fig. 26.

For example, although the catalytic elements 1 are edges of their ribs 2 and 2' perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas in the catalytic unit, shown in Fig. 27, the catalytic elements 1 can be placed with their edges of the ribs 2 and 2' with an angle greater than 0oand less than 90ofor example, in the range of 30oup to an angle of less than 90omore preferably, in the range 40oup to an angle of less than 80othe subsequent significant increase in resistance to traction.

The present invention includes a catalytic unit, manufactured by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1, having a cross section as shown in Fig. 32, and two types of edges 2 and 2' of different lengths, with different forms, as shown, for example, in Fig. 3 so that the edges of the respective ribs 2 and 2' adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, and two types of edges 2 and 2' of different lengths alternating catalytic elements 1 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas (Fig. 27), and the distance L1and L2from the opposite edges relative to the direction of flow 6 gas for catalytic element 1 located ribs 2 and 2' perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first ribs 2A from the opposite edges of the same catalytic element 1, respectively, equal to enlarged 8 times the interval T between the adjacent catalyst elements 1 (Fig. 27) or less.

When the interval T between the adjacent catalyst elements 1 is equal to 6 mm, the distance L1and L2from the opposite edges of the catalytic element 1 to the first edge 2A is equal to, respectively, 50 mm or less, preferably from 5 to 30 mm, and step L3meig. 31, manufactured by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1, each of which has ribs 2, located with a given step L3determined by equally dividing the distance [L-(L1+ L2)] between the first edge 2A from the opposite edges of the catalytic element 1 (L is the distance between the opposite edges, respectively, so that the step L3equal to the distance T (Fig. 27) between the catalyst elements 1, increased 10-23 times.

When the distance L1and L2from the inlet end and outlet end relative to the direction of gas flow catalytic unit to, respectively, the first ribs 2A defined in this way, the edge portion of the catalytic element 1 is not bent, as shown in Fig. 45 and defined in advance of the gas channels can be stored in the inlet end and outlet end of the catalytic unit 8.

When the set of edges 2 are arranged at equal distances in increments of L3that causes a small pressure loss between the first ribs 2A respectively from opposite edges of the catalytic element 1 can be suppressed by increasing the resistance to traction.

Thus, the pressure loss can be reduced and can b is in the stop plate of the catalytic elements with edges of the ribs 2 and 2' adjacent catalyst elements 1, perpendicular to each other.

The above-mentioned catalytic elements are used in appropriate combinations for the manufacture of catalytic converters according to the present invention.

The catalytic unit of the present invention can be applied in various devices with a catalytic reaction for processing gases, such as catalytic deodorizing device, the catalytic combustor and fuel converters. The use of the catalytic unit of the present invention in the device of denitration of exhaust gas denitration in the presence of ammonia exhaust gas by reduction of the nitrogen oxides NOxcontained in the exhaust, is the most typical use of the present invention. For example, generiruushaya the device (Fig. 12), provided with at least one catalytic unit of the present invention, containing the catalytic elements covered denarium catalyst in the passage of the exhaust gas containing NOxcapable of centrasbat exhaust gas with a high degree of efficiency of removal of nitrogen oxides with subsequent relatively small pressure loss in otrabotannaya which generiruushaya the device is used by applying the catalytic unit of the present invention, containing the aforementioned catalytic elements covered denarium catalyst, in combination, as shown in Fig. 13, with the usual denarium device with a low pressure loss with catalytic elements with edges parallel to the direction of gas flow (cell generiruushaya device with a structure having a cross section in the form of a honeycomb, or generiruushaya device laminar type, as shown in Fig. 43, having a structure made by stacking in the foot flat plates with gaps).

Although some systems, such as plant, have restrictions on the pressure loss in the catalytic unit, and the pressure loss, which can occur when using only catalytic unit of the present invention, in some cases excessively high, the pressure loss can be limited to values that are within a reasonable range, by using the catalytic unit of the present invention in combination with conventional catalytic unit, which causes a small pressure loss.

The catalytic element according to the present invention has a high effect in the mixed gas in the catalytic unit. Therefore, heterogeneous who, the eat at the outlet of the catalytic penetriruyuschego device, which causes a pressure loss, even if the concentration of ammonia at the inlet of the catalytic penetriruyuschego device locally inhomogeneous, so that the catalytic device located downstream of the gas from the catalytic penetriruyuschego device capable of acting effectively.

Brief description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a partial view in perspective of the catalytic unit in the implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a view in perspective of the catalytic element in the implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 3(a), 3(b), 3(C) 3(d) and 3(e) are views in section of the catalytic elements having ribs and used in the present invention.

Fig. 4 is a view in section of the catalytic element used in the implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 5 is a view in perspective of the catalytic element used in the implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 6(a), 6(b), 6(C) and 6(d) are a schematic top view for assistance in explaining the types of packing at the foot of the catalytic elements used in carrying on the present izobreteny is in explaining steps of the present invention.

Fig. 8(a) and 8(b) are partial views in perspective of the catalytic unit in the implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 9 is a partial view in perspective of the catalytic unit in the implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 10 is a diagram showing generiruushaya the ability of the example 1 of the present invention, normalized to denariusa ability of comparative example 1.

Fig. 11 is a graph showing the pressure loss caused by example 1 of the present invention, normalized to the pressure loss caused in the comparative example 1.

Fig. 12 is a block diagram of a device exhaust gas containing two catalytic unit in the implementation of the present invention arranged in series in the exhaust gas channel.

Fig. 13 is a block diagram of a device exhaust gas containing the catalytic unit in the implementation of the present invention, and generiruushaya device, which causes a small pressure loss, is located on the side of the catalytic unit, located downstream of the gas in the exhaust gas channel.

Fig. 14 is schematic is the shadow.

Fig. 15 is a schematic top view of the catalytic unit in the implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 16 is a conditional side view showing the gas flow in the catalytic unit in example 8 of the present invention.

Fig. 17 is a conditional side view showing the gas flow in the catalytic unit in example 9 of the present invention.

Fig. 18 is a conventional side view showing the gas flow in the catalytic unit in example 10 of the present invention.

Fig. 19 is a conventional side view showing the gas flow in the catalytic unit in example 11 of the present invention.

Fig. 20 is a view in perspective, showing the gas flow in the catalytic unit in example 12 or example 13 of the present invention.

Fig. 21 is a view in perspective of the catalytic unit in examples 14 and 15 of the present invention.

Fig. 22 (a) and 22(b) are views in perspective of the catalytic elements used in examples 14 and 15, respectively, of the present invention.

Fig. 23 is a graph showing the characteristics of catalytic converters, compared with the catalytic elements, equipped with the lytic ability of catalytic converters in example 14 of the present invention and in comparative examples 7 and 8.

Fig. 25 shows graphically the characteristics of the pressure loss caused by the catalytic blocks in example 14 of the present invention and in comparative examples 7 and 8.

Fig. 26 is a view in perspective of the catalytic element used in example 16 of the present invention.

Fig. 27 is a view in perspective of the catalytic unit used in example 16.

Fig. 28 (a) 28(b) 28 (C) 28(d) and 28(e) are side views of examples of the edges of the catalytic elements applicable in example 16 of the present invention.

Fig. 29 is a partial view in section of a catalytic element, applicable to example 16 of the present invention.

Fig. 30 is a view in section of the catalytic element used in example 16.

Fig. 31 is a side view of the catalytic element used in the examples 17-1 - 18-3 of the present invention.

Fig. 32 is a side view of the catalytic element used in the examples 17-1 - 18-3 and the like of the present invention.

Fig. 33 is a graph showing the comparison of catalytic activity of examples 17-1 and 18-1 and available in the prototype.

Fig. 34 is a graph, dormancy what is the schedule showing the comparison of catalytic activity of examples 17-3 and 18-3 and available in the prototype.

Fig. 36 is a graph showing the relation between a step between the ribs of the catalytic element and the pressure loss.

Fig. 37 is a graph showing the relation between a step between the ribs of the catalytic element and the pressure loss.

Fig. 38 is a graph showing the relation between a step between the ribs of the catalytic element and the pressure loss.

Fig. 39 is a graph showing the relation between the total reaction rate and the flow rate of gas for catalytic converters in examples 1 and 8 of the present invention and comparative example 2, and the catalytic unit 11 shown in Fig. 47.

Fig. 40 is a graph showing in comparison the relationship between pressure loss and flow rate of gas for catalytic converters in examples 1 and 8 of the present invention and comparative example 2, and the catalytic unit 11 shown in Fig. 47.

Fig. 41 is a graph showing the comparison of the data representing the pressure loss caused by the catalytic units in examples 1 and 8 of this isobsolete ability.

Fig. 42 is a block diagram of a device exhaust gas containing two catalytic generiruyushch device with a low pressure loss according to the present invention.

Fig. 43 is a side view in perspective of the existing catalytic unit.

Fig. 44 is a view in perspective of the existing catalytic unit.

Fig. 45 is a view for assistance in explaining problems in the catalytic unit according to Fig. 44.

Fig. 46 is a top view of an existing catalytic element.

Fig. 47 is a view in perspective of the catalytic unit is made by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements, such as shown in Fig. 46.

Fig. 48 is a partial view in perspective of the catalytic unit for assistance in explaining problems in the prototype.

Fig. 49 is a partial view in perspective of the catalytic unit for assistance in explaining problems in the prototype.

Fig. 50 is a view for assistance in explaining the process, existing catalytic elements.

Fig. 51 is a schematic view showing the gas flow in the catalytic unit, manufactured by stacking catalic the BR>
Below will be described in detail a preferred implementation of the present invention.

First will be described embodying the present invention catalytic blocks containing the catalytic elements with edges inclined at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90oto the direction of gas flow.

Example 1

Pasta with approximately 36% moisture content was made by mixing heated zameshivaem mixture of 67 kg of the suspension metatitanate acid (30 percent by weight TiO2, 8 weight % of SO4), 2.4 kg of paramolybdate ammonia (NH4)6Mo7O244H2O) and 1.2 kg of metavanadate ammonia (NH4VO3and evaporating the water contained in the mixture. The paste was extruded into a round cords 3 mm in diameter, obtained by granulating cords, the tablets were dried in a drying plant with a fluidized bed, and then dried tablets were hot for 24 hours at 250oC in the atmospheric environment to obtain pellets. The pellets were crushed using a hammer crusher to reduce the size, to obtain a powder with an average grain size of 5 μm as the first component. The first component was V/Mo/T = 4/5/91 in atomic ratio.

the water was zamachivalis zameshivaem 1 hour to obtain klinoobrazno catalytic paste. Flat catalytic plate approximately 0.9 mm in thickness and 500 mm in length were produced by coating the catalytic paste parts forming holes in metal grids 500 mm wide and 0.2 mm thick of SUS 304, treated on the surface by spraying aluminum roughening. Flat catalytic plates were processed by extrusion to obtain the catalytic elements having ribs 2 a wavy cross-section, arranged with a given pitch between the flat portions 3, as shown in Fig. 2, and then the thus treated catalyst plate was hot 2 hours at 550oC in the ambient environment after drying by air to obtain catalyst elements 1. In the catalytic elements 1 shown in Fig. 4, the height h of the ribs 2 from the surface of the flat part 3 equal to 2.5 mm, and the width P of the flat portion 3 is equal to 80 mm

Catalytic elements 1 made thus formed to a rectangular shape, so that the ribs 2 were tilted at 45oto one side edge 1A of each catalytic element 1, to obtain a rectangular catalyst elements 1 shown in Fig. 5. Catalytic elements 1 and the elements, PMM (not shown) for the manufacture of a layered catalytic unit with dimensions of 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (length), it is shown in Fig. 6(a).

This catalytic unit is in the gas channel so that the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 are inclined at an angle of 45oto the Board of the thread 6 of the gas, as shown in Fig. 1. Because the catalytic elements 1 have the same shape, and the catalytic unit can be made simply by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 and elements, turned upside down, the catalytic unit can be manufactured in mass production at low cost of production.

Example 2

The catalytic unit of the construction shown in Fig. 6(b) or 6(C) (Fig. 8(a) or 8(b)), was made by alternately stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1 (catalytic elements of example 1 was cut to a rectangular shape, so that the ribs 2 is inclined at an angle of 45oto the side edge 1A) and catalytic elements 1' (catalytic elements of example 1 was cut to a rectangular shape, so that the ribs 2 specific parallel side edge 1A). The catalytic unit is in the gas channel with ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1, inclined at an angle of 45oto the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Example 3

Sets kataliticheski', used in example 2, as shown in Fig. 6(b), and sets the catalytic plates, each of which is formed by the superposition of the catalytic elements 1 and 1', as shown in Fig. 6(C), alternately arranged in the foot, as shown in Fig. 6(d), to obtain a catalytic unit shown in Fig. 9. The catalytic unit is in the gas channel with ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1, inclined at an angle of 45oto the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Comparative example 1

Catalytic elements 1, as shown in Fig. 2, having ribs 2 height of 5 mm from the surface of the flat parts manufactured by the catalytic treatment of flat plates, which formed the catalytic elements 1 of example 1, and then perform a rectangular catalyst elements 1 are designed in the form of catalytic elements 1 cropped to a rectangular shape, so that the ribs 2 specific parallel side edge 1A of each of the catalytic element. Catalytic elements 1 arranged in the foot in case 4, shown in Fig. 43, for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (depth). The catalytic unit 8 is located in the exhaust gas channel with ribs 2, running parallel to the re 1 was installed in the reactor, forming a channel of exhaust gas, and the waste product of the combustion of LPG passed through the reactor for measuring generiruyushch abilities catalytic converters in examples 1 to 3 and comparative example 1 under the conditions summarized in table 1. Was measured the distribution of the concentrations of NOxat the discharge ends of the exhaust gas catalytic converters and has been verified the homogeneity of the flow of exhaust gas. The results of the measurements are presented in table 2.

As can be seen from table 2, the range of distribution of the concentrations of NOxthe exhaust gas exiting the catalytic converters in examples 1, 2 and 3, very narrow, and the flow of exhaust gas in the catalytic units in examples 1, 2 and 3 are identical in all relevant to the whole cross section of the catalytic units in examples 1, 2 and 3. The average efficiency of the catalytic denitration units of examples 1, 2 and 3 are much higher than those of comparative example 1. Barring the effect of the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements shown in Fig. 7, in addition to the same form of the passage gives the catalytic units in examples 1, 2 and 3 high generiruushaya ability.

Example 4

Catalytic elements 1, the same used in example 1 clicks the teachings rectangular catalyst elements 1, it is shown in Fig. 5. Catalytic elements 1 and the elements that are rotated upside down, alternately arranged in the foot, as shown in Fig. 1, in the case of walls 2 mm thick (not shown) for fabrication of layer-by-layer catalytic unit with dimensions of 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (length) shown in Fig. 6(a).

As shown in Fig. 1, this catalytic unit is located in the exhaust gas channel with ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 at an angle of 30oto the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Example 5

Catalytic elements 1 of the form shown in Fig. 4, manufactured by the same processes as catalytic elements 1 used in example 1; catalytic elements 1 cropped to obtain a rectangular catalyst elements 1 with ribs, angle = 60to one side edge 1A, as shown in Fig. 5. Catalytic elements 1 and the elements that are rotated upside down, alternately arranged in the foot, as shown in Fig. 1, in the case of a wall thickness of 2 mm (not shown) for fabrication of layer-by-layer catalytic unit with dimensions of 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (length) shown in Fig. 6(a).

As shown in Fig. 1, this catalytic unit is located in kanataka 6 gas.

Comparative example 2

Catalytic elements 1 (Fig. 2) used in example 1, placed in the foot to obtain a catalytic unit so that the respective edges of the adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, as shown in Fig. 44. The catalytic unit is positioned so that the ribs 2 alternating catalytic element 1 parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Each of the catalytic converters in examples 1, 4 and 5 and comparative example 2 was installed in the reactor, forming a channel of exhaust gas, and the waste product of the combustion of LPG passed through the reactor for measuring generiruyushch abilities catalytic converters in examples 1, 4 and 5 and comparative example 1, and the pressure loss by the same catalytic blocks under the conditions summarized in table 1. Fig. 10 shows generiruushaya capacity, normalized to denariusa ability of comparative example 1, and Fig. 11 shows the pressure loss, normalized to the pressure loss caused in the comparative example 1. Conditions check denariusa abilities were: temperature - 350oC, the molar ratio of NH3/NO - 1,2 and gas flow speed is 8 m/s

As is evident from Fig. 10 and 11 pressure Loss, caused by examples 1, 4 and 5, hardly distinguishable from the pressure loss caused in the comparative example 1 in which the edges are parallel to the direction of gas flow. Although generiruushaya abilities of examples 1, 4 and 5 below denariusa ability of comparative example 2, they are acceptably high.

As follows from Fig. 10 and 11, when the angle of inclination of the edges of the catalytic elements to the direction of gas flow for more than 30oand less than 60ocatalytic units are able to effectively demonstrate their generiruushaya ability without reducing the pressure (=P) in the gas stream.

Example 6

Two catalytic unit size of 150 mm 150 mm 250 mm (depth), manufactured by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements covered denarium catalyst as that used in example 1, except that the length (depth) is equal to 250 mm, arranged in series along the direction of gas flow, as shown in Fig. 12, and the gas passes through the catalytic blocks under the conditions summarized in table 1, for measuring the pressure and the denitration efficiency.

Example 7

Two catalytic unit size of 150 mm 150 mm 250 mm (depth), manufactured by stacking foot in cataloglocale, the length (depth) is equal to 250 mm, and generiruushaya device (150 mm 150 mm 150 mm), which causes a small pressure loss, using catalytic unit laminar type shown in Fig. 43, arranged in series in the exhaust gas channel, through which the direction of gas flow, as shown in Fig. 13, the flowing exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides. The catalytic elements of the catalytic unit laminar type covered denariusa catalytic paste used in example 1. The catalytic unit is located on the side penetriruyuschego device, the upstream gas. The gas passes through the catalytic unit and generiruushaya device under the conditions summarized in table 1, for measuring the pressure and the denitration efficiency.

Comparative example 3

Two catalytic unit, which causes a relatively small pressure loss, such as catalytic unit used in example 7, are arranged successively in the direction of gas flow, as shown in Fig. 42. The gas passes through the catalytic unit under the conditions summarized in table 1, for measuring the pressure and the denitration efficiency.

Generiruushaya ability kataliticheskoe, measured during the passage of the gas from combustion of LPG through the catalytic blocks under the conditions summarized in table 1. The measurement results are shown in table 3.

As is clear from table 3, although comparative example 3, i.e., a catalytic device that uses catalytic units, causing less pressure loss, causes a relatively small pressure loss, the denitration efficiency of comparative example 3 is low, and although the denitration efficiency of example 6, i.e., a catalytic device that uses catalytic units of the present invention, very high, example 6 causes a pressure loss greater than comparative example 3, although the efficiency of denitration of example 7, i.e., a catalytic device that uses catalytic units of the present invention, and the catalytic unit, which causes a small pressure loss, located on the side of the previous catalytic unit, downstream gas, less than in example 6, example 7 causes a pressure loss, less than caused by example 6.

In example 7 the catalytic unit of the present invention, located downstream of the gas below the catalytic unit that causes a relatively small pressure loss, imea in the outlet device of the present invention, even if the distribution of ammonia concentrations in the inlet hole of the catalytic unit, and therefore, the catalytic unit, located downstream of the gas works effectively.

Next will be described examples of the catalytic elements is made of perforated plates.

Example 8

Tape SUS 304 0.2 mm thick and 500 mm wide processed to obtain a metal grid with holes 2.1 mm wide, spaced with a pitch of 2.1 mm on the surface of the grid superimposed aluminum in the amount of 100 g/m2spray aluminum roughening the surface of a metal mesh, wire mesh processed by extrusion to obtain a catalytic support tape 0.9 mm thick with a rib height h = 4.0 mm and flat parts of width P = 80 mm, as shown in Fig. 4, and then catalytic supports the tape was cut to obtain a catalytic support plates size 480 mm 480 mm

Catalyst suspension prepared by dispersing 10 kg of catalyst powder used in example 1, in 20 kg of water, the catalytic plate is immersed in a catalytic suspension for covering the catalytic support tapes poeticheskoi suspension of catalyst support plate to fix the closing holes, and then the catalytic support plates coated with the catalyst slurry was hot at 550oC for 2 hours in an atmospheric environment to obtain catalyst elements 1.

Catalytic elements 1 formed with predetermined dimensions, arranged in the foot, as shown in Fig. 44, in the case of a wall thickness of 2 mm (not shown) so that the edges of adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 480 mm (depth). The catalytic unit 8 in example 8 has a cross-section, typically shown in Fig. 16.

Examples 9 and 10

Compressed air was passed only by the ribs 2 of the catalyst support plates, such as used in example 8 coated with the catalyst slurry used in example 8, to correct only the catalytic suspension that fills the holes in the ribs 2, to obtain catalyst elements 1 having openings only in his ribs 2. Catalytic elements 1 arranged in the foot for making a catalytic unit in example 9, having a cross section, typically shown in Fig. 17. Compressed air was passed only flat on the suspension, used in example 8, to correct only the catalytic suspension that fills the holes in the flat parts 3, to obtain catalyst elements 1 having openings only in their flat parts 3. Catalytic elements 1 arranged in the foot for making a catalytic unit in example 9, having a cross section, typically shown in Fig. 18.

Comparative example 4

Catalytic paste is prepared by kneading a mixture of 20 kg of catalyst powder used in example 8, 3 kg of inorganic fibers Al2O3SiO2and 10 kg of water by zameshivaem for 1 hour. Catalytic paste is applied with a roller on the metal mesh SUS 304 with a thickness of 0.2 mm, with surface engineered roughness by sputtering aluminum to obtain a catalyst support grids thickness of 0.9 mm and a length of 480 mm Metal mesh processed by extrusion to obtain a catalyst support grids thickness of 0.9 mm, with a fin height of h = 4.0 mm and the flat part of the width P = 80 mm, as shown in Fig. 4, and then the catalytic support grid prokalyvayutsya at 550oC for 2 hours in an atmospheric environment, and thus procalin the diversified sizes. Catalytic elements 1 arranged in the foot in the case of walls 2 mm thick, so that the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements parallel to the direction of gas flow for manufacturing a catalytic unit dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 480 mm (depth), as shown in Fig. 43.

Example 11

Catalytic elements used in example 8 and having openings in all of its surfaces, and catalytic elements 1 used in comparative example 4, having openings which are closed by the catalytic paste in all of its surfaces are alternately arranged in the foot so that the ribs 2 of the previous catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to the direction of gas flow for manufacturing a catalytic unit dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 480 mm (depth), having a cross section, typically shown in Fig. 19.

Example 12

Catalytic support plates, which are catalyst elements 1 used in example 8 and having openings in all of its surfaces, cut into a rectangular shape, so that the ribs 2 is inclined at an angle of 45oto the specified side edge 1A (Fig. 6) to obtain catalyst elements 1. Catalytic elements 1 and the elements that are rotated or block size 150 mm 150 mm 480 mm (depth).

Example 13

Catalytic support plates, which are catalyst elements 1 used in example 8 and having openings only in his ribs 2, cut into a rectangular shape, so that the ribs 2 is inclined at an angle of 45oto the specified side edge 1A (Fig. 6) to obtain catalyst elements 1. Catalytic elements 1 and the elements that are rotated upside down, alternately arranged in the stack in the case when there are walls 2 mm thick, for the manufacture of catalytic unit dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 480 mm (depth), shown in partial typical view in perspective in Fig. 20.

Comparative example 5

Catalytic elements used in comparative example 4, arranged in the foot when ribs 2 alternating catalytic elements 1 perpendicular to the direction of gas flow for manufacturing a catalytic unit dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 480 mm (depth), as shown in Fig. 44.

Comparative example 6

Catalytic elements 1, identical to the one used in example 8, except where the height of the ribs 2 is equal to 8 mm, placed on the foot when the ribs 2 alternating catalytic elements 1 parallel n the but in Fig. 43.

Each of the catalytic structures in examples 8 to 13 and comparative examples 4 to 6 was installed in the reactor, the product of combustion of the LPG passes through the catalytic units to measure their generiruyushch abilities and loss of traction (pressure loss) attributable to these catalytic units, under the conditions summarized in table 1. The measurement results are shown in table 4.

As is clear from table 4, although comparative examples 4 and 6 cause a relatively small loss of thrust, efficiency denitration of comparative examples 4 and 6 are low, and their impact on the rate of the reaction is from 0.5 to 0.7 of the effects of examples 8-13 on the reaction rate. Although the denitration efficiency of comparative example 5 of the same construction as in examples 8-13, and compared with the catalytic elements in which all the holes are closed, high, comparative examples cause a large loss of traction. Appropriate denitration efficiency and impact of examples 8-10 on the reaction rate is basically the same, and loss of thrust caused by the examples 8-10, equal to about half caused by comparative example 5.

Thus, the catalytic units of the present invention, containing the catalytic elements with open holes are great for instances, using two types of catalyst elements 1 and 1' of different heights and alternately arranged in the foot with the edges of the ribs 2 and 2' perpendicular to each other.

Example 14

Catalytic paste is prepared by kneading a mixture of 20 kg of catalyst powder used in example 1, 3 kg of inorganic fibers Al2O3SiO2and 10 kg of water by zameshivaem for 1 hour. Catalytic paste is applied with a roller on the metal mesh SUS 304 with a thickness of 0.2 mm, with surface engineered roughness by sputtering aluminum to obtain a catalyst support grids thickness of 0.9 mm and a length of 480 mm Metal mesh processed by extrusion to obtain a catalyst support grids thickness of 0.9 mm, with wavy edge 2 height h1= 6 mm and the flat part 3 with a width of P1= 120 mm, as shown in Fig. 22(a), and catalytic supports meshes with a thickness of 0.9 mm, with wavy ribs 2' of height h2= 4 mm and the flat part 3' with a width of P2= 60 mm, as shown in Fig. 22(b), and then the catalytic support grid prokalyvayutsya at 550oC for 2 hours in an atmospheric environment after drying the air to the floor is laid on in the foot, so the respective ribs 2 and 2' catalyst elements 1 and 1' are perpendicular to each other, for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (depth), as shown in Fig. 21. The catalytic unit is positioned so that the lower edges 2' of the catalytic elements 1' perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Example 15

Metal mesh, prepared by the same process as the metal mesh, from which were formed the catalytic elements used in example 14 were processed by extrusion to obtain a catalyst support grids, with wavy edge 2 height h1= 7 mm and the flat part 3 with a width of P1= 120 mm, as shown in Fig. 22(a), and catalytic supports meshes with a thickness of 0.9 mm, with wavy ribs 2' of height h2= 3 mm and the flat part 3' with a width of P2= 60 mm, as shown in Fig. 22(b), then catalyst support grids prokalyvayutsya at 550oC for 2 hours in an atmospheric environment after drying by air to obtain catalyst elements 1 and 1' (h2/h1= 3/7).

Catalyst elements 1 and 1' are alternately arranged in the foot, so that corresponding edges apostrophes 150 mm 150 mm 550 mm (depth), as shown in Fig. 21. The catalytic unit is positioned so that the lower edges 2' of the catalytic elements 1' perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Comparative example 7

Catalytic elements 1, the same catalytic elements 1 used in example 14, except for the ribs 2 of height h = 5 mm, placed on the foot so that all the ribs 2 are parallel to each other, for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (depth), as shown in Fig. 43. The catalytic unit is positioned so that the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 are parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Comparative example 8

Catalytic elements 1 used in comparative example 7, arranged in the foot so that the edges of the respective ribs 2 adjacent catalyst elements 1 are perpendicular to each other, for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (depth), as shown in Fig. 44.

Comparative example 9

Catalytic elements 1, the same catalytic elements 1 used in example 14, except for those whose height is h1equal to from 2 to 10 mm, placed on the foot for the manufacture of catalytic unit which measures 14 and 15 and comparative examples 7 - 9 was installed in the reactor, the product of combustion of LPG passed through the catalytic structure 8 when the conditions are summarized in table 1, for measuring the respective generiruyushch abilities and loss of thrust caused by the catalytic units. The measurement results are shown in table 5.

As is clear from table 5, the resistance of the pull catalytic converters 8 in examples 14 and 15 according to the present invention is less than that of the catalytic converters in comparative example 8, and generiruushaya ability of catalytic converters in examples 14 and 15 are approximately the same with the same abilities catalytic unit in comparative example 8.

The strong impact of catalytic converters 8 in examples 14 and 15 of the present invention to complete the reaction rate, compared with the catalyst unit 8 in comparative example 9, gives catalytic blocks 8 in examples 14 and 15 superior generiruushaya ability.

In example 14, since the catalyst elements 1 having ribs 2 height h1= 6 mm (Fig. 22(a)), and catalytic elements 1', having ribs 2' of height h2= 4 mm (Fig. 22(b)), alternately arranged in the foot and edges of the ribs 2 and 2 legal one another, the distance between adjacent kataliticheskikh blocks 8 in comparative examples 8 and 9.

From the measurement results shown in table 5, it is seen that example 14 requires less catalyst than comparative example 9, for 80% efficiency denitration, as shown in table 6, as the denitration efficiency of example 14 is higher than that of comparative example 9 for the same local velocity, and that denitrifi block in example 14 can be formed in a more compact design than in comparative example 9.

Fig. 24 shows changes of catalytic activity with the speed of the gas flow to example 14 and comparative examples 7 and 8, and Fig. 25 shows the change of pressure loss with flow rate of gas to example 14 and comparative examples 7 and 8.

It is evident from Fig. 24 shows that with the increase in velocity of the gas stream are greatly enhanced catalytic activity catalytic converters in example 14 and comparative example 8 compared to the catalytic unit in comparative example 7, having a gas channel parallel to the direction of gas flow.

The catalytic activity of the catalytic unit in example 14 is reduced by approximately the same as the activity of the catalytic unit in comparative example 7, when the flow velocity of the gas decreases approximately Nutech perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, when the flow velocity of the gas is high, and the effect of stagnation gas from them, when the flow velocity of the gas is low.

Therefore, it is preferable that the flow rate of gas was in the range of 2 m/s < 10 m/s, more preferably in the range of 4 m/s < 8 m/s, in which the pressure loss is almost negligible, when used catalytic unit 8 according to the present invention. Ribs 2' unable to perturb the flow 6 gas, if the gas flow rate is excessively small, and the pressure loss is too large, if the flow rate of gas to be excessive.

Next will be described examples of catalytic converters, each of which is manufactured by stacking at the foot of the catalytic elements 1, each with two types of parallel ribs 2 and 2' having different heights, with edges of the respective ribs 2 and 2' adjacent catalyst elements 1, perpendicular to each other.

Example 16

Catalytic paste is prepared by kneading a mixture of 20 kg of catalyst powder used in example 1, 3 kg of inorganic fibers Al2O3SiO2and 10 kg of water by zameshivaem for 1 hour. Catalytic paste is applied with a roller on the metal mesh SUS 304 with a thickness of 0.2 is their support meshes with a thickness of 0.9 mm and a length of 480 mm Metal mesh processed by extrusion to obtain a catalyst support grids thickness of 0.9 mm, with wavy higher edge 2 height h1= 3 mm, lower ribs 2' of height h2= 2.5 mm and the flat part 3 with a width of P1= 100 mm, as shown in Fig. 29, and then the catalytic support grid prokalyvayutsya at 550oC for 2 hours in an atmospheric environment after drying by air to obtain catalyst elements 1.

Catalytic elements 1 and catalyst elements 1' with the ribs 2 and 2' of the same height are alternately arranged in the foot so that the respective ribs 2 and 2' catalyst elements 1 and 1' are perpendicular to each other in case 4, shown in Fig. 27, for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (depth). The catalytic unit is located so that the edges of the ribs 2' of the catalytic elements 1 or 1' are parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Comparative example 10

Made of catalytic elements, identical to the one used in example 16, except that the ribs 2 and 2' have equal height 6 mm from the surface of the flat parts 3. The catalytic elements are alternately arranged in the stop what smarami 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm as shown in Fig. 43.

Comparative example 11

The catalytic elements with ribs of equal height, used in comparative example 10, alternately arranged in the foot so that the respective ribs 2 neighboring catalytic elements perpendicular to each other in the case (not shown), as shown in Fig. 44, for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8 dimensions 150 mm 150 mm 500 mm (depth).

Each of the catalytic converters in example 16 and comparative examples 10 and 11 was installed in the reactor, the product of combustion of LPG passed through the catalytic units for measuring generiruyushch abilities and loss of traction catalytic converters under the conditions summarized in table 1. The measurement results are shown in table 7.

As can be seen from table 7, the catalytic unit in example 16 less loss of traction and basically equal denariusa ability catalytic unit in comparative example 11. The catalytic unit in example 16 compared to the catalytic unit in comparative example 10 has a high generiruushaya ability through its impact on the increase in the overall rate of reaction.

Below will be described catalytic units, each of which izgotovlenykh catalytic elements perpendicular to each other, and is located in the gas channel with ribs 2 alternating catalytic elements 1, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas (Fig. 27), in which distances L1and L2from the opposite edges of each of the catalyst elements 1 with the ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow 6 gas to the first edge 2A from one end of the catalytic element 1 and to the first edge 2A from the other edge of the same catalytic element 1 is increased 8 times the distance T between adjacent catalyst elements 1 (Fig. 27) or less.

Example 17-1

Catalytic paste is prepared by kneading a mixture of 20 kg of catalyst powder used in example 8, 3 kg of inorganic fibers Al2O3SiO2and 10 kg of water by zameshivaem for 1 hour. Catalytic paste is applied with a roller on the metal mesh SUS 304 with a thickness of 0.2 mm, with surface engineered roughness by sputtering aluminum to obtain a catalyst support grids thickness of 0.9 mm and a length of 480 mm Metal mesh processed by pressing and processed to obtain a catalyst support grids thickness of 0.9 mm, with wavy edge 2 height h1= 3 is derivada grid prokalyvayutsya at 550oC for 2 hours in an atmospheric environment after drying by air to obtain catalyst elements 1. Then twenty-two catalytic element 1 arranged in the foot with a distance T for the manufacture of catalytic unit 8, as shown in Fig. 44. Distances L1and L2from the opposite edges of each catalytic element 1, the ribs 2 which are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2A from one edge to the first edge 2A from the other end, respectively, equal to 30 mm, which is increased in 4 times the distance So

Example 18-1

The catalytic unit 8 in example 1 was identical with the catalyst unit 8 in example 17-1 and manufactured by stacking at the foot of twenty-two catalytic elements 1, identical to the one used in example 17-1, and having ribs 2 height h1= 3 mm, located in increments of L3= 60 mm at a distance of T = 6 mm, However, in the catalytic unit 8 in example 18-1 both distances L1and L2equal to 50 mm, which is enlarged 8 times the distance So

Comparative example 12-1

The catalytic unit 8 in comparative example 12-1 was the same as the catalytic unit 8 in example 17-1, and are manufactured by way of height h1= 3 mm, located in increments of L3= 60 mm at a distance of T = 6 mm, However, in the catalytic unit 8 in comparative example 12-1 both distances L1and L2equal to 50 mm, which is increased by 10 times the distance So

Example 17-2

The catalytic unit 8 in example 17-2 was the same design with a block in example 17-1, except that in the catalytic unit 8 in example 17-2 ribs 2, which is parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 3 mm were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 5 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, the number of catalytic elements 1 is equal to eighteen, the distance T between adjacent catalyst elements 1 is 8 mm, and both distances L1and L2from the opposite edges of each of the catalyst elements 1, arranged so that their edges 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one edge to the first edge 2 from another region equal to 40 mm, which is increased in 5 times the distance So

Example 18-2

The catalytic unit 8 in example 18-2 was the same design with a block in premiu flow 6 gas the height was h1= 3 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 5 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, the number of catalytic elements 1 is equal to eighteen, the distance T between adjacent catalyst elements 1 is 8 mm, and both distances L1and L2from the opposite edges of each of the catalyst elements 1, arranged so that their edges 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one edge to the first edge 2 from the other end equal to 64 mm, which is enlarged 8 times the distance So

Comparative example 12-2

The catalytic unit 8 in comparative example 12-2 was the same design with a block in example 17-1, except that in the catalytic unit 8 in comparative example 12-2 ribs 2, which is parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 3 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 5 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, the number of catalytic elements 1 is equal to eighteen, the distance T between adjacent kataliticheskih elements 1, arranged so that their edges 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one edge to the first edge 2 from the other end equal to 80 mm, which is increased by 10 times the distance So

Example 17-3

The catalytic unit 8 in example 17-3 was the same design with a block in example 17-1, except that in the catalytic unit 8 in example 17-3 ribs 2, which is parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 3 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 7 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, the number of catalytic elements 1 is equal to fifteen, the distance T between adjacent catalyst elements 1 is 10 mm, and both distances L1and L2from the opposite edges of each of the catalyst elements 1, arranged so that their edges 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one edge to the first edge 2 from the other side of 50 mm, which is increased in 5 times the distance So

Example 18-3

The catalytic unit 8 in example 18-3 was the same design with a block in example 17-1, ex is the height was h1= 3 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 7 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, the number of catalytic elements 1 is equal to fifteen, the distance T between adjacent catalyst elements 1 is 10 mm, and both distances L1and L2from the opposite edges of each of the catalyst elements 1, arranged so that their edges 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one edge to the first edge 2 from the other end equal to 80 mm, which is enlarged 8 times the distance So

Comparative example 12-3

The catalytic unit 8 in comparative example 12-3 was the same design with a block in example 17-1, except that in the catalytic unit 8 in comparative example 12-3 ribs 2, which is parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 3 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, the height was h1= 7 mm and were arranged with a pitch L3= 60 mm, the number of catalytic elements 1 is equal to fifteen, the distance T between adjacent catalyst elements 1 is 1, arranged so that their edges 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one edge to the first edge 2 from the other side of 100 mm, which is increased by 10 times the distance So

Each of the catalytic converters in examples 17-1 - 17-3 and comparative examples 12-1 - 12-3 was installed in the reactor, the product of combustion of LPG passed through the catalyst units 8 for measuring generiruyushch abilities catalytic converters 8 and loss of thrust caused by the catalytic blocks 8, under the conditions summarized in table 1, except that the local velocity is in the range from 20 to 80 m/h, and the impact of height h1ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 and the distance T between the catalyst elements 1 are calculated in comparison.

Fig. 33, 34 and 35 are graphs showing measured characteristics of the flow velocity from denariusa capacity and pressure loss.

Catalytic activity the catalytic blocks 8 in examples 17-1 - 17-3 18-1 and - 18-3 obviously higher than that of catalytic converters 8 in comparative examples 12-1 - 12-3, which is the same height h1ribs 2, and the distance T between the catalytic layer 1, as shown in the examples is 7-1 - 17-3 higher than the respective catalytic converters 8 in examples 18-1 - 18-3, which proves that the catalytic blocks 8 can show high performance when the distance L1and L2from the opposite edges of each of the catalyst elements 1, arranged so that their edges 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one edge to the first edge 2 from the other end, equal to enlarged 8 times the distance T between adjacent catalyst elements 1 or less, and show high performance when the distance L1and L2equal increased in 5 times the distance T or less. When the distance L1and L2more than enlarged 8 times the distance T, the regional part of the catalytic elements 1 are bent with a noticeable decrease in performance catalytic unit 8.

Below will be described experiments on catalytic blocks in the examples, using catalytic elements 1, in which the ribs 2 are arranged with a predetermined pitch L3defined by evenly dividing the distance [L-(L1+ L2)] between the first ribs 2A from the opposite edges, respectively, of the catalytic elements what elements 1.

Examined the effect on pressure loss step L3(Fig. 31) between the ribs of the catalytic elements 1, arranged so that the ribs 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas.

Experiment 1

Catalytic blocks 8, the same catalytic blocks 8 in example 17-1, were made by stacking at the foot of twenty-two catalyst elements 1 having ribs 2 height h3= 3 mm, at equal distances T = 6 mm, in which the distance L1and L2from the opposite edges of each of the catalyst elements 1 with the ribs 2, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas to the first edge 2 from one end of the catalytic element 1 and to the first edge 2 from the other end of the same catalytic element 1, is equal to 10 mm, which is approximately 1.7 times the interval T between the adjacent catalyst elements 1. In the catalytic blocks 8 step L3between the ribs is equal to 20, 40, 60, 80, 120, 140 and 160 mm, respectively, that is, steps L3equal to approximately 3-23 times the interval T between the adjacent catalyst elements 1, respectively. The pressure loss caused by the catalytic blocks 8, was measured under the conditions summarized in table 1, the logical block 8 was equal to 6 m/s

The length L of the catalytic elements 8, in which the steps between the ribs 2 is 60 mm, 500 mm Length of the catalytic elements other catalytic units 8 in which steps L3between the ribs 2 is not equal to 60 mm, was determined so that the catalytic activity of these catalytic converters 8 were equal catalytic activity block 8, in which step L3between the ribs 60 mm Fig. 36 shows the normalized pressure loss caused by the catalytic blocks 8, these normalized to the pressure loss caused by the catalytic unit 8, in which step L3between the ribs 60 mm

Experiment 2

An experiment was similar to experiment 1. Catalytic units 8 were produced by stacking the eighteen foot catalytic elements 1, including having ribs 2 height h1= 3 mm, which is parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas and having ribs 2 height h1= 5 mm perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas at equal intervals T = 8 mm In the catalytic blocks 8 step L3between the ribs is equal to 40, 60, 80, 120, 180 and 200 mm, respectively, i.e., steps L3equal to approximately 5 to 25 times the interval T between adjacent catalytic Elementum">

Experiment 3

An experiment was similar to experiment 1. Catalytic units 8 were produced by stacking a fifteen foot catalytic elements 1, including having ribs 2 height h1= 3 mm, which is parallel to the flow direction 6 of the gas and having ribs 2 height h1= 7 mm, perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas at equal intervals of T = 10 mm In the catalytic blocks 8 step L3between the ribs is equal to 60, 80, 100, 130, 160, 200, 230 and 250 mm, respectively, i.e., steps L3equal to approximately

6 - 25 times the interval T between the adjacent catalyst elements 1, respectively. Fig. 38 shows the results of an experiment similar to the results in experiment 1.

All curves in Fig. 36, 37 and 38 have a bulge down. The pressure loss is at the lowest level, when step L3between the ribs 2 is in the range from 60 to 140 mm in experiment 1, in the range from 80 to 180 mm in experiment 2, in the range from 100 to 230 mm in experiment 3. Found that the pressure loss can be reduced to the lowest possible value when step L3between the ribs 2 is in the range increased 10-23 time interval T between the catalytic ele is political activity.

The following facts are found in examples 17-1 - 17-3 18-1 and - 18-3 and the results of experiments 1 - 3.

For example, in the catalytic unit in example 17-1, when you change the height of the h1ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1, arranged so that the ribs 2 are perpendicular to the flow direction 6 of the gas, i.e., when the catalytic unit 8, as shown in Fig. 27 (the height of the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1', parallel to the direction of current 6 gas equal to the height of the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1), is made of a catalyst elements 1 having two types of ribs 2 and 2', for example, higher ribs 2 and lower edges 2', in alternate order, and the distance L1and L2from the opposite edges of the catalytic element to the ribs 2 are equal enlarged 8 times the period T (Fig. 27) between the adjacent catalyst elements 1, as shown in Fig. 32, the edge part of the catalytic elements of the catalytic unit will not bend, and therefore, the pressure loss can be suppressed to a small level.

The following experiments were conducted to compare the catalytic performance of the catalytic unit of the present invention and existing catalytic unit.

oto the flow direction 6 of the gas.

(2) the Catalytic unit (II), the same with the catalytic unit in example 8, the stack of the type shown in Fig. 44, was made by stacking at the foot of catalyst elements 1 having the flat part 3 a width of 80 mm, ribs 2 height 4 mm from the surface of the flat parts 3 and open holes, so that the angle of the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 to the flow direction 6 of gas equal to the 90o.

(3) the Catalytic unit (III), the same with the catalytic unit in comparative example 2, the stack of the type shown in Fig. 44, was made by stacking at the foot of catalyst elements 1 having the flat part 3 a width of 80 mm, the ribs 2 of a height of 2.5 mm from the surface of the flat parts 3 and closed holes, so that the angle of the ribs 2 of the catalyst elements 1 to the flow direction 6 of gas equal to the 90o.

(3) the Catalytic unit (IV) was produced by stacking the foot corrugated catalytic element 10, shown n that the corresponding edge 9 of the neighboring catalytic elements 10 perpendicularly intersect each other and inclined at an angle of 45oto the flow direction 6 of the gas.

The product of combustion of LPG passed through the catalytic units (I), (II), (III) and (IV) to check the communication between the constant full speed, responsiveness and speed of the gas flow and the relation between pressure loss and flow rate of gas. The test results shown in Fig. 39 and 40. Fig. 41 shows the normalized pressure loss caused by the catalytic units (I), (II), (III) and (IV), respectively, for the same denariusa ability.

As is clear from Fig. 39, 40 and 41, the pressure loss caused by the catalytic units of the present invention, very large compared with that caused by the catalytic unit (IV), shown in Fig. 47, for the same denariusa abilities. The difference in the pressure loss (about 130 mm H2O) between the catalytic unit in example 1 (catalytic unit 1) and catalyst unit shown in Fig. 47 (catalytic unit IV), for the same denariusa ability equivalent to the difference in the cost of energy in $240000 for the annual energy production 73000 kW.

Industrial applicability

The catalytic unit of the present invention causes little resistance, traction, outraged by the gas stream to improve catalic different devices catalytic gas treatment, such as deodorizing device, the catalytic combustor and fuel converters. The use of the catalytic unit of the present invention in the device of denitration of exhaust gas denitration of exhaust gas by reducing the amount of nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas, in the presence of ammonia reductant is the most typical application of the present invention.

1. A catalytic unit comprising a housing having input and output channels directing the flow of gas between them in the axial direction, and side walls, passing between them, many catalytic plate elements mounted within this casing between the inlet and outlet channels, each plate of the catalytic element supports the catalytic material and has parallel edges are parallel to the flat parts of the separating ribs, characterized in that the set plate of the catalytic elements includes a set of first plate of the catalytic elements supporting catalytic material and having parallel edges are parallel with plastilina specified axial direction, and includes many second plate of the catalytic elements alternating with the first plate of the catalytic elements to form a foot, each second plate of the catalytic element supports the catalytic material and has parallel edges are parallel with the flat parts, separating the second ribs, the second ribs are installed under a second angle different from the first angle relative to the specified axial direction, the flat part forming surface of each plate of the catalytic elements and each of these plate catalytic element has edges formed by these ribs and extending from both surfaces, besides, the contact between the adjacent plate of the catalytic elements in the specified foot is the contact between their respective edges and at least one of the first and second angles is greater than 0oand less than 90o.

2. The catalytic unit under item 1, characterized in that the catalytic plate elements with edges inclined at an angle greater than 0 is ageny in foot alternately.

3. The catalytic unit under item 1, characterized in that the plate of the catalytic elements is divided into the first catalytic plate members arranged so that their edges are parallel to the direction of gas flow, and the second plate of the catalytic elements placed so that their edges inclined to the direction of gas flow at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90owhile the first and second catalytic plate elements arranged in the foot alternately.

4. The catalytic unit under item 1, characterized in that under the sequential stacking foot of the first catalytic elements with edges inclined to the direction of gas flow at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90oand like the first catalytic elements, the second catalytic elements, turned upside down, consistently placed in the foot many sets, each of which consists of a first plate of the catalytic element, the second plate element, the first flat plate element with edges parallel to the direction of gas flow, and located between the plate of the catalytic element and the second plastinova with the first flat plate of the catalytic element and located on the surface of either the first or the second plate of the catalytic elements.

5. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.2, 3 or 4, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the rib plate of the catalytic elements to the direction of gas flow is in the range of angles over 30oand less than 60o.

6. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the catalytic plate elements have two types of ribs of different heights.

7. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the set plate of the catalytic elements is divided into the first catalytic plate elements, each of which has two types of ribs of different height, and the second plate of the catalytic elements having ribs of the same height, while the first and second catalytic plate elements arranged in the foot alternately.

8. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the set plate of the catalytic elements is divided into the first catalytic plate elements, each of which has ribs of greater height, and the second plate of the catalytic elements having ribs in less">

9. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 8, characterized in that the rib plate of the catalytic elements have a cross-section S-shaped zigzag shape and form with convex topography, defining a gas channel in positions respectively near the inlet end and outlet end of the gas channel.

10. A catalytic unit comprising a foot from a variety plate of the catalytic elements, each of which is formed by covering the perforated plate of the catalytic material with catalytic activity and is formed with a step edge and passing between the edges of the flat part, wherein the catalytic material covers each perforated plate so that some or all of the holes in the perforated plate is not filled with catalytic material.

11. The catalytic unit under item 10, characterized in that the holes in the flat portions of each of the catalytic element is filled with a catalytic material, and the holes in the ribs of the same catalytic element is not filled with catalytic material.

12. The catalytic unit under item 10, characterized in that the holes in the flat portions of each spacecraft is element filled with catalytic material.

13. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.10 to 12, characterized in that the catalytic elements embedded in the foot so that corresponding edges of adjacent catalyst elements perpendicular to each other.

14. The catalytic unit on p. 13, characterized in that the catalytic elements embedded in the foot so that the ribs alternating catalytic elements perpendicular to the direction of gas flow.

15. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.10 to 14, characterized in that the ribs of the catalytic elements are so continuously or stepwise partition off part of the gas flow relative to the direction of gas flow.

16. The catalytic unit under item 15, characterized in that the catalytic elements with edges inclined at an angle greater than 0oand less than 90oand the same elements, turned upside down, placed on the foot alternately.

17. A catalytic unit comprising a foot from a variety of catalytic elements, each of which is formed by covering the perforated plate of the catalytic material with catalytic activity and is formed with a step edge and passing between the edges of the flat part, two types of catalyst e is, characterized in that the catalytic elements is divided into the first catalytic elements, each of which is formed by covering the perforated plate so that some or all of the holes in the perforated plate is not filled with catalytic material, and the second catalytic elements, each of which is formed by covering the perforated plate so that all the holes in the perforated plate are filled with catalytic material, the first and second catalytic elements embedded in the foot alternately.

18. The catalytic unit under item 17, characterized in that the holes in the parts of the perforated plate, the respective flat portions of each of the first catalytic element is filled with a catalytic material, and the holes in the parts of the perforated plate, the respective edges of the first catalytic element is not filled with catalytic material.

19. The catalytic unit under item 17, characterized in that the holes in the parts of the perforated plate, the respective flat portions of each of the first catalytic element is not filled with catalytic material, and the holes in the parts of the perforated plate, sootvetstvuyushie unit according to any one of paragraphs.17 - 19, characterized in that the first and second catalytic elements alternately arranged in the foot so that the edges of the ribs of the first catalytic element and the edges of the ribs of the second catalytic elements adjacent to the first catalytic elements perpendicular to each other.

21. The catalytic unit according to p. 20, characterized in that the edges of the ribs either the first or second catalytic elements perpendicular to the direction of gas flow.

22. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.14 to 21, characterized in that the distance in the direction of gas flow from the opposite edges of each of the catalytic elements, arranged so that their edges are perpendicular to the direction of gas flow to the first rib from the opposite edges, respectively, equal to enlarged at eight times the interval between laid at the foot of the catalytic elements or less.

23. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.17 to 19, characterized in that the respective edges of the first and second catalytic elements are so continuously or stepwise partition off part of the gas flow relative to the direction of gas flow.

24. The catalytic unit p. 23, characterized in that southwest the direction of gas flow.

25. The catalytic unit under item 24, wherein the alternating first catalytic elements and alternating second catalytic elements is turned upside down.

26. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.13 - 25, characterized in that each plate of the catalytic element has two types of ribs of different height.

27. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.13 - 26, characterized in that a lot of the catalytic elements is divided into the first catalytic elements, each of which has two types of ribs of different height, and the second catalytic elements having ribs of the same height, while the first and second catalytic elements embedded in the foot alternately.

28. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.13 - 27, characterized in that a lot of the catalytic elements is divided into the first catalytic elements, each of which has ribs of greater height, and the second catalytic elements having ribs lesser height, the first and second catalytic elements embedded in the foot alternately.

29. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.10 - 28, characterized in that the ribs have a cross-section S-shaped, zigzag forestryand plates are metal mesh, and the holes in the perforated plates correspond to the holes in the metal mesh.

31. A catalytic unit comprising a foot from a variety plate of the catalytic elements, each of which is formed by covering the plate with a catalytic material with catalytic activity and is formed with a step edge and passing between the edges of the flat part, characterized in that the catalytic elements embedded in the foot so that the edges of the respective adjacent edges of the catalytic elements perpendicular to each other, ribs alternating catalytic elements perpendicular to the direction of gas flow, and the distance in the direction of gas flow from the opposite edges of each of the catalytic elements, arranged so that their edges are perpendicular to the direction of gas flow to the first edges from opposite edges, respectively, equal to enlarged at eight times the interval between laid at the foot of the catalytic elements or less.

32. A catalytic unit comprising a foot from a variety plate of the catalytic elements, each of which is formed by covering the plate with a catalytic material to which causesa fact, that the catalytic elements embedded in the foot so that the edges of the respective adjacent edges of the catalytic elements perpendicular to each other, ribs alternating catalytic elements perpendicular to the direction of gas flow, and the distance in the direction of gas flow from the opposite edges of each of the catalytic elements, arranged so that their edges are perpendicular to the direction of gas flow to the first rib from the opposite edges, respectively, equal to enlarged at eight times the interval between laid at the foot of the catalytic elements or less, the ribs of each catalytic element are arranged with a pitch equal intervals, defined by evenly dividing the space between the first ribs respectively from opposite edges of the catalytic element, so that these intervals are equal increased 10 - 23 times the gap between laid at the foot of the catalytic elements.

33. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.31 and 32, characterized in that the catalytic plate elements have two types of ribs of different heights.

34. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.31 to 33, characterized in that the set rolled plate is offered by the height, and the second plate of the catalytic elements, each of which has ribs of the same height, while the first and second catalytic plate elements arranged in the foot alternately.

35. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.31 to 33, characterized in that the set plate of the catalytic elements is divided into the first catalytic plate elements, each of which has ribs of greater height, and the second plate of the catalytic elements having ribs lesser height, the first and second catalytic plate elements arranged in the foot alternately.

36. The catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.31 to 35, characterized in that the rib plate of the catalytic elements have a cross-section S-shaped zigzag shape and form with convex relief.

37. Device for gas purification, characterized in that it is provided in its gas channel of the catalytic unit according to any one of paragraphs.1, 10, 17, 31 or 32.

38. Device for gas purification, characterized in that it is provided in its exhaust gas channel for exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides, one or more catalytic units is 3 - 35;

11.04.95 on p. 8;

20.01.95 on PP.10 - 25, 29, 30;

01.08.95 on PP.31, 32, 36 - 38.

 

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The invention relates to the purification of flue gases from sulfur oxides

The invention relates to improvements associated with the separation of liquid droplets from gas streams, with a high degree of efficiency and reliability, and in the preferred embodiment, with the removal of sulfur oxides (SOxfrom flue gases

The invention relates to the installation of a wet-type flue gas desulfurization and method using solid obeserve substance, and in particular, to the installation of a wet-type desulfurization of flue gases and to a method of use of solid obeserver substances for economical removal of oxides of sulfur in the combustion gases leaving the combustion equipment such as boilers, high quality desulfurization, reduced capacity for crushing hard obeserver substances, such as limestone, and a smaller decline in the quality of the product because of the aluminum and fluorine components in the absorber

The invention relates to a method of cleaning gases and can be used for separation of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from various gas mixtures and for removal of HCl gas emissions, such as exhaust gases of the processes of thermal treatment (incineration, pyrolysis) of industrial and household waste

The invention relates to an adsorbent for the purification of hydrocarbon gases from H2S and CO2and can be used in gas, oil and chemical industries

The invention relates to methods of treatment of radioactive and hazardous chemical gas emissions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

FIELD: production of aluminum in cells with self-fired anodes, possibly processes for cleaning anode gases.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of accumulating anode gases, preliminarily combusting them together with air in burner devices mounted in cells; supplying gas-air mixture after preliminary combustion of anode gases along gas duct to stage of dust and gas trapping and blowing out to atmosphere. Before supplying gas-air mixture from burner devices to stage of dust and gas trapping, it is fed to process for oxidizing roasting; heated up to temperature 800-1100°C and then it is cooled until 230-290°C and heat is used for production needs.

EFFECT: lowered content of carbon, resin and CO in exhaust gases.

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