The way of fur tanning

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the fur industry, in particular to methods of tanning furs, and can be used in the formulation of fur semi-finished product for the manufacture of hats, collars, women's fur jackets, coats and men's fur coats. The method according to the invention improves the wear resistance of hair as a result of higher bond strength hair with Koshevoy cloth, microbiological stability of fur to the spontaneous action of the microflora in the storage conditions and the strength and resistance of the leather. The method according to the invention carries out the processing of pickled skins in tanning solution containing chromium tanning agent. In the tanning solution is further added dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in an amount of 0.5-0.75% by weight of the skins. table 2.

The invention relates to the fur industry, in particular to methods of tanning furs, and can be used in the formulation of fur semi-finished product for the manufacture of hats, collars, women's fur jackets, coats and men's fur coats.

There is a method of tanning furs (see "processing Technology marmot skins and tar the security of the USSR Kiselev M. I. January 19, 1980), which consists in the processing of pickled skins of chrome tanning agent, the basicity of 30% in the amount of 0.9 g/L. the Process is carried out at a solution temperature of 25 - 30oC, for 10 to 12 hours Tanned semi-finished product is subjected to aging, pressed and broken down.

The lack of fur tanning salts of chromium using this technology is that the skins have relatively low wear resistance, microbial resistance and durability.

The objective of the method of the invention is to improve the wear resistance of hair as a result of higher bond strength hair with Koshevoy cloth, microbiological stability of fur to the spontaneous action of the microflora in storage conditions, as well as strength and heat resistance leather.

This is achieved in that in the method of tanning furs, including the processing of pickled skins in tanning solution containing chromium tanning agent, optionally enter a sulfoxide DMSO in the amount of 0.5 to 0.75% by weight of the skins to improve wear resistance of hair, by increasing the bond strength of the hair with Koshevoy cloth; for microbiological stability of fur to the spontaneous action of the microflora in the condition the components of basic consumer properties of fur (such as wear resistance, teclast and others) are the interaction declared tanning solution with the keratin of the hair, improves its elasticity and as a consequence the increase of the resistance of the scalp abrasion. Wear with this method of tanning also increases due to the increase due hair with Koshevoy tissue associated with the possibility declared tanning solution to create links with the collagen and elastin fibers of the root of the hair. These additional relationships "compress" hair bag, thereby procrea hair in the dermis, leading, thus, to increase the bond strength between the hair and the leather.

Dimethyl sulfoxide has a high penetrating ability, so it easily penetrates into the leather of the fur, conveying a chrome extract, and interacts with it, resulting in a chrome tanning agent is not retained in the surface layers of the dermis, and penetrates and is evenly distributed over the layers of leather fur. The ability of DMSO to compete with water (H2O) hydrogen bonds leads to the fact that the drug "pushes" the water and combines with the protein, changing its properties. These features tannic structure lead to the formation of a larger number paperact strength leather fur and its thermal stability.

The increased number of connections per unit of macromolecule collagen leads to the fact that the enzymes of microorganisms are more difficult to destroy the structure of collagen, resulting in increased stability of the fur to the spontaneous action of the microflora in the store.

The method is as follows.

Pickled pelts fur is loaded into an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (40 g/l), then fill in chrome tanning agent basicity 30%, with a chromium content of 0.9 g/l and at the same time add DMSO in the amount of 0.5 to 0.75% by weight of the skins. After 1 to 2 h from the beginning of the chrome tanning spend increasing basicity of soda ash in the amount of 1.5 g/l in three doses of 0.5 g/l with an interval of 2 hours. The tanning process is carried out at a solution temperature of 25 - 30oC, for 10 to 12 hours and Then dried semi-finished product is subjected to further processing by known techniques (aging, centrifuge moisture, rasprave-splitting, drying, heavy, moisturizing, potrjahivanie, Ceska, dyeing and greasing processes and final operations on the decoration of the fur).

Example 1. Pickled pelts of fur marmot (weight - 1 kg) load in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (40 g/l), then treated chrome tanning rest DMSO in the amount of 0.25% by weight of the skins (or 0.0025 kg). After 1 hour from the onset of tanning salts of chromium spend increasing basicity of soda ash in three doses of 0.5 g/l with an interval of 2 hours. The process of tanning is carried out in a period of 11 hours.

Example 2. Pickled pelts of fur Groundhog process as in example 1, but in the tanning solution is injected with 0.5% DMSO by weight of the skins (or 0,005 kg).

Example 3. Pickled pelts of fur Groundhog process as in example 1, but in the tanning solution is injected to 0.75 % DMSO by weight of the skins (or 0.0075 kg).

Example 4. Pickled pelts of fur Groundhog process as in example 1, but in the tanning solution is injected 1,0% DMSO by weight of the skins (or 0.01 kg).

In these examples were obtained fur semi-finished products of marmot skins, which were indicators of consumer and physico-mechanical properties are given in table. 1.

Note: 1. in the column "prototype" is specified values of properties for samples of fur, chrome tanned, tanned without DMSO.

2. The coefficient of resistance of microorganisms is calculated as the ratio of the strength of the leather after exposure to spontaneous microflora within 20 days to the strength of the leather to the impact of the microflora by the formula:

When using a new tanning solution has improved thermal insulation properties of fur, which are some of the most important consumer characteristics, determining the functional purpose of furs to protect the human body from hypothermia.

Thermal insulation properties of the fur depends on the index density hairline and porosity. The study found that new tanning solution does not change (does not degrade) the condition of the fur - fur thickness remained constant in all the samples; with regard to porosity, under the influence of a chrome tanning agent with dimethylsulfoxide in the amount of 0.5 to 0.75% by weight of the tanned leather tissue became more organized structure with a large number of pores. The air that is retained in the pores, increases thermal resistance of the fur of the proposed method of manufacture.

From these tables, N 1 and N 2, shows the optimal performance of the basic properties of the leather fur at the rate of DMSO 0,5 - 0,75% by weight of the skins (example 2 and 3). The method of tanning the skin with the use of dimethyl sulfoxide in an amount of 0.5 - 0.75% in the chrome tanning solution had blogsolute interaction declared tanning solution with keratin increases its elasticity and, as a consequence, increases the resistance to abrasion of hair, increased the bond strength of the hair with Koshevoy cloth. As a result of researches it is established that the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide in an amount of 0.5 - 0.75% by weight of the skins in chrome tanning solution allows to increase the biostability of fur, which is an important condition for storage of semi-finished and fur products. Strength and thermal resistance of the leather is also increased. Samples of fur, tanned in this way, have higher heat-shielding properties.

When the flow of DMSO in the amount of less than 0.5% by weight of the skins (example 1) there is a slight increase is shown in the table values of the properties, in comparison with the prototype, due to insufficient consumption of DMSO.

When the flow DMSO more than 0.75% by weight of the skins (example 4) there is a reduction of the studied parameters in comparison with samples of fur, tanned examples N 2 - 3. This is because the increase in the number of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in tanning composition leads to its accumulation in the system, causing the destruction of the collagen of the dermis due to the proteolytic action, which leads to deterioration of the properties of the leather is containing chrome tanning agent, characterized in that the tanning solution is further added dimethylsulfoxide DMSO in the amount of 0.5 to 0.75% by weight of the skins to improve wear resistance of hair, by increasing the bond strength of the hair with Koshevoy tissue for microbiological stability of fur to the spontaneous action of the microflora in storage conditions, and also for strength and heat resistance leather.

 

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FIELD: coal-chemical products.

SUBSTANCE: weathered vitrinite brown coals from Baga-Nursk coal field having ash level 36-48% and moisture 20% are ground to granule size 0.5-0.9 mm. Resulting powder us sulfurized for 6-8 h with 98% sulfuric acid at 60-80°С and coal-to-acid weight ratio from 1:3 to 2:3. Sulfurized coal is neutralized and treated with 10-15% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution at weight ratio of alkali solution to initial coal (10-15):1 to form water-soluble sodium sulfohumate, after which water-soluble residual coal is separated by centrifugation. Centrifugate is mixed with 10-15% aqueous hydrochloric acid at volume ratio (10-15):6 to form precipitate, which is allowed to settle into compact form during 40-60 min. After decantation of liquid phase, solid residue is partially dried at 40-60°С until pasty mass is obtained.

EFFECT: increased content of tanning substances in humate-containing compounds and enabled utilization of oxidized brown coal in open-cut production of brown coals.

4 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: coal-chemical products.

SUBSTANCE: weathered vitrinite brown coals from Baga-Nursk coal field having ash level 36-48% and moisture 20% are ground to granule size 0.5-0.9 mm. Resulting powder us sulfurized for 6-8 h with 98% sulfuric acid at 60-80°С and coal-to-acid weight ratio from 1:3 to 2:3. Sulfurized coal is neutralized and treated with 10-15% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution at weight ratio of alkali solution to initial coal (10-15):1 to form water-soluble sodium sulfohumate, after which water-soluble residual coal is separated by centrifugation. Centrifugate is mixed with 10-15% aqueous hydrochloric acid at volume ratio (10-15):6 to form precipitate, which is allowed to settle into compact form during 40-60 min. After decantation of liquid phase, solid residue is partially dried at 40-60°С until pasty mass is obtained.

EFFECT: increased content of tanning substances in humate-containing compounds and enabled utilization of oxidized brown coal in open-cut production of brown coals.

4 tbl, 5 ex

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