A method of obtaining a petroleum distillate fractions

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the distillation of crude oil. Before serving obedinennoe oil in the atmospheric column or fuel oil in the vacuum column, the flow is subjected to a complex hydro-mechanical and acoustic treatment in the rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus in the interval velocity gradient in the gap between the rotor and stator 4,7103- 1,3107c-1when the rotor speed of 1000 12500 rpm, affecting acoustic field intensity of 102- 105W/cm2in the frequency range of the disk-radial vibrations of the rotor and stator of 0.01 - 63,0 kHz. Changes in the dispersed state in the oil or fuel oil output oil distillate fractions increased by 30-70% compared to traditional methods of obtaining petroleum distillate fractions. 4 tab., 12 Il.

The invention relates to a method of obtaining petroleum distillate fractions, in particular diesel fractions, and can be used in the oil industry.

A method of obtaining diesel fractions, which is part of the petroleum distillate fractions, consisting in atmospheric and vacuum distillation of crude oil, including the return between the om of this method is that, that along with the increase of output of diesel fractions it increases the energy cost of producing them (Bagirov L. T. Modern installations of the primary distillation of crude oil.- M.: Chemistry, 1974, S. 130).

A method of obtaining diesel fractions (ed. mon. USSR N 883148 But, 1981), consisting in the distillation of partially stripped of oil in the first atmospheric column having a Stripping and concentration sections, with the selection of the upper flow of the vapor phase side of a shoulder strap and bottom of the column is the residual fraction with subsequent supply top of shoulder strap to the second atmospheric column, the residual fraction in the vacuum column. From the vacuum column side shoulder strap assign intermediate fraction, wikipaedia in the temperature range 240 - 490oC, serves a portion of it is in the liquid phase in the amount of 2 to 4 wt.% from the initial raw material in the upper part of the Stripping columns, refer to the bottom of Stripping tower steam flow Stripping section of the first atmospheric column, serves obtained when this product is top in the vapor phase down the second atmospheric column followed by the output from the target fractions. The result is an increase in total output of light and heavy diesel fractions on 14,88%.

The disadvantage of this SPO technological chains due to the dosing of the various factions in different columns with a relatively small increase in the yield of diesel fractions on 14,88%.

A method of obtaining a petroleum distillate fractions, the closest entity to the present invention, taken as a prototype. This method consists in the fact that the stripped oil (oil residue after the column K1) is served in the atmospheric column the pickup, where the selected light fraction gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Oil residue fuel oil enters the column vacuum evaporating device, where the selected vacuum distillate, oil shoulder straps and tar (Erich C. N. and other Chemistry and technology of oil and gas.- L.: Chemistry, 1985, S. 111-116).

The disadvantage of this method is that it does not provide a high yield of different fractions in the temperature range 140 - 500oC.

The technical effect of the invention is to increase the output in the distillation of topped crude oil distillate fractions.

The invention is characterized by the following set of essential features for achieving the above effect that stripped oil (oil residue after the column K1) before applying to the column of atmospheric pickup and/or fuel oil in the vacuum distillation column, according to the invention, is subjected to a complex hydro-mechanical and acoustic is between the rotor and stator qrad V = 4,7103- 1,3107with-1when the rotational speed of the rotor of the rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus in the range from 1000 to 12500 rpm, the intensity of the acoustic field J = 102-105W/cm2in the frequency interval f= 0,01 - 63 kHz generated by the disk-oscillating fan rotor and stator.

Integrated hydro-mechanical and acoustic treatment of stripped oil or fuel oil leads to an increase in output (distillate) oil fractions due to changes in dispersal patterns and disperse composition of stripped oil and/or fuel oil. Impact on dispersed structure with a size (diameter) of the particles of the dispersed phase, 1 - 50 μm, which takes place in the oil, hydro-mechanical and acoustic simultaneously in the above interval velocity gradient, the frequency of rotation of a rotor of the rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus, the intensity of the acoustic field and the range of frequencies generated by the disk-fan oscillating rotating the rotor and stator of the machine, leads to the dispersion of these particles to diameters of about 0.2 - 0.03 µm. This significantly alters the properties of dispersed systems, in particular oil. The result of this change is the increase in the yield of distillate neausa the following: an integrated hydro-mechanical and acoustic treatment of stripped oil and/or fuel oil in the rotary pulsating acoustic device before sending it in atmospheric and/or vacuum column, respectively, when the velocity gradient in the radial clearances between the rotor and stator grad V = 4,7103- 1,3107c-1when the rotational speed of the rotor of the rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus in the range from 1000 to 12500 rpm, the intensity of the acoustic field J = 102-105W/cm2in the frequency interval f = 0,01 - 63,0 kHz generated by the disk-oscillating fan rotor and stator.

Comparative analysis of the present invention with the known technical solutions allows us to draw a conclusion about the novelty, and relevance to inventive step of this technical solution.

In Fig. 1 shows a rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus, its longitudinal section, in carrying out the above modes integrated (simultaneous) hydro-mechanical and acoustic impact on the oil. In Fig. 2 - section a-a of Fig. 1. In Fig. 3 - 8 presents pictures taken with a holographic image of the interferogram oscillating rotor disc rotary pulsating acoustic device at various frequencies f. In Fig. 9 shows a graph of the intensity distribution of the acoustic radiation J rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus according to the frequencies of these radiations. In Fig. 10, 11 is a schematic representation of the process of dispersion of particle phase nelow. In Fig. 12 shows a diagram of the processing of stripped oil; tables 2, 3, 4 presents the means of obtaining a petroleum distillate fractions.

The acoustic quality factor is a quantitative characteristic of the resonant properties that specify how many times the oscillation amplitude at resonance is greater than the amplitude of the forced oscillation at a frequency much lower than the resonance, with the same amplitude of driving force.

Rotary pulsating acoustic device CAA), which is an integrated hydro-mechanical and acoustic treatment of petroleum products (see Fig. 1, 2), includes a housing 1 with an inlet 2 and outlet 3 nozzles. In the housing 1 with a gap thereto installed the stator 4 by means of elastic elements (blades, racks) 5. At the ends of the stators 4, facing away from the housing 1 side, placed coaxial cylinders 6, in which flow channels 7. On the shaft 8 has a rotor 9 with elastic blades 10 and hub 11. At the end of the disk rotor 9 posted by coaxial cylinders 12, in which flow channels 13. The rotor 9 with coaxial cylinders 12 and the stator 4 with their coaxial cylinders 6 are made of titanium or titanium alloys, because these materials on the spine and the vibration nodes of the rotor disc. The antinode is the place oscillations, the amplitude of the maximum, the site is a place oscillations, the amplitude of which is equal to zero. In Fig. 10, 11 item 14 - wall of the oscillating plane of the rotor disc 9, 15 - Wednesday, 16 - particles of the dispersed phase. 16 and 17 - various inclusions (gas, solid). In Fig. 10 - disk rotor 9 is fixed (no acoustic oscillations) of Fig. 11 disc rotor makes disk-radial oscillations of different shape, frequency, amplitude and intensity.

In Fig. 12 presents a diagram of the process of the distillation of topped crude oil in atmospheric and vacuum columns. POS. 18 supply topped crude, POS. 19 atmospheric column, POS. 20 vacuum column, POS. 21 processed in CAA stripped oil, POS. 22 rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus RPA, POS. 23 top selection of the gasoline fraction, POS. 24 selection of the kerosene fraction, POS. 25 selection of the diesel fraction, POS. 26 the selection of oil, POS. 27 selection of steam oil fractions, POS. 28 selection of tar, POS. 29 selection of distillate fractions, POS. 30 supply of water vapor.

The method is as follows. On line 18 of stripped oil enters the atmospheric column 19 through CAA (22). Through the inlet 2 of stripped oil or masua 9 and the side walls of the flow channels 13 of the rotor 9, rotating together with the hub 11 and the shaft 8, it moves in the radial direction from the axis of rotation of the shaft 8 to the periphery. By moving in this way, stripped oil or fuel oil consistently pass the stage of "rotor-stator", flowing through flow channels 7, made in coaxial cylinders 6 of the stator 5, and a flow channel 13, is made in coaxial cylinders 12 of the rotor 9. Here stripped oil or fuel oil is subjected to intensive hydro-mechanical effects by the above structural elements of the rotor 9 and the stator 5. In the radial gap between the fixed coaxial cylinders 6 of the stator 5 and the rotating coaxial cylinders 12 of the rotor 9 occurs the velocity gradient grad V, defined as the ratio of the difference between the linear speeds of the rotating side surface of the coaxial cylinder 12 of the rotor 9 and the non-rotating side surface of the coaxial cylinder 6 of the stator 5 on each stage of the "rotor-stator", attributed to the magnitude of the radial gap between the coaxial cylinder 12 of the rotor 9 and coaxial cylinder 6 of the stator 5 grad V = Vp- VWITH/ ; since VWITH= 0, grad V = Vp/ , where grad V - velocities, Vpand VWITH- speed rotation of the rotor and stator of aoteaora min-1, D is the diameter of the coaxial arrangement of the cylinder rotor. The minimum diameter of a coaxial cylinder of the rotor is equal to 90 mm, the maximum diameter of the coaxial cylinder of the rotor is equal to 350 mm, the maximum lateral clearance between coaxial cylinders of the rotor and stator is equal to 1.0 mm, the minimum clearance is 0.05 mm, the Minimum rotor speed of 1000 rpm (16,666 Rev/sec), the maximum frequency of rotation of the rotor 12500 rpm (208,33 Rev/sec), from here:

grad Vmin= 1000 90/601 = 4,7 103s-1< / BR>
grad Vmax= 12500 350/60 0,05 = 1,3 107s-1< / BR>
Along with the high values of the velocity gradient in the radial gap between rotor and stator in the device takes place over a topped crude or fuel oil at high values of turbulence , which creates favorable conditions for intensive mixing. Along with this flowing stripped oil or fuel oil is a high-intensity acoustic effects from the rotating rotor 9, its plane and the stator 5. This acoustic effect occurs in the disk-radial oscillations of the disk rotor 9, which through the stripped oil is transferred to the stator 5, which, due to the fact that it is installed in the housing 1 on the work on defining these oscillations, method was chosen laser interferometry, which allowed to determine how the ranges of the rotor disk 9. In Fig. 3 - 8 presents some pictures taken with the laser interferogram. In this case, the frequency range is limited to a resolution of the photographic material (a special laser holographic plates). Along with these studies, measurements of frequency f and intensity J-vibrations emitted rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus. The measurement was conducted by a sound level meter and an upper bound of 63 kHz was determined only by the bandwidth of this device. In Fig. 9 shows graphically the dependence of the intensity of acoustic radiation over a range of frequencies. This feature is integral, i.e., characterize the radiation intensity in the following frequency ranges 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31,5, 63 kHz. At frequencies from 1 kHz to 4 kHz, this intensity is in the range 10 - 100 kW/cm2. At frequencies of 8, 16 and 63 kHz this intensity is in the range of 1 kW/cm2at frequencies in the range of 31.5 kHz, the intensity of the acoustic radiation is in the range of 100 W/cm2. The intensity of the acoustic waves such orders can significantly change the dispersed structure is the work of obtaining and determining the mean diameter of the particles of the dispersed phase of the emulsion of the type oil - the water content of the dispersed phase is 25% identical to disperse composition of oil from the interfacial surface tension = 610-3- 110-2N/m, in particular dispersions of hydrophobic protected color component manifestations that are used in chinafotopress. Were obtained dispersion with an average diameter (and this value corresponded to more than 90% of all particles) d= 0.1 to 0.03 micrometers.

This change leads to a decrease in the size (diameter) of the particles of the dispersed phase of oil or fuel oil, breaks bonds in macromolecules, etc. etc. This leads, firstly, to increase the number of particles of the dispersed phase, and secondly, to increase the total surface of these castnets, thirdly, to change the energy potential of these particles, etc., I.e., leads to a change of supramolecular structures and the surrounding interfacial layers, is the active state of the topped crude or fuel oil, characterized by increased output of oil fractions for further processing (distillation). Table 1 shows the acoustic quality of construction materials. From this table it is seen that the acoustic quality of titanium alloys in two or more times higher than the acoustic dobrotnoy of titanium alloys. Processed in the apparatus of stripped oil or fuel oil, moving in the radial direction, is subjected to intensive hydro-mechanical and acoustic effects, and acoustic shocks in a highly efficient mechanical stirring. This helps to ensure a high uniformity of the processed oil or fuel oil. Thus, all the time stir, moving with a high degree of turbulence stripped oil or fuel oil from between the rotating and oscillating rotor 9 (see Fig. 3 - 8) and oscillating stator 5, is subjected to intense acoustic effects. Schematically, this is shown in Fig. 11. In Fig. 10 shows the structure of the dispersed environment, when necroplasma the rotor (stator) wall of the rotor (stator) is stationary, in the dispersion medium 15 are the particles of the dispersed phase 16 and various inclusions 17 (gases, solids). Disk-radial oscillations of the plane of the disk rotor 9 and the stator 5 (see Fig. 11) give rise to acoustic waves in dispersive system 15, and the particles of the dispersed phase 16 (provided that the intensity of the acoustic radiation at least equal to the threshold value at which the particle phase 16 start Defoe is Atisa, pulse with the frequency of the disturbing force (i.e., the oscillation frequency of the planes of the disk rotor 9 and the stator 5). The destruction of the dispersed phase particles 16 (dispersion) can occur as a result of the fatigue of their destruction, and because of the considerable increase of the radiation intensity over the strength of the particles of the dispersed phase. Fatigue failure is caused by alternating loads acting on the phase of the frequency emitted by the rotor 9 and the stator 5 of the rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus. These alternating loads lead to pulsations of the dispersed phase particles 16. When this pulse deformation (see Fig. 11) on the surface of the particles of the dispersed phase 16 defects occur, which lead eventually to the destruction of this particle. If the intensity of the acoustic radiation greatly exceeds the strength of the particles of the dispersed phase, the fracture occurs, apparently, just at the moment when the dispersed particle 16 reaches this acoustic field. In Fig. 11 shows that under the action of the acoustic field, the particles of the dispersed phase 16 are deformed (plushevaya in the area of low pressure) and is drawn into the zone of high pressure. These deformation when stretched plot clusener parts of this particle starts to work on its destruction, the process of dispersing the particles of the dispersed phase. Thus there are at least three reasons for the destruction of the dispersed phase albesiano oil or fuel oil: fatigue, fracture at the expense of considerable increase of the intensity of the acoustic field on the strength of the particles of the dispersed phase, due to the supercritical refinement of individual parts of these particles. Thus processed in the apparatus of stripped oil or fuel oil with a significantly modified dispersed structure, supramolecular structures and the surrounding interfacial layers in the active state, with a modified energy potential through the outlet 3 is supplied into the main supply to the atmospheric column (POS. 19) or vacuum (Ref. 20) column, where the process of distillation of topped crude or fuel oil. From CAA through tube furnace (Fig. not shown) with a temperature of 330oC stripped oil gets into the main atmospheric column (POS. 19), where the evaporation and distillation vapor emitting residue of gasoline, kerosene and diesel fractions. The remainder of atmospheric processing oil is oil, which is output from the bottom of the atmospheric column and after heating in a tubular Pei is carried out at a residual pressure of 40 mm RT. Art., to reduce the temperature of the bottom and facilitate evaporation of tar light components in the bottom of the column injected water vapor. The remainder of the vacuum columns - tar (a fraction above 500oC) after cooling is pumped from the installation. In tables 2, 3, 4, presents the results of a pickup topped crude and fuel oil.

Table 2 - output oil distillate fractions in the distillation of stripped oil after processing BAA before entering the atmospheric column.

Example 1 - (distillation of topped crude prototype) the results of the distillation stripped to 200oC oil without processing it on RPA.

Example 2 - results of distillation stripped to 200oC oil after processing in CAA, as stated above (see S. 5 - 7), before entering into the main atmospheric column at a temperature of 330oC with a rotor speed of RPAA 990 rpm, the velocity gradient grad V = 4,510 with-1the intensity of acoustic radiation J < 102W/cm2when the radiation frequency f < 0,01 kHz.

Example 3 - same as example 2, but with the frequency of rotation of the rotor, RPA 1000 rpm, grad V = 4,710 c-1, J = 102W/cm2when the acoustic frequency f= 0.01 kHz.

Example 4 - processing in RPA, to the acoustic frequency f = 8 kHz.

Example 5 - treatment in CAA, as stated above (see C. 5 to 7), when the rotor speed of 10,000 rpm, grad V = 8,710 with-1, J = 104W/cm2when the acoustic frequency f = 16 kHz.

Example 6 - treatment in CAA, as stated above (see C. 5 to 7), when the rotational speed of the rotor 12500 rpm, grad V = 1,0107with-1, J = 105W/cm2when the frequency of the acoustic field in RPA f = 63 kHz.

Table 3 - output oil distillate fractions in the distillation atbusiness oil after processing of oil on CAA before entering it into the vacuum column,

Example 7 is the result of distillation stripped to 200oC oil without processing it on RPA (as in example 1).

Example 8 - the results of the distillation stripped to 200oC oil after processing oil (fraction 350oC) at a temperature of 375oC before entry into the vacuum column in RPA. The parameters RPAA the same as in example 2.

Example 9 - parameters CAA are the same as in example 3.

Example 10 - parameters CAA are the same as in example 4.

Example 11 - parameters CAA are the same as in example 5.

Example 12 - parameters CAA are the same as in example 6.

Table 4 - material balance ="ptx2">

Example 13 is the result of distillation stripped to 200oC oil without processing it in RPA.

Example 14 - the results of the distillation stripped to 200oC oil, the parameters CAA are the same as in example 2, after processing IN CAA before entering in the atmospheric column at a temperature of 330oC and before entering the vacuum column at a temperature of 375oC. Parameters CAA are the same as in example 2.

Example 15 - parameters VPAA are the same as in example 3.

Example 16 - parameters CAA are the same as in example 4.

Example 17 - parameters CAA are the same as in example 5.

Example 18 - parameters CAA are the same as in example 6.

The upper limit of the declared parameters (grad V, the speed, the intensity of the acoustic radiation J, its frequency f is determined by the maximum capabilities of RPA.

As seen from the above examples, justify topped crude, processed in RPA, allows to increase the absolute selection of the petroleum distillate fractions 4.6 - 12.8 wt.% in the calculation of the recovered oil.

When processing oil before atmospheric column selection oil distillate fractions was 49,5 mA light distillates (up to 350oC - 26,4 wt.%) compared with 15.3 wt.% for crude oil, the total output of vacuum distillates increases to 1.1 wt.%. Draws attention to the fact that the increase is due to most light vacuum fractions (350 - 400oC) the exit heavier fractions (above 400oC) decreases slightly (see table. 2).

In examples where the atmospheric distillation was produced without processing in RPA, and vacuum processing in RPA, increasing selection of vacuum parts 4.6 wt.% compared with the prototype (see table. 3).

When processing topped crude in RPA and before atmospheric and before the vacuum columns, the total increase in the output of petroleum distillate fractions amounted to 12.8 wt.%.

The increase in the output of petroleum distillate fractions in the treatment of stripped oil in RPA is a consequence of the intensification of mass transfer as a result of exposure during the processing of the dispersed structure of oil.

The comparison of obtained results the pickup is not processed in RPA and processed stripped oil gives the basis to use the proposed technical solution in the distillation of petroleum to increase the selection of oil distillation tepereshnij columns, characterized in that obedinennyy oil and/or oil before serving in the atmospheric or vacuum columns, respectively, are subjected to a complex hydro-mechanical and acoustic treatment in the rotary pulsating acoustic apparatus in the range of velocity gradients in the gap between the rotor and stator qrad V = 4,7103- 1,3107c-1when the rotor speed of 1000 12500 rpm, acoustic field intensity J = 102- 105W/cm2in the frequency range of 0.01 - 63,0 kHz generated by the disk-oscillating fan rotor and stator.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to processes for distillation of petroleum products in vacuum column

The invention relates to a method of producing oil from oil with different sulfur content

The invention relates to the refining, specifically to receive diesel fuel

The invention relates to the production of diesel fuel from crude oils with different sulfur content

The invention relates to the distillation of the oil in the oil refining process

The invention relates to the processing of residual oil with getting fuel boiler directly on the vacuum distillation

The invention relates to the refining

The invention relates to the processing of gas condensate by distillation and can be used in the gas industry

The invention relates to chemical engineering and can be used for distillation in vacuum fuel oil to obtain a vacuum gas oil

The invention relates to the field of petrochemicals, primarily to installations for distillation of petroleum products in vacuum distillation columns

The invention relates to processes for distillation of petroleum products in vacuum column

The invention relates to a method for production of light oil products - gasoline, kerosene and diesel fractions - processing of low-sulphur, sulphur and high-sulphur crude oil and can be used in the petrochemical industry

The invention relates to a method of producing oil from oil with different sulfur content

The invention relates to a method of producing oil from oil with different sulfur content

The invention relates to methods of producing oil from oil with different sulfur content

The invention relates to the refining, specifically to receive diesel fuel

The invention relates to the refining, specifically to receive diesel fuel

The invention relates to a method of allocating arenes C8mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons, in particular of the xylene fraction catalyzate reforming azeotropic distillation with butanol-2

The invention relates to the refining and, specifically, to obtain jet fuel
Up!