Heater with an intermediate heat transfer fluids
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of electrical and heating equipment and can be used in various electrical heat exchangers and heating devices. The technical effect is to increase the effectiveness of heat removal from the surface of the heating element to the inner surface of the housing, which reduces the dimensions and material of the device. Heater with intermediate heat carrier consists of a sealed enclosure filled the bottom of the first (lower) intermediate heat carrier, for example a dielectric fluid type PFT-100, which placed an electric heating element. The upper part of the sealed enclosure filled with a second (upper) heat carrier, for example a dielectric silicone fluid type 115-262. The housing has an external vertical fins and a relief valve excess pressure. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of electrical and heating equipment and can be used in various electrical heat exchangers and heating devices.Well-known household electrical heater, to the authorities of the government (the heater was ACPS-1,25/220 "Tolna"-P, GOST 16617-87).The disadvantage of such designs is the large weight indicators, low electrophoretically, ecologicaly (oxygen combustion).The closest technical solution is the heater with intermediate heat carrier liquid containing a sealed casing of heat conducting material filled with an intermediate fluid (mineral oil), in a volume which is a nichrome heating element (electroreceptor "thermo-2" type AMPB(and), BFRI 680041.004 OM).The disadvantage of this device is that the heat flow from the heating element to the liquid coolant is transferred by natural convection with low heat transfer coefficient (to~300 W/m2C). The latter limits the heat flux density on the surface of the heating element, the current density in it and, consequently, increases its size and the consumption of expensive materials (e.g., nichrome). In addition, for the same reason, on the border of the heat-transfer fluid / internal surface of the housing is a large temperature difference. This leads to a decrease in temperature per the spine of the case for removal of a given power.The technical effect is to increase the effectiveness of heat removal from the surface of the heating element to the inner surface of the housing, which reduces the dimensions and material of the device.This objective is achieved in that the heater with an intermediate heat transfer fluids containing a sealed enclosure with an electrically heating element has an external vertical fins of the housing and the housing is filled with two immiscible liquid coolants, located one above another. Electric heating element located in the lower volume of intermediate heat carrier. The boiling point of the upper intermediate heat transfer medium is not less than 20 - 30oC above, and the density to 50 - 70% lower than that of the lower intermediate heat carrier. The ratio of the areas of the inner surface of the sealed enclosure and external finned surface is:
SEXT= (15 - 20)Sint< / BR>The invention is illustrated in the drawing.Heater with intermediate heat carrier consists of a sealed housing 1 filled from the bottom first (lower) intermediate heat carrier 2, for example a dielectric fluid type PFT-100, TB(top) coolant 4, for example, dielectric silicone fluid type 115-262. The housing has an external vertical fins 5 and the safety valve overpressure 6. The lower part of the housing, in which is placed an electric heater 3, the filled first (lower) intermediate heat carrier 2 with a lower boiling point and higher density (for example, dielectric type PFT-100 C boiling temperature Ts= 129oC density = 1710 kg/cm3. The top case is filled with a second (upper) intermediate carrier 4, for example of silicone dielectric type 115-262, with density = 960 kg/m3and the boiling temperature Ts= 180 - 200oC) with a boiling point of not less than 20 - 30% greater and a density of 30 - 50% less than the first fluid. Both these fluids are chemically inert with respect to each other and are not hygroscopic. Considering the fact that the coefficient of heat transfer from the external finned surface 5 to the ambient air is 15 - 25 W/m2oC, and from silicone fluids to the inner surface of the housing 1 due to turbulence in the liquid rising vapor bubbles from boiling in working condition first (bottom) liquid 2 ascending the - 15 - 30oC the ratio of the areas of the internal Swewfin 5 and the external SEXTsurfaces of the housing 1 is
SEXT= (15 - 20)Sint< / BR>Heater with intermediate heat carrier works as follows. When switching on the electric heating element 3 is allocated thermal capacity of the Peand on its surface begins to boil first intermediate carrier 2 (dielectric liquid PFT-100). The majority of the power Pespent on evaporation. Thus the heat transfer coefficient from the surface of the heating element 3 isKip= 3000 - 4000 W/m2oC that allows this item is very compact and nisamerica.com. A pair of first fluid 2 climb, get into the volume nickipedia second carrier 4. Part of the vapor autocontinuity in the volume of the second fluid 4, the part on the inner surface of the casing I. the Condensate due to the greater density returns to the volume of the first fluid 2. Heat from the heated second fluid 4 due to the phenomenon of turbulence in the near wall space rising vapor bubbles is transferred to the wall of the housing Ito~500 - 600 W/m2oSEXT= (15 - 20)Sint< / BR>When given power, achieved through the intensification of the heat transfer processes inside the I temperature of its outer surface increases. Therefore, for a given power allocation in the surrounding area less area required external finned surface SEXT. The basis of the sealed enclosure are two stamped metal halves that are connected in the lower and upper parts by means of welding (6). Therefore, when the heating and expansion of the fluid volume of the body I may increase due to some elastic "bloat". Unlike mineral oil, silicone fluids have a lower coefficient of volume expansion that also reduces pressure inside the case.Compared with the known solutions proposed allows for increasing the efficiency of heat removal from the surface of the heating element to the inner surface of the housing to reduce the dimensions and material of the heater. 1. Naked is Eminem, characterized in that the housing has an external vertical fins and filled with two immiscible liquid coolants, located one above another, and the electrical heating element is located in the volume of the lower intermediate heat carrier, with intermediate fluids must be chemically inert with respect to each other and the lower fluid has a lower boiling point and higher density compared to the top.2. Heater with an intermediate heat transfer fluids under item 1, characterized in that the boiling point of the upper intermediate heat transfer medium is not less than 20 - 30oC above, and the density of 30 - 50% lower than that of the lower intermediate heat carrier.3. Heater with an intermediate heat transfer fluids under item 1, characterized in that the ratio of the areas of the inner surface of the sealed enclosure and external finned surface is SEXT= (15 - 20) Sint.
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator of gas heaters, possibly used for constructing Cowper and ohmic gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: heater includes heat accumulating adapter arranged in housing with gas-tight cylindrical outer surface and electric current supply leads of resistive heating member. Heat accumulating member of adapter is zigzag-shaped and it is made of thin strip of sheet material; said member has vertically arranged lamellae mutually spaced by the same distance and placed along axis of heater. Ends of said strip are connected to electric current leads. Annular mutually joined flanges are arranged on ends of adapter. The last has rods arranged between flanges on cylindrical surface; said rods are electrically isolated from flanges and they serve as supports for lamellae of heat accumulating member. Each flange of adapter has three parts (upper ring-half and two lower ring quadrants). There are gaps between parts of rings and casing for providing displacement of ring parts one relative to other and relative to casing by value of length change of lamellae of heat accumulating member at heating and cooling them.
EFFECT: enlarged using range of hot-blast heater due to its simplified design and lowered hydraulic resistance.
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator type gas heaters, possibly used at developing hot blast gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: gas heater includes cylindrical heat accumulating adapter sealed in housing near end of gas outlet. Novelty is that heater includes rod arranged along axis of heat accumulating adapter, supporting grid and cylindrical gas-tight casing. Heat accumulating member of adapter is made of thin corrugated strip whose one end is secured to rod. Corrugated strip is twisted around rod in the form of compact coil arranged together with supporting grid in casing. Height of strip corrugation is equal to thickness of strip.
EFFECT: improved design of heater due to its lowered hydraulic resistance.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat exchange devices used for heat or cold transfer in the processes using liquid or gas flows, and can be used in heating and ventilation systems, in chemical, food and other industries. Heat exchange method in gaseous and liquid media consists in transfer of heat or warm liquid (gas) from upper layers of medium to lower ones by means of capsules consisting of cover with heat insulation in which there is tank filled with heat-absorbing material or liquid (gas) and flotation chambers with movable partition brought into operation with temperature drive in the form of bi-material. Capsules are retained on bottom till heat transfer is completed owing to magnet or thermomagnetic material installed in capsule, and electric magnet installed in lower layers; at that, current for electric magnet is generated when capsule with magnet passes along current-conducting spiral located along capsule movement.
EFFECT: proposed invention will allow, by using internal heat, performing heat exchange between upper and lower layers of liquid (gas), as well as producing electric power.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for water heating and can be used in power engineering. Device includes boiler, expansion tank, heat exchanger, hydraulic air heat exchanger, pipelines, including pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to the bottom of expansion tank, safety valves, capacity and tank. Boiler, tank, expansion tank and pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank have common longitudinal axis in vertical plane, heat exchanger and capacity are coaxial, and their axis is parallel to axes of tank, pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank and expansion tank; at that, heat exchanger is connected through the cock to pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank; in space between boiler internal walls and external walls there located are heat energy sources and heat-accumulating matters.
EFFECT: invention provides use of heat of phase transition of heat-accumulating matter.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger includes casing with through openings on its opposite sides, phase transient working medium and heat carrier. Phase transient working medium is made in the form of frameless heat exchange elements from form-stable composite heat accumulating material, which are fixed inside casing with possibility of their being freely streamlined with heat carrier. In order to improve heat carrier to the space between adjacent heat exchange elements, elastic corrugated metal ribbed plates are installed. When using the heat exchanger as electric heating device, electric heaters are added to its composition.
EFFECT: improving mass and dimensions parameters of heat exchange devices at simultaneous increase of their power capacity, simplifying the design, increasing energy saving level and improving energy characteristics of the systems operating in peak actuation modes.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of power engineering, more specifically, to facilities for accumulation, storage and release or conversion of heat energy. The heat energy accumulator comprises at least one control element and a working body, providing for accumulation of thermal energy and capable of releasing thermal energy as a result of action of at least one control element. At the same time according to the invention, the working body represents amorphous particles of refractory material, providing for accumulation of thermal energy when in condition of metastable highly destabilised defect-saturated condensed phase and release of thermal energy during phase transition from the defect-saturated destabilised condensed condition into condition of crystalline order.
EFFECT: proposed accumulator has higher energy intensity in comparison with analogues available at the current level of engineering.
5 cl, 1 dwg