Autonomous system of electric lighting in the areas of decentralized energy supply
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to an Autonomous electrical lighting installations, or rather to the lamps for outdoor lighting, mounted on a support rack, designed to illuminate mainly of interest in the areas of decentralized energy supply. Autonomous system of electric lighting includes telescopic rod rack, made of transparent plastic in which every element along the entire length of the blackened half of its diameter, and the base and its upper part is made of an axisymmetric hole, lighting the lamp, an independent source of electrical energy is small vortex wind turbine, wind power and energy low-grade heat flows, the battery, the light sensor and the control unit of the lighting system. The technical result is to simplify the device and reduce financial costs. 2 Il. The invention relates to an Autonomous electrical lighting installations, or rather to the outdoor lighting fixtures mounted on the support rack and designed to illuminate mainly highways and decentralized areas of supply.So, famous for the installation of street lights powered by solar cells (see U.S. patent N 5367442, CL 21).Here is the setup for stand-alone lighting has a solar panel receiving solar energy, battery power and lamp. This lighting system is charged and works on the basis of the daily cycle of solar radiation. The main drawback of this setup: the high cost of solar panels and limited area of use for the Northern territories in connection with the small daily solar radiation (0-2 kWh/m2), especially in the winter. So as to ensure the daily cycle of light bulbs 90-watt for regions with the advent of daily radiation 2-4 kWh/m2requires 3 solar module total peak power of 90 watts and cost (with inverter) not less than 540 am. dollars.Closest to the technical essence of the present invention is a management System for street lighting powered by solar cells (see U.S. patent N 9620369, CL 21), which contains solar modules, rechargeable battery, light bulb, ambient light sensors, noise and movement, as well as digital logicheskie, consistent with natural solar outdoor lighting. The sensor noise, light and movement allow the system to determine the extent of use of the zone to be illuminated by the lamp. The logical system processes the sensor data and produces information about how long and how intense the illumination should be provided in the illuminated area.However, this analogue is only for highways, has a high cost and difficulty in manufacturing, in addition, the efficiency of this system depends on the solar potential of its use, which limits the practical application.The task of the invention is the creation of a fully Autonomous and automated lighting system of highways and areas of decentralized energy supply in any climatic zone.The solution to this problem is provided by the achievement of the result, consisting in the application of technology that uses more than a simple constructive energy solution with minimum cost.The above technical result is achieved due to the fact that the Autonomous lighting the lamp, the light sensor and the control unit of the lighting system. An independent source of electrical energy is made in the form of the vortex wind energy plant using low-grade horizontal wind energy and thermal energy upward flow of air, is installed in the upper part of the telescopic leg-stand, made of transparent (translucent) plastic which every element along the entire length of the blackened half of its diameter, and at its base and in the upper part is made of an axisymmetric hole, and electrically connected to the control unit of the lighting system containing a light sensor, and control the use of electrical energy depending on the level of natural outdoor lighting.The invention is based on the use of "Vortex wind power installation, in which the rotating element is only the rotor of the generator, and the vortex generator, which converts the wind flow in a whirling swirling flows, uses low-grade horizontal and ascending air currents (see RF patent N 2073111 and N 2093702, CL 03). The control unit is made on the basis of the widely distr is toyka, this sets the Autonomous system of electric lighting made from transparent (translucent) plastic, structurally-telescopic, each element of which along the entire length of the blackened half of the diameter, and the base and in the upper part of the supporting rack is made axisymmetric hole.Above production of self-contained lighting system due to the fact that the low-speed and high-sensitivity vortex unit regardless of the time of year and weather conditions are constantly provided with Autonomous power source - air flow (wind, thermal updraft). In addition, the vortex wind turbine installed at the lamp-post rack height 8 m, uses several additional natural sources of energy (see Marcus T. A., Morris, E. N. "Buildings, climate, energy, Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1985):
- "the greenhouse effect" (the effect of the exhaust pipe or chimney) - occurs when warm air gets into the high cylindrical pipe. This air naturally rises, there is a strong pull in the bottom of the tube (in the axisymmetric hole sucked the surrounding air, and if it heats up, the process goes on continuously. This may be a greenhouse, the waste heat of power plants, etc., (see W. "Science and life", 1981, N 1, W. "Bildder vissechaft", 1982, N 2; W. "Energy: Economics, technology, ecology, 1991, N 6).- "wind pressure" (natural ventilation) occurs in the exhaust pipe due to the pressure difference between the outside air (air) and the air inside the pipe support-strut), and the pressure inside the pipe and the speed of the external wind flow connected by the relation:
and the flow rate of the air flow through a pipe is defined as:
GRR=EAVRRm3/swhereinthe density of air, kg/m3,
Vin- wind speed, m/s,
But - sectional area of the pipe, m3,
- "the temperature difference between the gravitational pressure. It is well known that the warm air upwards, the formation of convective flows, which are successfully used in aerodynamics. Warm air rises because it has a density of less than cold, and the change in air density is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. The air density at 0oC (273 K) is equal to 1,293 kg/m3. Hence 1 m3air at 273 K has a mass 1,293 kg But since the density of air proportional number of times, equal to the ratio of temperatures, i.e., m = 1,293 273/T, kg If the height of the pipe support-strut) H, the weight of the column of air with temperature T1equal to m1) =(1,293273/T1)H, kg, and since pressure is force per unit area, the pressure of this air column:
P1=9,81(1,293273/T)H, PA.For outdoor air temperature T0:
hence the pressure difference between the air inside and outside the pipe support-strut):
< / BR>or
p =0.043 H(t1-t0),PA.The calculation of efficiency of use of these additional sources of energy shows that their power when the total impact commensurate with the power of the wind flow at speeds of 4 to 7 m/s, which corresponds to a specific energy performance of more than 80 kWh/m2(see W. "Renewable energy", 1998, No. 4).Execution logic control unit with relay elements "Yes-no" greatly simplifies the automation system lighting that is economically feasible when its mass use.The implementation of the telescopic leg-stand can be made of modern plastic materials (such as fiberglass). These bearings can withstand viserny the bearing halves are axially symmetric holes for use ascending heat flows. Bearing-front along the entire length of half its diameter blackened material with the highest possible absorption coefficient (for example: carbon black =0,96, lacquer black, matte C =0,97, etc.,) for a more complete conversion of the radiant flux (solar energy) into heat, which heats the air entering the inside of the supporting rack through the holes in its base.The essence of the invention is illustrated in Fig. 1 and 2.Autonomous lighting system zones decentralized energy supply consists of a telescopic supporting column 1 located in the base 2 and top 3 axisymmetric holes, illuminating lamp 4, the light sensor 5, a standalone power source 6 and the control unit of the lighting system with rechargeable battery 8.'s Autonomous system lighting zones decentralized energy supply as follows.A source of electrical energy is swirling wind power installation, which uses the energy of air flow (wind flow) and upward heat flow. For the implementation of the nominal mode of operation of the vortex wind turbine sufficient wind flow with IC who by the time of the year.Thus, when exposed to the flow of wind speeds greater than 3 m/s, the vortex wind turbine 6 begins to generate electrical energy that is supplied to the control unit 7, and performs charging of the battery 8.In the absence of wind flow required power source of energy can be heat fluxes, for which there is sufficient sunlight or any other heat source. In this case, solar radiation (heat source heats the air inside of the supporting rack 1. To intensify this process, one half of the diameter of the supporting rack 1 is made transparent, and the other blacked out. Warm air rises inside the supporting column 1, in the pipe (support-rack) there is a strong pull and axisymmetric holes 2 in the base-rack 1 sucked ambient air is heated again and so on. Thus there is a fairly complicated physical process, which is based on the "greenhouse effect", "wind pressure" and "temperature difference of - gravitational pressure." The upward heat flux enters the vortex wind turbine 6, additionally sucking her outside air through an axisymmetric hole 2 in the control unit 7, and performs charging of the battery 8.Depending on the time of day (day, night) and natural light (fog, big clouds, dust storm, and so on) on the command of the light sensor (photocell) 5 electrical energy for lighting the lamp 4.Thus, Autonomous lighting system zones decentralized energy supply, using low-grade air flow, while allowing you to maximize the amount of accumulated and used energy through a flexible algorithm of its expenditures, taking into account the time of day and year, the level of natural light on the ground.The invention can be used in lighting devices, in particular in lighting, outdoor lighting fixtures, mostly forested areas, streets, railway crossings, entrances of residential buildings, ground and roads in non-electrified areas.The estimated cost of the self-contained power source on the basis of the vortex wind power installation in the present invention will be 3-4 times less than the cost of solar panels with a wider scope in different climatic zones and similar reliability and service life.
FIELD: wind power engineering; wind electric generators.
SUBSTANCE: proposed stator of wind electric generator contains magnetic circuits, excitation system, bracing members and winding. According to invention, stator is made in form of two pairs of U-shaped magnetic circuits. Upper pair is pointed with bridges downwards. Excitation system is installed between adjacent points. Lower pair is pointed with bridges up-wards and is enclosed by coil located between adjacent posts.
EFFECT: reduced mass and overall dimensions of generator at minimization of its cost.
FIELD: electrical and power engineering; off-line and power-grid wind power stations.
SUBSTANCE: windmill-electric generating plant has support, shaft mounting rotor-type windmill, electric generator, and power pick-off device; novelty is that proposed plant is provided in addition with one more windmill disposed on first windmill shaft and coupled with external rotor of electric generator whose internal rotor is coupled with first windmill; both internal and external rotors are attached to first and second windmills, respectively, by means of their respective rings fixed to them.
EFFECT: enhanced relative peripheral speed of generator and, hence, enhanced efficiency of plant.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed air trap relates to alternative power supply sources, namely, to wind power engineering and it can be used as supply sources for small settlements, farms, geological stations, parties, etc. Air trap includes air intake and wind electric generators. Air intake is made in form of conical pipe with wind vane to entrap air masses fitted on. Air intake proper is secured on platform mounted on rotary bed frame. Each generator is furnished with adjustable brackets in base.
EFFECT: provision of multipurpose accessible wind plant with more complete utilization of wind energy, increased efficiency of plant and simplified design.
FIELD: wind power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wind power generator has magnetic field source, operating coils, magnetic circuits and rotary elements - segments installed on wind wheels. According to invention, magnetic circuits are made in form of two E-shaped plates arranged in two parallel planes and in form of two L-shaped plates arranged square to E-shaped plates. Each L-shaped plate is secured to one of side posts of E-shaped plate.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics owing to use both of low velocity and high velocity winds.
FIELD: wind power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used I self-contained power supply systems employing renewable types of energy, and also to supply submersible electric pumps and other power consumers. Proposed wind-driven electric plant contains differential gear train, windmill, windmill shaft speed sensor, dc machine, voltage inverter, storage battery, field regulator, field switch unit and electric load. Electric load is connected to voltage inverter which is connected with dc machine driven by windmill. Storage battery serves as energy accumulator. At wind blowing, dc machine generates energy which is supplied to electric load through voltage inverter, and simultaneously storage battery is being charged. At weak or no wind, field switch unit precludes discharge of storage battery through field winding of dc machine.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities of plant, increased efficiency, improved reliability and quality of electric energy.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wind heat power generator comprises water heat accumulator, wind motor made of a propeller mounted on the shaft mounted in rotating reduction gear set in the bearing unit and having coaxially mounted shafts rotating oppositely. One of the conical pinions of the propeller shaft engages two same conical pinions provided with oppositely mounted teeth. Each conical pinion is mounted on the individual coaxial vertical shaft.
EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced reliability.