Hydroelectric

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the construction of hydropower and is intended to generate electricity using the flow of the river. At the bottom of the river laid indoor bypass channel reported discharge hole river. The channel is connected with the vertical pressure tank in the upper part of which is made from the discharge hole located below the upper end of the closed bypass channel. From the discharge hole of the water tank by conduit acts on the turbine blades and then through the suction pipe is discharged into the river. The invention expands the Arsenal of technical means to generate electricity. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the construction of hydroelectric power plants and is intended to generate electricity using the flow of the river.

Known low-pressure hydroelectric containing national dam submersible waterworks collected from individual blocks using the space above the turbines as conduits of bulls covered the top and bottom plates and see.with. USSR N 135028, 1959/.

Closest to the invention is a plant in which the roll is acronyme transverse pipes, the water which falls on the turbine /see "Journal of Technology youth" N 8, page 6, 1995/.

However, these hydroelectric power plants have disadvantages, which include the necessity of blocking the river dam and little power due to the flow of the river.

The purpose of the invention is to simplify the construction, increase the power.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the closed bypass channel is placed on the bottom of the river, the upper part of which is used for water abstraction, and the lower part are connected with a pressure tank in the form of a vertical tank with a hole located below the level of the upper part of the channel and the hole are connected by a conduit to the turbine.

Hydroelectric power plant shown in the drawing and include the bypass channel 1 input port 2, the pressure tank 3, the discharge hole 4, the conduit 5, a turbine 6, the suction pipe 7, the engine room 8.

Hydroelectric works in the following way. Water through the inlet opening 2 closed by-pass channel 1 fills the pressure tank 3, and then through the discharge hole 4 through the conduit 5 hits on the turbine blades 6 and the suction pipe 7 is discharged into the river.

The proposed power is causa indoor bypass channel, communicated with river discharge hole, and a turbine, characterized in that the closed bypass channel communicated with the lower part of the vertical pressure tank, and in the upper part of the tank is made of pressure the hole above the water line to the turbine, located below the upper end of the closed bypass channel.

 

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FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.

SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.

EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.

14 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed for preventing getting of young fish into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield made in form of hollow guides arranged in tiers across water channels in depth with displacement of each upper tier towards diversion channel. It contains also perforated air duct located on bottom of water channel directly before said shield and train-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of channel in parallel with air duct and connected with outlet and device to let out young fish arranged in height of fish retaining shield. Guides of U-shaped are installed at angle to current of intake channel, their planes are perforated and open end part is pointed to bottom of water channel. Young fish let out device is made in form of perforated shields installed side guides for vertical displacement by drive in height of fish retaining shield relative to additional guides made from side of bank edges of intake channel. Perforation holes of shields and u-shaped guides do not coincide in light.

EFFECT: possibility of retaining and bringing young fish out of limits of influence of diversion facility.

8 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in channel and made in form of perforated pipelines arranged in horizontal tiers along entire depth of channel and connected with source of working medium, perforated air duct placed on bottom of channel directly before shield and trash-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of shield parallel to perforated pipeline and air duct which is connected with fish outlet. Perforated pipelines are furnished with ejectors and fish gathering troughs. Ejectors are connected with pressure line of pump and are placed inside perforated pipelines and in communication with fish gathering troughs through perforation holes made in horizontal plane along both sides of pipelines, fish gathering troughs being rigidly fastened opposite to perforation holes. Inner space of fish gathering troughs is provided with longitudinal horizontal partitions dividing the troughs into separate fish intake parts. Surfaces of fish gathering troughs pointed to surface and to bottom of water channel are made perforated. Cross partitions found inside separate fish intake parts form fish intake channels. Initial part of fish outlet is made with fish intake pocket over entire depth of water channel. End face parts of perforated pipelines pointed to side of fish outlet communicate with inner space of pocket.

EFFECT: provision of retaining and removing of young fish over entire depth of water channel.

3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in water channel in tiers in depth of water channel with displacement of each higher tier to side of water intake channel, perforated air duct made in form of guides installed across water channel before shield on bottom of water channel, and trash-and-fish trough connected with fish outlet and arranged in upper part of shield parallel to air duct. Guides are made in form of flat plates rigidly installed at angle to flow in intake channel. Each plate is provided with horizontal axle in its upper part on which additional plate is secured from side of water intake channel for turning. Lower end face end of additional plate is provided with radial baffle whose surface has perforation holes. End face part of additional plates is provided with sector stopper from side of fish outlet, horizontal axles of plates being connected with drive. Additional plates can be perforated.

EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.

3 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering; fish protective facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to draw off young fish from zone of influence of water diversion front. Method comes to ejecting young fish into intake part of ejecting plant from section of pond with higher concentration of young fish, creating active ejecting working stream in mixing chamber by entraining volume of water containing young fish into stream created by central ejecting hydraulic jet and further conveyance of water-fish mixture along pressure conduit into fish outlet. At the last stage of conveyance young fish is transported into fish outlet under no pressure conditions by forming hydraulic jet angle to trough of fish outlet, young fish being dropped on surface of fish outlet stream. Invention provides effective conditions for drawing off young fish into fish outlet and reduces damage to young fish. If working ejecting stream is preliminarily saturated with atmospheric air, its outer borders are saturated with air in form of finest microbubbles which form boundary layer ("air cushion") at contact with which young fish do not suffer from discomfort and easily take up hydrodynamic pressure built in mixing chamber. Moreover, provision of boundary layer saturated with microbubbles of air makes it possible to considerably reduce value of friction coupling of two streams, main getting from working nozzle and ejecting, containing young fish.

EFFECT: provision of good conditions for letting out young fish into fish outlet, reduced damage of young fish.

7 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices protecting young fish and preventing their getting into diversion facility. Proposed fish protective facility includes filtering water-separating dam made in form of vertical water-separating wall arranged along water intake channel and separating inlet part of channel from water conduit, device for preliminary drawing off young fish made in form of vertical rod installed for rotation by drive arranged before water-separating wall from its end face part pointed opposite to water flow. Rod is displaced relative to water-separating wall towards water intake channel. Device for preliminary drawing off young fish is furnished with additional means to increase fish draw-off effect, said means being made in from of flat round disks rigidly secured in height of rod coaxially with rod. Disks are installed parallel to each other forming slot water intake channels. End face part of water-separating wall adjoining the rod is provided with slots located opposite to planes of arrangement of disks. Disks are installed for free passing relative to slots. Invention provides higher efficiency of drawing off young fish out limits of zone of influence of diversion facility owing to provision of disks considerably increasing area of contact with surrounding medium and creating powerful circulation flow providing diversion of young fish and trash entrained by water behind outer surface of dam.

EFFECT: provision of effective conditions for drawing off young fish out of limits of zone of influence of diversion facility.

15 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.

24 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, particularly for building water-retaining structures to provide power supply to small settlements and farms.

SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron assembly consisted of flexible floor apron and flexible downstream apron in watercourse; securing thereof to watercourse bottom by anchors. Water outlet assembly including hydroelectric generator arranged inside it is secured to floor apron and downstream apron by rigid ties. Connected to water outlet assembly by ties are water retaining shell and rope system secured to anchor poles located on watercourse bank.

EFFECT: reduced time of structure assembling and costs for electric power generation.

2 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.

SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.

EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.

27 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.

EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.

7 cl, 8 dwg

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