(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention is intended for impregnation of wood, fabrics and products from them to reduce their Flammability, and also as a preservative cellulose products and can be used in civil and industrial construction, repair work, for impregnation of technical fabrics and fabrics for household purposes in the textile industry. The invention: the creation of a flame retardant-antiseptic-based fosforsodyerzhascikh connection with a broad spectrum of action, simple in composition, technology of preparation and use, environmentally safe, does not release toxic substances during the synthesis, the production of works for the impregnation and treatment of materials, as well as reducing the hazard class of thermooxidative decomposition (burning) of the treated material. Fire retardant-antiseptic made on the basis of fosforsodyerzhascikh connection. What is new is the composition of the reaction products of phosphorous acid and an aqueous solution of ammonia 3 - 25%, taken in a volumetric ratio of 1:1-7. table 2. The invention is intended for impregnation of wood, fabrics and products from them to reduce their Flammability, as well as in to the as, when repair work, for impregnation of technical fabrics and fabrics for household purposes in the textile industry.You know the joint application of flame retardant based on phosphorus compounds with urea-formaldehyde precondensation with bromine-containing flame retardants for mixed fabrics made of natural fibers. Making flame retardant properties of blended fabrics made of natural fibers (L. I. Tablescan and other proceedings of III all-Union conference "State and prospects of development of flame retardants", Cherkassy, 1985, S. 63).Also known composition for protecting wood against fire and biodegradation on the basis of organophosphorus flame retardants (RF patent N 2061589, class B 27 K 3/34, 1996, patent RF N 2119931, CL 09 D 5/18, 1998).Known flame using flame retardant composition of phosphoric acid, aqueous ammonia and urea (Fire protection of building structures. I., Romanenkov, F. A. Livanis, M.: stroiizdat, 1991, S. 320, Il.) the prototype.However, all of these flame retardants detect toxic properties not only in the process of decomposition during combustion, but also in the synthesis of flame retardants in the production of the work, which limits their practical application.The task is solved in that the flame retardant-antiseptic-based fosforsodyerzhascikh connection consists of the reaction products of phosphorous acid (H3PO3)and an aqueous solution of ammonia (NH3)253...25% taken in a volumetric ratio of 1:1...7.Physico-chemical characteristics are given in table 1.The proposed flame retardant receive mechanical mixing of the components in different volume ratios depending on its purpose.Toxicological-hygienic studies of the flame retardant is an antiseptic effect on the human body and the environment was made in accordance with the methods of the Ministry of health at the Institute of toxicology, Saint-Petersburg. Studies have shown that unteren antiseptic low toxicity, has no irritant effect on the skin and skin-resorbtive action, slightly irritating to eyes and upper respiratory tract. Not oblyzyvaet remote adverse effects. The degree of impact on the body belongs to class IV hazardous substance (GOST 12.1007-76). Environmentally safe, does not require special disposal in the environment breaks down into non-toxic components.The toxicity index of the products of combustion of the materials impregnated with fire-retardant additive antiseptic, determined in accordance with GOST 12.1.049-89 "explosion safety of substances and materials. The range of indicators and methods of their determination".The study was subjected samples of viscose fabric without flame retardant and impregnated with flame retardant-antiseptic. In accordance with the scale of the conditional toxicity (GOST 12.1.044-89) rayon fabrics, not impregnated with the flame retardant, classified as highly toxic. Viscose fabric impregnated with a flame retardant-antiseptic, on the same scale applies to moderately hazardous.Fungicidal activity was determined by the method described in GOST 9.048-75. ..9.050-075 "Product. Test methods". For tests were used pine wood samples, priuchennye at 80oC to constant weight. They were then soaked proposed flame-antiseptic, in various concentrations by immersion in the solution, then you were the crops. The tests were carried out for 84 days.The fire retardant properties of the composition was determined according to GOST 12.1.044-89 "explosion safety of substances and materials. The nomenclature and methods of their determination".Examples of the flame retardant is an antiseptic, as well as the results of the tests are shown in table 2, show that the flame retardant antiseptic imparts flame retardant properties of the treated materials, this puts them in the category of combustible and gives pronounced fungicidal properties. Fire retardant-antiseptic-based fosforsodyerzhascikh connection, characterized in that it comprises the reaction products of phosphorous acid and an aqueous solution of ammonia 3 - 25%, taken in a volumetric ratio of 1:1-7.
FIELD: wood industry.
SUBSTANCE: agent for temporary protection against mould damage contains quaternary ammonium salt as a fungicide, dissolved in an aqueous dissolvent, and a pigment suspended in an aqueous dissolvent. The quaternary ammonium salt is preferably a salt of inorganic acid (sulfuric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid). The agent does not contain a binder or a fungicide that includes boron or metal cations. Items are treated with the agent for mould protection by means of its application through spraying, with a brush, by dipping or with a combination of these methods. The invention makes it possible to preserve wood exposed to atmospheric effects within winter period and to ensure weather and mould damage protection.
EFFECT: in warm period the coating may easily be removed, and wood remains safe.
15 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to timber processing and protection against biological destruction. Proposed method comprises impregnation of timber with water solution of antiseptic calcium polysulfide containing 18-27 wt % of calcium sulfide with water making the rest. Note here that used water solution of calcium polysulfide features density of 1.20-1.25 g/cm3 while impregnation consists in immersion, spraying and application by brush.
EFFECT: reliable protection with minimum negative effects to environments.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of industrial building materials and is intended for surface firebioprotective impregnation of wood and wood plate materials. Composition for firebioprotective impregnation of wood contains phosphate compound, represented by calciumzincphosphatenitrate binding agent, containing 25-31% of phosphorus (counted per P2O5), 6-8% zinc (counted per ZnO), 0.7 - 1.1 % of calcium (counted per CaO), 10.5-12.5% of nitrates (counted per NO3), amino-containing compound, diammoniumphosphate, fluoride of alkaline metal or aluminium, surface-active substance, tinting paste and water.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase fireproof properties, biostability of wood and wood plate materials, as well as to reduce leachability and moisture absorption.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodwork, particularly to processing of veneer by fire retardant. This method comprises spraying of aqueous solution of fire retardant based on ammonium salt of orthophosphoric acid on veneer sheet surface. Spraying is performed at solution temperature of 40-50°C in at least two steps with intermediate holding of veneer sheet between said steps and final drying after final step.
EFFECT: better penetration in veneer structure without lamination and bulging.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: phosphoric and/or hypophosphorus acid and a basic compound are added to triethanolamine, where the basic compound is selected from a hydroxide of alkali metals, a hydroxide of alkali-earth metals and [R1R2R3(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium]hydroxide, where R1, R2 and R3 independently denote an alkyl having 1-30 carbon atoms, or hydroxyalkyl having 2-10 carbon atoms. If a hydroxide of alkali metals is used as the basic compound, molar ratio of acid (acids): hydroxide ranges from 1:0.1 to 1:1, and if hydroxide of alkali-earth metals is used as the basic compound, molar ratio of acid (acids): hydroxide ranges from 1:0.05 to 1:0.5. Phosphoric and/or hypophosphorus acid and the basic compound are added before and/or during distillation of triethanolamine. The invention also relates to triethanolamine containing 0.01-2 wt % (in terms of pure triethanolamine) phosphoric and/or hypophosphorus acid and the corresponding hydroxide.
EFFECT: stability of improved chromaticity of triethanolamine during storage and increased output during distillation of the triethanolamine.
15 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: organic complex of palladium - tris(dibenzylidene acetone)palladium reacts with white phosphorus in a tetrahydrofuran medium. The palladium phosphides formed undergo hydrolysis at temperature 20-70°C with degassed water. Molar ratio of reactants palladium complex: white phosphorus: water is equal to 1:(1-20):(12-480). The end product is extracted by separating the residue and evaporating the filtrate in a vacuum.
EFFECT: method is environmentally safe, selective and enables to obtain phosphorous acid from simple and readily available reactants with high output.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Concentrated phosphorous acid is obtained by mixing pure P4O6 and reaction medium, containing water and Bronsted acid. In reaction medium pH is supported lower than 5, and content of free water after completion of P4O6 hydrolysis is in the range from 0 to 40%.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain concentrated phosphorous acid, possessing high degree of purity.
SUBSTANCE: fertiliser consists of potassium phosphate with the formula K3H3(PO4)2 and water in an amount of 10 wt % or less. The production process comprises: i) a step of producing a concentrated aqueous solution of phosphoric acid (PA) and a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), ii) a step of combining the said concentrated solutions produced in step i) in a reactor providing a reaction temperature in the range of 85 to 120°C, where PA and KOH are used in a weight ratio of 1.14 to 1.22, to produce a liquid reaction mixture, iii) a step of drying the said reaction mixture produced in step ii) in a vacuum drying apparatus, whereby a solid material is produced, wherein the said drying step comprises draining the said reaction mixture produced in step ii) to the said dried material, and iv) cooling the said solid material produced in step iii).
EFFECT: producing a solid bulk fertiliser having a neutral pH without a tendency to caking.
13 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: inorganic chemistry, aluminum silicates, composition for fireproofing of building and construction materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water resistant aluminum silicate with softening temperature more than 900°C for fireproofing of wood, polymer, and other building and construction materials. Water resistant aluminum silicate has general formula of Na2O*kSiO2*nAl2O3*pP2O5*rMA*mH2O, 1, wherein k = 3.25-11.5; m = 3.5-12; n = 0.052.7; p = 0-0.1; r = 0.3.5; M is K, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, 1/2Ti4+; A is Cl-, O2-, SO4 2-, CO3 2-. Aluminum silicate represents hardening product of water dispersion containing 1) sodium silicate of general formula Na2O*xSiO2*yH2O, 2, wherein x = 2.9-3.1; y = 17-22; 2) cross-linking agent based on alkali soluble silicium and/or aluminum compound; 3) at least one a) hardening agent (alkali soluble zinc, titanium, magnesium and/or calcium oxide (hydroxide)); b) opener; c) filler (e.g. kaolin, chipped glass fiber, milled sand, etc.); d) modifier in the next component ratio (mass %): sodium silicate 31-83.8, preferably 58-75; alkali soluble silicium compounds 0.05-39.2, preferably 10-15; alkali soluble aluminum compounds 0.4-26, preferably 5-8; hardening agent 0.74-19.9, preferably 3-8; opener 0.013-9.7; filler 1.9-33, preferably 5-15; modifier 0.01-6.3, preferably 0.35-0.75.
EFFECT: composition for production of non-cracked coating with low thermal conductivity and increased fire resistance.
28 cl, 116 ex, 52 tbl
FIELD: synthesis of phosphorus-containing derivatives of organic compounds.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of preparing polyphosphates of organic compounds, to mixture of polyphosphates of organic nitrogenous bases, and to use of polyphosphates and mixture of polyphosphates as fire retardants for plastics, preferably thermoplastics and, more particularly, polyamides and polyesters. Polyphosphates of organic compounds are prepared via exchangeable decomposition of mixture of phosphorus pentoxide and at least one organic nitrogenous base with a compound releasing water when decomposed under reaction conditions, the latter compound being used in such molar proportion that water would release in amount corresponding to essentially two moles of water per one mole of phosphorus pentoxide. Water-releasing compound can be compound forming, along with water, only volatile decomposition products and this compound can be selected from group including anhydrous oxalic acid, oxalic acid dehydrate, and formic acid. Exchangeable decomposition reaction is conducted at 100 to 250°C. Mixture of polyphosphates of organic nitrogenous bases is characterized by following properties: when heated to 320°C it looses less than 2% of its mass; pH value of its 10% water suspension exceeds 5 at 25°C, preferably from 5.2 to 7.7 and, more preferably, from 5.8 to 7; its solubility in water is less than 0.1 g and preferably less than 0.01 g per 100 mL water.
EFFECT: expanded synthetic possibilities.
6 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructional composites based on ultra-high molecular polyethylene (UHMPE), used in industrial production of fire-resistant multipurpose products with compaction method. Fire-resistant material contains powdered ultra-high molecular polyethylene of powder particle size 20-50 microns and molecular weight within 1.0 million to 25.0 million, and ammonium polyphosphate of powder particle size not exceeding 10 microns and degree of polymerisation not less than 1200. Material is made by stirring the mixed powdered UHMPE and ammonium polyphosphate in ratio as follows, wt %: ultra-high molecular polyethylene - 80, ammonium polyphosphate - 20.
EFFECT: produced fire-resistant material is characterised with fire resistance "ПВ"-0 and ensures reduced degree of flammability of constructional composites.
1 tbl, 1 ex