Design of catalytic distillation and the distillation column reactor for simultaneous execution of the reaction and the work of reagents

 

(57) Abstract:

Design of catalytic distillation contains a rigid frame, which is formed of at least two identical gratings, multiple rigid elements for placement of gratings at a distance and retain them in a predetermined position, many permeable to the fluid tubes attached to the grille, to form channels for the passage of fluid. Distillation of the contact reactor comprises a vertically positioned tank, catalytic design of distillation, located therein a rigid frame with at least two identical gratings, multiple rigid elements for placement of gratings at a distance from each other and hold them in a predetermined position, many permeable to the fluid tubes attached to the grids to form channels for the passage of fluid between the tubes. At least a portion permeable to the fluid tube includes a catalytic material in the form of particles. The use of this group of inventions can increase the mobility of the fluid inside the column. 2 C. and 18 h.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates primarily to the structure of the catalyst is istallyatsii. More precisely the invention relates to the stationary structure of the catalytic distillation, which comprises a solid catalyst in the form of particles.

For some time already used in practice, simultaneously passing the reaction and recovery of the products from the reactants and were recognized advantages of such a process. Examples of usage simultaneously passing the reaction and distillation are disclosed in U.S. patents (firesale) 4 232 177, 4 307 254, 4 336 407, 4 504 687, 4 918 243 and 4 978 807; (dimerization) 4 242 530; (hydration) 4 982 022; (dissociation) 4 447 668 and (aromatic alkylation) 4 950 834 and 5 019 669.

Known for a number of different designs catalytic distillation. See, for example, U.S. patent 4 302 356 and 4 443 559, in which the described construction, where the catalyst is in the form of particles contained within grooves in the fabric tape wrapped wire against fogging for education design catalytic distillation, and U.S. patent 4 731 229, in which the disclosed nozzle corrugated elements and tape for the formation of the catalytic element. In U.S. patent 5 073 236 disclosed high-performance showerhead, modified so that it includes the catalyst.

The closest analogue to savatore contains a rigid frame, educated at least two identical gratings, multiple rigid elements, which provide accommodation gratings at some distance from each other and hold the grid at the specified position.

A disadvantage of the known structures of the catalytic distillation is the lack of mobility of the fluid inside the casing. In addition, the design of catalytic distillation according to prior art do not provide the necessary parameters of the distillation.

The present invention is to remedy these disadvantages. The technical result is achieved by the fact that the design of catalytic distillation contains a rigid frame formed of at least two identical gratings, multiple rigid elements, which provide accommodation gratings at some distance from each other and hold the grating in a predetermined position and many permeable to the fluid tubes attached to the grids to form the set of channels for the passage of fluid between the tubes.

At least a portion permeable to the fluid tubes may include a catalytic material in the form of particulates, and can vkluchat, located in them.

These grills are located essentially perpendicular to the rigid elements and tube of wire mesh, with the configuration of the gratings is preferably identical, and each shelf has holes for inserting tubes of wire mesh. Preferably the pattern of the gratings is a regular grid of holes.

The design included a sufficient number of rigid elements to give it structural integrity, so that such structures can be stacked in a stack of several designs deeply into the column. Typically, the hard elements set at some distance from each other on the periphery of the structure and rigidly fixed to the grids, for example, by welding.

For the formation of a channel for passage of fluid structure preferably includes at least two tubes of wire mesh, placed in a certain order in the form of a number of essentially parallel, adjacent and aligned in the vertical direction of the tubes, and at least one offset tube of wire mesh, adjacent aligned in the vertical tubes of wire mesh and udalenie aligned in the vertical direction of the tubes of the columns is enough to to ensure the possibility of overlapping offset tube of wire mesh aligned in the vertical direction of the tubes of wire mesh without contact with the aligned vertical tubes of wire mesh to form a winding channel for passage of fluid.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the distillation column reactor for simultaneous execution of responses and selection of products from reactants contains located vertically tank, catalytic design of distillation, located therein and containing a rigid frame having at least two identical gratings, multiple rigid elements, which provide accommodation gratings at some distance from each other and hold the grating in a predetermined position and many permeable to the fluid tubes attached to the grids to form the set of channels for the passage of fluid between the tubes, and at least part permeable to the fluid tube includes a catalytic material in the form of particles.

Used in this case, the term "tube" means a closed elongated design with any Popper is the material in the form of particles, have the preferred properties described types and represent excellent design processes for conventional distillation, for which they can be used alone or in combination with conventional plates, drain pipes, etc.

Next, a description is explained using the drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a schematic cross-section structure, showing containing the catalyst elements and the spatial arrangement of the elements in the preferred embodiment.

Fig. 2 is an isometric depiction of a preferred variant implementation of the design, characterized by the spatial arrangement of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a schematic cross-section of an alternative embodiment of the invention with the spatial location of the elements different from those shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a schematic cross-section structure without material in the form of particles.

Fig. 5 is a schematic cross-section design, located in the column reactor for distillation.

Description predposylki is given on the attached drawings, in which similar elements have the same position numbers for ease of execution links.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic depiction of one possible implementation in which the distance between adjacent vertical tubes 10 is 2h. In this embodiment, the distance x between the nearest point 14 located on the side adjacent pipe 12 and the Central vertical axis of the 16 columns of the pipe 10, is equal to the distance between adjacent in the lateral direction of the tubes 10 and 12 (x=y). The spatial arrangement of the tubes in the design according to Fig. 1 is such that the tubes of adjacent rows are offset to allow overlapping parts of the tubes in each vertical row, without touching them. The overlap allows you to create a meandering channel 18 for the passage of fluid, thereby providing a greater opportunity of contact fluid tube design.

The catalyst 30 is contained in a rectangular tubes 10A-10h with size , and in the tube 10i contain inert substances 32, while the tube 10j empty. The proportion of open area for flow of vapor and liquid in the greatest constriction in the nozzle is defined by the relation (x-)/d. In the area with the highest density of catalyst for a given rustavelit parameter h, characterizing the distance between the tubes. Therefore, when y becomes greater than x. In an alternative embodiment, the density of the catalyst can be reduced by using inert nozzles or empty tubes. Thus, by combining the configuration of structures and loading pipes contact structure of the present invention provide a tool with a high degree of adaptation, intended for contact with a wide variety of fluid environments. Two dotted lines on the right side of the figure shows the minimum (L min) and maximum (L max) available path for flow through the nozzle. The arithmetic mean of these values characterizes the winding head.

Option implementation according to Fig. 1 minimizes the hydraulic load on the nozzle required to maintain good contact of the liquid with the catalyst, and allows to achieve a very short contact time between the fluid and the catalyst before and will share type vapor-liquid. These two factors were chosen to ensure a more efficient use of the catalyst in a range of hydraulic loadings below the point of zahlebyvayas and in a wide range of RA is f, to provide a low height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP height equivalent to a theoretical plate), to create a larger driving force for equilibrium-limited systems.

The geometry of the system in Fig. 1, in which x = y, satisfies the following relations:

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
where h = the distance parameter between tubes

d = distance between plates (from center to center);

x = minimum distance between plates;

= pipe size;

= open cavity to flow in the smallest constriction in the nozzle;

TL= number of tubes on a plate in the stack of nozzle height L;

PD= number of plates in the stack nozzle with a width of D;

PM= density of the catalyst in the nozzle;

Pb= bulk density of the catalyst;

LMIN= the minimum length of the trajectory path pair at the height of a single nozzle;

LMAX= the maximum length of the trajectory path pair at the height of a single nozzle;

Q = coefficient of sinuosity;

L = height of the stack of nozzles;

D = width of the stack of nozzles;

SM= surface area of the shielding required for a unit volume of the nozzle;

= diameter of wire.

In Fig. 4 OYe location, as the design according to Fig. 1, except that all of the tube 10 is empty. This exercise is a very effective tool for the distribution of vapor and liquid in a conventional distillation column.

When using catalytic distillation will take place both liquid and vapor phase. The liquid, creating internal irrigation, will be in contact with the tubes, which in the most preferred case is made of wire mesh and form a film; in addition, to some extent, the liquid will be absorbed into the tubes by adsorption on the catalyst or other filler in the tube. Despite the fact that the design serves as a design for distillation, the presence of the tubing material in the form of particles and capillary attraction of fluid thereto creates an environment that is different from the usual designs for distillation. Under normal structures for distillation, it is assumed that the liquid and the gas will pass along the path of least resistance through the channels for passage. However, in the case when part of the liquid in the column is occupied by the tubes, there is less opportunity for open channels for the passage with the low-resisting film to prevent the location of adjacent vertical rows of tubes 110 and 112, which respectively have a greater vertical offset between the tubes in the same vertical row as compared, for example, to the arrangement of Fig. 1. Distances x1and y1not equal, and in addition to the meandering of the intermediate channels 18 for the passage between the tubes is provided nasienie poperechnyy channels 120 for passage between the lateral horizontal rows of tubes, which are designed for gas flow, which is shown by arrows. To delete one or more tubes at opposite ends of adjacent horizontal rows leads to the fact that it remains open space 122 for connecting the transverse channel 120 for passage, thus creating a channel for passage of gases, which, at least, the same winding as the intermediate channels 118 for passage. As in the previously described case, the liquid will tend to flow over the tubes and through the tube and through the contained material, as shown marks of insertion

In Fig. 2 shows the structure with the spatial arrangement of Fig. 1. The rectangular tube 10 made of wire mesh, installed in holes 24 in the grating 22. The grating 22 are mirror reflections of each other. They removed some the example, using a weld 26. Other means of fastening gratings in one design include the use of threaded rods and nuts or bolts and nuts (not shown). The resulting structure is rigid and able to support at least one other structure of the present invention and to withstand preferably from 100 to 200 pounds (from 444,822 to 889,644 N). The size and configuration of the tubes 10 is usually made approximately the same as the holes 24, so that the tubes are held firmly and tightly in the holes when the two end grids bonded together using rods 20.

Under normal conditions each tube 10 contains a catalytic material 30 in the form of particles. The ends of each tube 10 containing the catalytic material in the form of particulates, sealed, for example, by sealing the swage 28, or by using the insert end caps (not shown) or by welding.

In the design for catalytic distillation, is shown in Fig. 2, in some handsets may not be any material in the form of particulates, and/or they contain inert material in the form of particles. Hollow elements nozzles are less dense the tx2">

Inert elements are the elements of the nozzle, filled with inert material in the form of particulates, which may be of the same size to be less than or greater than the particulate catalytic material. Inert elements have all of the same hydraulic properties of the catalytic elements, but they reduce the intensity of catalytic reactions, which in the case of catalytic distillation, also called reactive distillation (U.S. patent No. 5 019 669) often represent a reversible reaction. Therefore, by dissolving the chemically active elements, but while maintaining the distillation of elements it is possible to achieve a higher degree of separation in the catalytic distillation. In other words, by distributing the inert elements between the catalytic elements in the specified design reinforce fractional separation, while in the whole system that contains a column with multiple catalytic structures, the intensity of the response is supported.

The dissolution of a certain volume of catalyst present in any given column may be insignificant, given the dynamic nature of the catalytic distillate grid, depends on its combat swelling. One commonly used acidic ion-exchange resin, Amberlyst 15, swells by 20-30% when wetted, while other material ST-175 swells only 10-15 percent. Crystalline zeolites scarcely swell when wetted. The particle size is typically from about 0.25 to 1 mm, although it is possible to use particles from 0.15 mm to about 2 mm, assuming that you can use the molded catalyst in the form of particles with a size diameter of from 1/32 to 1/2 inch (0,794 to 12.7 mm), such as any of the catalysts of alumina or catalysts on a carrier of alumina.

Catalytic and negativities elements (tubes) bonded together to form designs are usually using metal grids or templates at the end of each group of elements, which serve as spacers in the framing, when the grille firmly removed at some distance from each other using multiple rods or bars.

The advantage is that the column can accommodate more than one design at different heights as desired. Indeed, assume that m is stellations column. In addition, support structures or structures in the column may be provided in any effective way. For example, design may be based on inert distillation attachment, and divided inert distillation attachment, such as rings process or etc.

In Fig. 5 shows a structure located in a distillation column reactor 40 in cross section and having a tube 20 with compressed edges 20A. Tube 20 ahead shows in cross-section, while those located directly behind them and beside them, constitute the entire tube. Tubes 20 are arranged in accordance with Fig. 1.

Examples

Was prepared design with spatial Fig. 1, with 5.4 lb (2,449 kg) ion-exchange resin (product of Dow Chemical Company) ( @ 26% H2O) were loaded into the design with the following dimensions: a = 0,4 (10, 16), x = 0,17" (4,318 mm), d = 0,453" (11,506 mm), h = 0,070" (1,778 mm) = 0,336, PM= 9,9 pounds per cubic foot (158,583 kg/m3), SM= 63,9 square foot/cubic foot (2,096 cm2/cm3), Q = 1,43. Wire mesh has a wire diameter (0.009 inch (0,2286 mm)) and a grid cell size of 50. Was used the total height of the nozzle 10 feet (3,048 m) with catalyst M-31 in the column with wew what canola to obtain tert-butyl ether. The initial reaction mixture containing from 1.4 to 1.6% isobutene, reacted with methanol in the coefficients of the inverse flow, varying from 0.46 to 0.75 at a gauge pressure of 100-110 psig (689,476-758,424 kPa), to obtain the degree of conversion of isobutene in the range from 83 to 89%.

1. Design of catalytic distillation containing a rigid frame formed of at least two identical gratings, multiple rigid elements, which provide accommodation gratings at some distance from each other and hold the grating in a predetermined position, characterized in that it includes many permeable to the fluid tubes attached to the grids to form the set of channels for the passage of fluid between the tubes.

2. Design by p. 1, characterized in that at least a portion permeable to the fluid tube includes a catalytic material in the form of particles.

3. Design by p. 2, characterized in that it is permeable to the fluid tube includes a wire mesh.

4. Design by p. 3, characterized in that the part of the tube of wire mesh includes inert substance in the form of particles located the hard elements and the tubes of wire mesh, the configuration of the gratings is preferably the same.

6. Design by p. 5, wherein each grating has a hole to insert a tube of wire mesh.

7. Design by p. 6, characterized in that the pattern of the gratings is a regular grid of holes.

8. Design by p. 6, characterized in that the configuration of the grating essentially done the same.

9 . Design by p. 3, characterized in that it includes at least two tubes of wire mesh, placed in a certain order in the form of a number of essentially parallel, adjacent and aligned in the vertical direction of the tubes, and at least one offset tube of wire mesh, adjacent aligned in the vertical tubes of wire mesh and remote from them at some distance.

10. Design by p. 9, characterized in that the aligned vertical tube columns are located at such a distance that allows you to overlap offset tube of wire mesh aligned in the vertical direction of the tubes of wire mesh without contact with vyrovnennaya environment.

11. Design by p. 10, characterized in that the part of the tube of wire mesh includes inert substance in the form of particles located in them.

12. Design by p. 10, characterized in that it is permeable to the fluid tube includes a wire mesh.

13. Design by p. 12, characterized in that the part of the tube of wire mesh includes inert substance in the form of particles located in them.

14. Design by p. 12, wherein the gratings are arranged essentially perpendicular to the rigid elements and tube of wire mesh, with the configuration of the gratings is preferably the same.

15. Design by p. 14, wherein each grating has a hole to insert a tube of wire mesh.

16. Design by p. 15, characterized in that the pattern of the gratings is a regular grid of holes.

17. Design by p. 15, characterized in that the configuration of the grating essentially done the same.

18. Design by p. 12, characterized in that it includes at least two tubes of wire mesh, placed in a certain order in the form of a number of essentially parallelomania grid the adjacent aligned in the vertical tubes of wire mesh and remote from them at some distance.

19. Design by p. 18, characterized in that the aligned vertical tube columns are located at such a distance that provides the possibility of overlapping offset tube of wire mesh aligned in the vertical direction of the tubes of wire mesh without contact with the aligned vertical tubes of wire mesh for the formation of a meandering channel for passage of fluid.

20. The distillation column reactor for simultaneous execution of responses and selection of products from reactants containing situated vertically in the tank, catalytic design of distillation, located therein and containing a rigid frame having at least two identical gratings, multiple rigid elements, which provide accommodation gratings at some distance from each other and hold the grating in a predetermined position, characterized in that it includes many permeable to the fluid tubes attached to the grids to form the set of channels for PCET catalytic material in the form of particles.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to a device for the catalytic dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons, in particular for radial flow reactors, and can be used in the petrochemical industry for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene

The invention relates to the field of chemical technology associated with carrying out highly exothermic reactions with adiabatic heat-up 500-2500C, such as hydrogenation, oxidation, and can also be used in energy to produce hot water or steam

The invention relates to a chemical reactor and method using a chemical reactor, which is used with the installation of the heat transfer walls, inside the reactor, which will maintain the temperature inside the reactor at the desired intervals during the reaction

The invention relates to a fluid dispenser for columns according to the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims

The invention relates to a device for carrying out catalytic processes in a stationary catalyst bed and can be used in chemical, petrochemical and refining industries

Catalytic reactor // 2113452

The invention relates to the field of chemistry, namely, devices for ozone-catalytic purification of industrial gas emissions

The invention relates to a multipurpose catalytic distillation column and use that column to obtain the ether, through interaction isoolefine with alcohol

The invention relates to the alcohol industry

The invention relates to a method and installation for separation of liquid petroleum products from a stream flowing from the reactor hydroconversion oil

The invention relates to the design of facilities for the fractional separation of the oil and can be used to obtain stable gasoline, diesel fuel from the gas condensate, as well as for the regeneration of the glycols used in the preparation processes of associated and natural gas
The invention relates to the production of alcohol with various additives

The invention relates to the refining industry

FIELD: distillery industry; production of alcohol.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of production of a rectified alcohol and is dealt with the field of a distillery industry, in particular with methods of production of a food rectified alcohol. The method provides for digestion of the alcohol from a brew in a brew column with transition of ethyl alcohol and accompanying impurities together with a vapor from this column in a brew distillate, purification of the brew distillate from the head and intermediate impurities including components of the fusel oil in an epuration column with feeding of hot water onto its upper plate, fractionation of the epurate in the alcohol column with separation of fractions of fusel oil, fusel alcohol and unpasteurized alcohol, distillation of fractions of the head and intermediate impurities of the ethyl alcohol in the distillation column. The fusel alcohol from the alcohol column and fractions from the condensers of the alcohol column and the methanol column are fed onto the upper plate of the distillation column and also the alcohol traps of pure distillates. Hot water is fed into the upper zone of the distillation column for hydroselection of the head impurities, propyl alcohols and otherintermediate impurities, which are extracted from the condenser of this column in the form of a concentrate of the head impurities and propyl alcohols, and the bottom liquid of the distillation column is directed on a feeding plate of the epuration column. The invention allows to raise quality of alcohol.

EFFECT: the invention allows to raise quality of alcohol.

2 ex

Up!