Way smooth ploughing slopes and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for primary tillage on slopes and can be used in agriculture. The method includes the cutting of the layer horizontally in the transverse section in the form of an ellipse, the major axis of which is inclined from the vertical to the surface of the slope in the direction of his foot, or vertices. Crushing layer is produced by bending in perpendicular planes, and its turnover and laying in their own furrow. At the bottom of the furrow through equal distances form the raw parallel to the contour lines of the slope crests, peaks of which are at the level of plough pans, and spiral grooves. Trimming the seam perform below the plow sole, i.e., to a depth of A1,3h, where h is the distance from the surface of the soil to plough pans, and the thickness and width of the cutting layer are in the ratio 5: 7-8. Working bodies for execution of the method is executed in the form of a spherical ring having a reverse curvature in the zone of smaller diameter, which is equipped with additional working body, made in the form of a hollow body of rotation with the inner curved generatrices and outer rectilinear form. Large core is but pass each other, and the outer surface includes liners and attached rotatably to the rack by means of a sliding bearing. On the inner surface of the additional working body along its forming installed pins, equipped with cutting edge. The ratio of the size of the device is such that the depth of tillage, the diameter of the spherical ring and the smallest inner diameter additional working body is in relation 1:3,9 - 4,5:1,3 - 1,5. 2 c. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to the agricultural industry, in particular to methods of tillage on slopes and devices for its implementation.Known methods of tillage on slopes, for example: A. with. USSR N 1521322 MKI A 01 B 79/00; H 01 13/16, 1989, N 1454275 MKI A 01 B 79/00, 1989, N 1353336 MKI A 01 B 79/00, 13/16, 1987To implement these methods are used tillage tools with passive working bodies (or subsurface cultivator. lemasney ploughs), which form at the bottom of the furrow compaction plow sole (Trufanov centuries Deep chizelevanie soil /Vsesojuzn. Acad. C. agricultural Sciences.- M: Agropromizdat, 1989, s 9)."Plow sole" is called compaction of the soil in the layer located below the passage of the blades is the result of compaction of the soil layer contains the minimum number of pores.Formed by a compacted layer further prevents the absorption of soil and normal growth of the root system of cultivated plants, leads to erosion processes.There is a method of conservation tillage.with. N 1297741 MKI A 01 B 79/00, 1987), including the alignment surface and crafts for surface tillage wavy furrows to form between their crests closed holes. When this surface soil layer are cut in waves with the height of the wave profile 2-4 cmThe method requires a lot of energy, because the device for implementing the method applied working bodies with the active drive.The method is ineffective because the increase of water absorption will be negligible due to the shallow surface tillage of the soil round cultivator-loosening plates.There is a method of soil treatment.with. N 1250183 MKI A 01 B 79/00, 1986 ), including surface loosening the soil to a depth of seeding with ribs seed bed with amplitude of 1.0-1.5 cmThis method is also inefficient because of the shallow depth of processing.When using the discussed methods of tillage to Quilichini water absorption and reduction of erosion processes. Also, do not create favorable conditions for the development of the root system of plants.Closest to the proposed to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of processing soil and.with. N 1429961 MKI A 01 B 79/00. It includes cutting curly layers of soil with variable cross-section in an inclined position on the arc with the subsequent separation in the horizontal plane and the back of each soil layer with the location of stubble up and back at an angle to the rear surface of each of the previous layer.The lack of plough pans, improves vertical filtering of precipitation.However, this method is applicable only in wet soil, and involves the turnover of the layers in the adjacent furrow, i.e. the method does not provide a smooth plowing, including on the slopes.The purpose of the invention is the increase of water absorption slopes, reduced erosion, reduced energy consumption and the creation of favorable conditions for development of the root system of plants.This goal is achieved by the fact that in the present method smooth ploughing slopes, including the cutting of the layer contours, its crushing by bending in the plane perpendicular the first axis is tilted from the vertical to the surface of the slope in the direction of his foot, at the bottom of the furrow through equal distances form the raw parallel to the contour lines of the slope crests, peaks of which are at the level of plough pans, and spiral grooves. While trimming the seam perform below the plow sole, i.e., at a depth of 1.3 h, where h is the distance from the surface of the soil to plough pans, and the thickness and width of the cutting layer are in the ratio 5: 7... 8, and the layer rotation is performed with the rotation in the direction up or down the slope, and placed in its own furrow.An example of the method.Practical implementation of this method smooth ploughing slopes preferably in the autumn as autumn plowing.In Fig. 1 shows the soil to be processed by the proposed method shows a vertical cross-section of the layers, cutting the working bodies (rear view: a - when plowing with a turnover of right b - when plowing with a turnover to the left).In Fig. 2 given the precarious situation of layers before falling into the furrow with a complete revolution down the slope.In Fig. 3 shows the position of the reservoir after the fall in the furrow.In Fig. 4 depicts the device used to implement pedogenetice shows the order of placement on the frame of the plow device driver plowing (top view, I position) and left-hand plowing (position II).Way smooth ploughing slope of the land is as follows. Plowing start from the top or the bottom of the slope. The turnover of the layers can be performed in the directions up and down the slope. Arable unit moves along the contour Shuttle method. First cut the soil layers I, II, III (Fig. 1) in cross section as part of the ellipse USED at a distance "b" from each other, where "b" - width single case.To ensure turnover of the reservoir in its own furrow with minimum energy consumption, provide the inclination of the major axis of the ellipse from the vertical MN to the surface of the slope, depending on the direction of circulation of the layers, in the direction of his foot or peak at a certain angle . At the bottom of the furrow through equal distances in" raw form ridges parallel to the contour lines of the slope, the peaks of which are at the level of plough pans, and spiral grooves. Cutting layers produced without the formation of plough pans to a depth of 1.3 h, where h is the distance from the surface of the soil to plough pans, and the thickness and width of the cutting layer are in the ratio 5:7... 8.Obrazovanost with spiral grooves promote more intensive moisture retention in the soil, to prevent dripping it down the hill and elimination of water erosion.When the above-mentioned ratios of the dimensions of the thickness and the width of the cutting layer produces the desired height raw ridges on the bottom of the furrow and provides a steady turnover of layers.After that, the soil layer is deformed by bending in the perpendicular planes (in the longitudinal and transverse directions). Under the influence of tensile stresses in the reservoir cracks, which destroy the soil structural aggregates with a minimum expenditure of energy.Then produce a turnover of layers. It is carried out with a small lift and rotate in the direction for example, down the slope relative to the ribs C (Fig. 1A) and placed in its own furrow without lateral offset.When the layer rotation in the direction up the slope it also raise (but to a slightly lower height), produce rotation relative to the ribs (Fig. 1B) and placed in its own furrow.Smooth plowing slopes on the proposed method performed by the device - combined working body of the rotary type (Fig. 4). Working body consists of a spherical ring 1, keyserling movement (Fig. 6) and the vertical (Fig. 4).Spherical ring provided with an additional working body 3 made in the form of a hollow body of rotation with the inner and outer curved rectilinear form. Additional working body 3 large base rigidly fixed to the spherical ring. Their internal working surfaces gradually merge into each other. The outer surface includes a liner and attached rotatably to the rack 5 through the base 6 and the cover 7 of the sliding bearing. On the inner surface of the ring 1 and additional working body 3 attached along the forming pins 8, equipped with cutting edge.When the design of the proposed device, it is important to keep a certain ratio of the diameters of the spherical disk and additional working body depending on its destination on the depth of processing.Device for smooth ploughing slopes is as follows.Before you begin the movable beam 1 with a fixed working bodies, is set, for example, in right-hand position 1 (Fig. 6). In this case, the rotary working bodies 2 are in the right dir is i.i.d. angles to the direction of movement and to the vertical, delves into the soil and cuts the seam along the curve of the ellipse (Fig. 1A,b), which under the action of applied forces begins to rise along the working surface of the spherical ring 1 (Fig.4). Rising on its surface, the layer is subjected to bending deformation in the perpendicular planes.At the transition from the spherical surface of the ring 1 on the additional surface of the working body 3 layer is exposed to a strong bend (kink) in the longitudinal direction, but in the opposite direction. Upon further movement of the soil layer passes inside additional body 4, interacting with its working surface. When the pins with the cutting edges 8 during movement of the reservoir runs into him at some depth and cause it to rise to a certain height, rotating together with the working body. Here also is the bending of the reservoir in two perpendicular planes.As the movement inside additional working body 3, the intensity of the deformation of the reservoir increases, since increasing the curvature of the working surface. The maximum deformation layer is exposed in the area of the smallest of its internal diameter. Bending near the ruins of the reservoir with what's in the reservoir cracks and it breaks the structural units.After reaching a certain height, the layer of soil under its own weight comes off additional working surface of the working body 3 and drops down with a complete revolution in their own furrow.By increasing the inner diameter of the additional authority in the area of the output layer provides additional toughness (due to the use of inertia forces of the reservoir) and more aligned with the surface of arable land.Due to the presence of teeth (conventionally not shown) on the cutting edge of the spherical ring on the bottom of the furrow formed spiral grooves.The operation of the device will occur without shooting and qualitatively in the case when the depth of tillage, the diameter of the spherical ring and the smallest inner diameter additional working body are in the ratio 1:3,9...4,5:1,3...1,5.Depending on the way of plowing the turnover of the reservoir may be arranged in directions both up and down the slope. However, from the point of view of energy, the layer rotation in the direction down the slope is preferable.At the end of the rut plow lift to the transport position and the movable beam 1 (Fig. 6) with a combined working bodies 2 is transferred to vertical. The turnover of the reservoir is also down or up the slope in their own furrow.The proposed device for smooth ploughing soil works perfectly and in horizontal sections. And when it is used for smooth ploughing slopes are used all his benefits, and get the greatest effect.The proposed method of ploughing increases water absorption and reduction processes of water erosion by creating loose with the helical grooves of the bottom of the furrow, and the generation of raw ridges parallel to the contour lines of the slope, below the layer plough pans. Creates favorable conditions for the development of the root system of plants.Thus, the set of features that characterize the way, provides sverhsummarny effect. 1. Way smooth ploughing slopes, including the cutting of the reservoir to the contour of the slope, its turnover and laying in their own furrow, characterized in that the layer is cut in cross-section in the form of part of an ellipse, the major axis of which is inclined from the vertical to the surface of the slope in the direction of its bottom or top, and the bottom of the furrow through equal distances form the spiral grooves, and Takashi.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cutting layer is carried out at a depth of 1.3 h, where h is the distance from the surface of the soil to plough pans, and the thickness and width of the cutting layer are in the ratio 5 : 7 - 8.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the deformation of the soil produce in mutually perpendicular planes, and the layer rotation is performed with the rotation in the direction up or down the slope and placed in its own furrow.4. Device for smooth ploughing slopes containing a frame, a rotary beam and attached to it consistently on racks angles to the direction of motion and the vertical working bodies, and each subsequent working body offset from the previous one in the transverse direction, characterized in that the working bodies made in the form of a spherical ring having a reverse curvature in the zone of smaller diameter, which is equipped with a body made in the form of a hollow body of rotation with the inner curved form, which is a large base rigidly fixed to the spherical ring so that their inner surfaces gradually merge into each other, and its outer surface with a straight line forming the sod>5. Device for smooth ploughing slopes under item 4, characterized in that on the inner surface of the spherical ring and additional working body installed along the forming pins are equipped with cutting edge.6. Device for smooth ploughing slopes on PP.4 and 5, characterized in that the depth of tillage, the diameter of the spherical ring and the smallest inner diameter additional working body are in the ratio 1 : 3,9 - 4,5 : 1,3 - 1,5.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, basic tillage of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves calculating required power of individual and string-type cumulative charges; providing field marking and forming holes in soil; placing cumulative charges in holes; sequentially blowing charges so that after explosion soil is transferred from one strip onto adjacent strip; leveling field surface by means of any known farm machine.
EFFECT: increased quality and effectiveness of plowing soil.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shallow plowing, deep basic tillage and surface tillage (cultivation) of soil by cutting furrows; after harvesting of cereals, performing simultaneously shallow plowing, surface tillage of soil to depth of up to 16 cm, crushing of soil lumps, compacting, leveling and mulching of soil top layer; in September, providing deep tillage of soil on fields arranged on slopes with gradient exceeding 5 deg while forming vertical slits to depth of 40 cm and inclined slits; simultaneously with slitting procedure, forming water-accumulating vessels, holes and intermittent furrows. Apparatus has hitch, carrier wheels, bearing system and replaceable working tools in the form of disk batteries, flat narrow hoes, rippers with chisel, ring-and-serrated roller, and leveling drum. Blades of leveling drum are arranged at an angle α=30 deg relative to drum axis.
EFFECT: reduced soil erosion and provision for retention of moisture in soil root layer.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves cultivating soil by forming ridges after germination of weedage and providing subsequent cultivation procedures by breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ridges; providing presowing soil treatment by embedding germinated weedage, stubble and other plant remains axially of ridges and simultaneously introducing microbiological humus-forming preparation; 20-40 days after introducing of humus-forming preparation (according to first version), breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ones and simultaneously sowing late crops; according to second version, providing sowing of farm crops simultaneously with embedding of germinated weedage and introducing of humus-forming preparation. Methods allow total of active soil temperatures during presowing period to be increased owing to composting effect.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of weedage control and improved soil fertility.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, amelioration method used for creating of fertile layer on low-humus sandy soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lime and organic fertilizer into humus-depleted soil, said organic fertilizer being introduced in the form of ground plant remains and/or other forms in an amount of up to 40% the volume of ridges by distributing said fertilizer in furrows between ridges; forming ridges in the course of presowing treatment; applying layer of colmatant providing total volume of at least 20% the volume of pores of formed fertile layer; forming ridges with following breaking of formerly created ridges; embedding organic fertilizer and simultaneously applying biologically active preparation; 30-40 days later, reapplying organic fertilizer; reforming ridges and simultaneously irrigating ground organic with biologically active preparation; sowing seeds of cultured crops.
EFFECT: reduced time for creating on humus-depleted sandy soil of fertile layer adapted for immediate agricultural application, reduced wind and water erosion and provision for forming of recreational zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing sorts of soya with different ripening time; simultaneously sowing sorts of soya of at least four different ripening time in adjacent rows, with early ripening sorts being combined with late ripening sorts; setting seeding norm for early ripening sorts of soya in the range of 600,000-650,000 pieces/hectare and for late ripening sorts of soya in the range of 400,000-450,000 pieces/hectare.
EFFECT: improved quality of seeds and reduced seed losses.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing and feed production, may be used for growing of spring rape in fodder crop as postcut forage crop.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing soil and seeds; sowing; providing care for young crops; harvesting. Seed sowing is carried out during period of mass development of cruciferous weeds and die-off of first generation of wintered cruciferous fleas Phyllotreta spp. Spring rape is grown in postcut forage crop. Before seed sowing, soil is cultivated by rotavation or two-three-staged disking by means of harrows to 8-10 cm depth immediately after harvesting of preceding crop. Seed sowing is performed during 2-3 days after harvesting of said crop. Spring rape is cultivated in single-course complete fodder crop rotation mode. Winter wheat is used as preceding crop. Early ripening rape seeds with growing period of up to 100 days are commonly used. In the Middle Urals zone, rape seeds are sown in June, 15 to 30.
EFFECT: increased yield of spring rape grown for forage in risky agriculture regions at intensive utilization of plowed field in fodder crop rotation mode without use of pesticides.
4 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting soil by means of plow share having strut diagonally extending from lower part of moldboard to frame to provide for ripping soil open from inside. Employment of strut allows force acting upon plow or cultivator to be reduced and prevents plow or cultivator from clogging with plant remains.
EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage and reduced power consumption.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protection of wheat crops from complex of pests with reduced application of insecticides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming entomofauna of crop agrocenosis by accumulating pests on restricted territory for creating attracting strips of spring wheat of two sowing periods with break-off time between said periods of five to seven days around winter wheat strips; providing feed stock conveyor system for complex of pests; applying insecticides only on basic winter wheat strips and attracting strips of spring wheat strips, with basic spring wheat strips being excluded from treatment process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of sown wheat crops by accumulating of pests on restricted territory, reduced consumption of insecticides and provision for keeping grain yield and grain quality.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.
EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.
1 tbl, 4 ex