The drug cough and method thereof

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to medicine, namely to the medicines of cough and methods for their preparation. Ayurvedic medicinal plants for drug is chosen among Solanum Xanthocorpum, Curcuma longa, Glycerrhiza glabra, Adhatova vasika, Zingiber officinale, Terminalia belerica, Solanum indicum, Ocimum sanctum, Saussurea lappa, Piper cubeba, Aloe barbadensis, Inula racemosa, Piper longum. The method of obtaining the drug includes the following stages: in a vessel placed 800 l of purified water and boil for 10 minutes, Cooled to 80oC and add preservatives: sodium benzoate 6,300 kg; nitromethylene 1,800 kg; nitropropiophenone to 0.900 kg; sorbic acid to 0.900 kg mix Thoroughly until dissolved. To the mixture add 1500 kg of sucrose, mix until dissolved. Add 100 kg of glycerol. In water at 80oC add preservatives: sodium benzoate 0,700 kg; nitromethylene 0,200 kg; nitropropiophenone 0,100 kg; sorbic acid 0,100 kg Before each addition the mixture was thoroughly stirred until complete dissolution of the previously added ingredient. Dry powder extracts dissolved in the solution of preservatives. Aqueous extracts are mixed in a vessel of stainless steel. Stirred for 18 hours at a temperature of 20-25ooC dissolved 0.6 kg of the dye. This solution is added to the weight of the syrup. Menthol is added to 4 liters of pineapple fragrances. This solution is added to the weight of the syrup. Stirred for 15 minutes Add enough boiled and cooled water. Bring the volume up to 2000 liters of Mix and mix well. The invention allows to obtain the drug from all types of coughs with the elimination of side effects. 2 S. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., 9 table.

The present invention relates to new compositions of herbs and the way they are received, and referred to the compositions contain a combination of herbal ingredients, which ensures the treatment of respiratory diseases such as cough, colds, whooping cough and tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia.

Background of the invention

The cough is probably the most important symptom of diseases of the respiratory tract.

Ayurveda identifies three different biological systems - Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Vata is the regulator of all movements in the body, while pitt provides chemical reactions and biosynthesis of various soy and functioning of the organism. When these three systems are well harmonized, and the function is balanced, the result is and good condition of the individual. But when there is an imbalance or disharmony appears imbalance, leading to various ailments. Therefore, the primary aim of Ayurveda is to promote the maintenance of Vata, Pitta and Kapha in balance, and, thus, to prevent the disease. In cases when there was an initial imbalance, efforts are being made to restore equilibrium.

Ayurveda believes that the active component of the medicinal herbs can give a special quality of a particular system, it can also affect other qualities other systems/organs that is balanced by other components present in the same plant. Ayurvedic medicines known as mnogosegmentnye compositions comprising or some herbs or herbs and minerals. Since it is known that people differ from each other according to the Constitution and the temperature of the body, the herb that is very effective for one type of person may not be equally effective for other types, although the type of action is the same. That is why the feet is also on other organs. For this reason, the compositions include various additives. Thus, taking account of the General principles of Ayurveda, the inventors have developed a composition and chose the ingredients that make the equilibrium conditions associated with the cough.

Have in mind that the term "cough", which is used here, includes the cough associated with a cold, lung abscess, Smoking, chronic bronchitis, chronic bronchiectasis and allergies.

In the ideal case to deal with a cough should, determining the cause of the pathology, and starting specific treatment. Sometimes, however, symptomatic treatment is necessary, as is often the cough is very painful and painful, and the patient is in need of some drug therapy. Cough when he is not productive and does not perform any useful function, is a potential hazard for the patient, and his need to suppress.

However, productive cough should not be suppressed, because the delay of phlegm in the trachea and bronchi may prevent ventilation and alveolar aeration and lung capacity to resist infection. This type of cough, especially with thick, viscous secretions, should be treated matched with the developed composition, contains a combination of herbal ingredients with otharkivajushchimi and anti-inflammatory properties, which promotes discharge of thick, vymatyvayuschaya forces allotments, if tracheobronchial inflammation.

Ayurvedic system of medicine practiced in India since ancient times, and it recommends various products of vegetable, mineral and animal origin for the treatment of various diseases. For the treatment of many diseases in Ayurvedic system of medicine uses a number of drug combinations of herbs. Some respiratory diseases such as cough, whooping cough, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis, usually neglected, which results in chronic disorders with recurrent symptoms like chronic cough, shortness of breath and catarrhal inflammation. It is known that still was not developed such a composition against cough from medicinal herbs, which would be useful for the treatment of all types of respiratory diseases such as cough/cold/pertussis, including tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, and is now developed and represents a new structure.

Siro>/BR>3) thinning the mucus

4) protivostoyanie.

The composition according to the invention is designed in such a way that it weakens all types of cough. First developed a composition that contains such ingredients that contribute to the balancing of cough. Allopathic cough syrups have long been known and are associated with several side effects. Also known Ayurvedic, i.e. based on herbs, cough syrups that calm or suppress cough and eliminate stagnation in the bronchi. Aware of the fact that Ayurvedic cough syrups themselves generate alcohol, such as cough syrups are made from plants, which themselves form the alcohol, while the cough syrup according to the invention does not generate any alcohol in himself, nor adding externally. Thus, it is the syrup that is free from alcohol. All known cough syrups syrups are intended only for use in a particular type of cough, such as cough, colds or bronchitis or asthma, pneumonia, etc., but the cough syrup, according to the invention provides a cure for all types of cough that occurs with respiratory diseases such as cough/cold/pertussis, partly the Bo other sedatives, like other cough syrups. Codeine is present in the well-known cough syrups, causing the substance abuse and higher, and alcohol causes alcohol abuse, etc. Thus, the present invention protects from all unwanted effects that accompany the already known cough syrups.

The basis of the claimed composition herbs are different especially active therapeutic Ayurvedic medicinal plants with medicinal properties, which are described below.

Ocimum sanctum has anti-inflammatory and expectorant action.

Glycerrhiza glabra has expectorant, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic action.

Zingiber officinale has anti-inflammatory effect.

Curcuma longa has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect.

Adhatova vasika has expectorant, antispasmodic and antihistaminic action.

Salanum indicum has antipyretic effect.

Inula racemosa has anti-inflammatory, expectorant and antispasmodic action.

Piper cubeba has expectorant, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect.

Terminalia baterica okazywane action.

Saussurea lappa has a bronchodilator effect.

Clerodendrum serratum has anti-inflammatory and expectorant action.

Solanum xanthocorpum has a mild laxative action pungent and bitter, AIDS in digestion, has a strengthening effect.

Piper longum has anti-TB activity.

For the purposes of the present invention use the following integral part of Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

The name of the plant is a Component of plants

Ocimum sanctum - Leaves, seeds and roots

Glycerrhiza glabra - Treated roots

Zingiber officinale - Scraped and dried rhizomes and immature rhizomes

Curcuma longa - Tubers and rhizomes

Adhatova vasika - Leaves, roots, flowers and bark

Solanum indicum - Roots, fruits and seeds

Inula racemosa - Roots

Piper cubeba - Dried immature fully grown fruit called Kabbani (cabebes)

Terminalia balericas - Fruits

Aloe barbadensis - Squeezed and dried juice of leaves and pulp

Saussurea lappa Roots

Clerodendrum serratum Roots, leaves

Solanum xanthocorpum - Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, (panchang - panchong)

Piper longum - Immature fleshy fruits (i.e., the dried unripe fruits or fruit viscotoxin technique in ways leads to the destruction of the active ingredients, present in the composition, resulting in much loss of efficiency of a drug. Although this issue and the need for new compositions are well known, attempts instrumentation preparation of such compositions is still unsuccessful, and such methods of preparation of compounds is unknown. Therefore, it is desirable and necessary to obtain the composition for safe and more effective treatment of cough/cold/pertussis due to various respiratory diseases such as cough/cold/whooping cough, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, in a way that does not cause destruction of the active ingredients present in the formulations developed in accordance with the present invention. The present invention overcomes the problems of modern compositions.

Detailed description of the invention

The present invention provides a liquid herbal composition for oral administration, consisting of a mixture of certain herbal ingredients. The required quantity of certain dry powdered herbal ingredients are mixed and then extracted in the usual way when the ambient temperature. Each of the extracts filterresponse.

The product, referred to in the present description, get in the way of preparation of compounds of herbs suitable for treating respiratory diseases mentioned above provides a faster and more efficient extraction of the active ingredients at low temperatures (50-60oC) without any change. New therapeutic compounds from herbal ingredients according to the invention can be obtained by the improved method, which includes following stages.

Stage I. In fitted shirt vessel of stainless steel (S. S.) pour 800 l of purified water and boiled for 10 min, and cooled to 80oC.

Stage II. In hot water with stage I in order to add the following preservatives, and before each addition the mixture was thoroughly stirred until complete dissolution of the previously added ingredient.

I) sodium Benzoate - 6,300 kg

II) Nitromethylene - 1,800 kg

III) Nitropropiophenone to 0.900 kg

IV) Sorbic acid to 0.900 kg

Stage III. To the mixture obtained in stage II add 1500,0 kg of sucrose, and continuously stirred until complete dissolution.

Stage IV. To the mixture obtained in sledstvennuyu stainless steel tank.

Stage V. In hot water at 80oC in 200-l stainless steel tanks, add the following preservatives, and before each addition the mixture was thoroughly stirred until complete dissolution of the previously added ingredient.

I) sodium Benzoate - 0,700 kg

II) Nitromethylene - 0,200 kg

III) Nitropropane - 0,100 kg

IV) Sorbic acid - 0,100 kg

Stage VI. A variety of dry powder extracts in a separate stainless steel vessels are weighed and dissolved in the solution of preservatives with stage V

Stage VII. Aqueous solutions of various extracts, as described below in examples 1-3, are mixed in a vessel of stainless steel, stirred for 10 min, and the mixture is stirred for 18 hours at a temperature in the range from 20 to 25oC.

Stage VIII. The solution extracts from stage VII filtered through a sparkler filter, and the filtrate is transferred into a sugar syrup with stage III. All this is mixed and thoroughly stirred to obtain a homogeneous syrup, and then the syrup and allow to cool.

Stage IX. The filter is cleaned, and through him filter the syrup from the stage VII, and check the pH of the syrup.

Stage X. Dissolve 1.3 kg of citric acid in 3 l skipa stage III. To it add the number of citric acid solution, sufficient to establish a pH between 4.5 and 5.5.

Stage XI. In 3 l of water at 80oC dissolved 0.6 kg of the dye, and this solution is then added to the mass of the syrup with stage III. All mixed and stirred.

Stage XII. Weighted number of menthol, I. H., added to 4 liters of pineapple fragrances and dissolved under stirring. This solution is added to the mass of syrup for stage III, and stirred for 15 min to obtain a homogeneous syrup.

Stage XIII. To the syrup with stage III add enough boiled and cooled water, and bring the volume up to 2000 l, mix and mix well. Through the bottom gate select 10 l of syrup and add it to the top of the vessel. This stage is repeated, and the solution is stirred for another 30 min to ensure homogeneity of the syrup. The resulting product is finally checked for compliance with quality standards. You can add if you want, sugar, dyes and essence, if they are therapeutically inactive or directionspanel, and added preservatives that do not cause allergies, to make the syrup is pleasant to receive the patient is Solanum xanthocorpum, Curcuma longa, Glycerrhiza glabra, Adhatova vasika, Zingiber officinale, Terminalia belerica, Solanum indicum, Ocimum sanctum, Saussurea lappa, Piper cubeba, Aloe barbadensis, Inula racemosa, Piper longum. Specialists in this field of technology can solve, what Ayurvedic medicinal plants and how much can be used for the production process. The most preferred combination of Ayurvedic plants for compositions of the present invention are the following examples.

The following examples illustrate the present invention but do not limit its scope.

Example 1

The composition of the product. The product is in the form of liquid dosage forms in accordance with the production process described above in the present description and in the composition are listed in table. 1A active ingredients.

Each 10 ml contains extracts derived from material presented in the table. 1A.

Example 2

The composition of the product. The product is in the form of liquid dosage forms in accordance with the production process described above in the present description and in the composition are listed in table. 1B active ingredients.

Each 10 ml contains extracts derived from material which stvennoi form in accordance with the production process, described above in the present description and in the composition is listed in table. 1B active ingredients.

Each 10 ml contains extracts derived from material presented in the table. 1B.

Example 4

The composition of the product. The product is in the form of liquid dosage forms in accordance with the production process described above in the present description and in the composition are listed in table. 1 g of the active ingredients.

Each 10 ml contains extracts derived from material presented in the table. 1G.

Clinical trials

Control clinical trials were conducted in India and Russia.

The results of clinical trials conducted in India are listed below.

1. India

Conducted a multicenter clinical trial of a new liquid herbal composition for oral administration, and the details of the studies are listed below.

I) the Total number of patients - 295.

II) Age of the patients - different age, including children.

III) Duration of cough - varies from several days to several months and several years.

IV) Dosage new cough syrup

VI) Results

I) Reaction from good to very good in 87,5% (i.e. 258) patients

II) Reaction at reasonable 4,7% (i.e. 14) patients

III) there is No reaction in 7.5% (i.e. 22) patients

IV) One patient to be considered failed.

VII) a General assessment of the effectiveness of

The research results show that the new liquid herbal composition for oral administration is highly effective in treating various respiratory diseases such as cough, whooping cough, bronchitis, including tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, of various etiologies.

The results are shown in Fig. 1 and 2.

Fig. 1 is a diagram showing the number of patients responding composition. This chart (260 patients) you can see that in clinical trials 258 patients show a reaction, manifested in the weakness cough, from good to very good in 14 patients reaction moderate, 22 patients do not respond, and one patient be considered failed.

In Fig. 2 provides an assessment of the effectiveness of closed multicenter clinical trials of the present invention in percent values her 4,7% responding moderately, 7.5% of people do not respond and 10.3% could not be accounted for.

2. Russia

Validation of a clinical trial of a new liquid herbal composition was conducted in a government hospital in the outpatient and inpatient patients whose cough apptoval acute respiratory diseases, namely, acute bronchitis, tracheitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and pneumonia. This study did not include patients with cardiovascular, renal and hepatic failure, hemoptysis, cancer and patients who are not able to adequately assess their condition. Details of the study are presented below.

I) the Total number of patients: 73.

II) patient Age: varies from 16 to 70 years.

Ill) Duration of cough: varies from several days to several months and several years.

IV) Dosage new cough syrup: 2 teaspoons three times a day if necessary, the dosage may be changed.

V) Duration of treatment: one week.

VI) the Main symptoms of patients: patients with similar pathology, divided into two groups, namely undergoing treatment (50) and kontrolno (Leche./CTR.) are given in table. 1.

It is also noted that headache attributed to patients resistant to cough in both groups (23/7), while some patients (14/2) attributed to cough a sleep disorder.

Table. 2 shows that the cough is associated with hard breathing, impaired respiratory function and purulent sputum.

Subjective assessment of symptoms cough sputum, which patients give prior studies is given in table. 3.

After consideration of the results of the clinical examination of patients noteworthy is the observation that there is a correlation between the seriousness of the main complaints of the patients and the severity of the cough.

Data on the nature of the pathology and treatment of patients are given in table. 4.

Expectorants and antitussives in both groups were cancelled for 12 h before the start of clinical trials with a new liquid composition on the grass. Control group patients continued to receive the same treatment, what is indicated in the table. 4.

The efficacy and safety of a new liquid composition herbs are estimated on the basis of the reactions of the patient, clinical examination, blood tests, urine and sputum, and assessment of respiratory function before and after testing is reducing the severity of symptoms.

Also observe that the severity of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness and headache, reduced by the 3-4th day of treatment in both groups, whereas symptoms such as headache and sleep disturbance in the second group, continue to be celebrated for a long time.

By the end of treatment in both groups disappear symptoms such as wheezing and breathing hard, and at the same time 10/7 patients show significant improvement when checking the respiratory function.

All patients before the start of the test was coughing, and significant improvement after the 3rd day of treatment, since the severity of nonproductive cough drops on the second day due to the ease of expectoration. Patients have also reported that the culture becomes less viscous, and the coughing stops when the expectoration of small amounts of sputum. It is also noted that the total volume of sputum increases approximately twice.

Table. 5 also shows that the index "cough sputum significantly reduced in subjects patients, while patients in the control group it changes very slightly. It is also noted that the cough in patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract without inflammation caused by the>Analyses of sputum also show positive changes among patients in the group receiving the treatment, as the number of leukocytes is significantly reduced. Similarly in this group significantly improved the total number of leukocytes and ROHE blood.

Conclusions from test results

Clinical trials of a new liquid herbal composition allow to draw the following conclusions.

1. Treatment syrup quickly leads to a reduction or cessation of cough (both in the daytime and in the evening) in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection.

2. The syrup reduces the severity of symptoms like headache and sleep disorders caused by coughing, and thereby facilitates the patients ' condition.

3. The syrup does not cause any serious side effects.

4. The syrup can be recommended for General application in medicine as a second drug for calming and reducing cough in patients with acute respiratory diseases, accompanied by a cough.

Dosage

Under the above clinical trials found that the effective dose ayurvedische liquid drug are SL is or as instructed by the treating physician.

Therapeutic dose for children: 1/2-1 teaspoonful three times a day, orally, with cold water or at the direction of the treating physician.

The above examples and embodiments of the invention are shown to reinforce the description of the present invention and may not be considered as limiting the present invention. Various modifications or changes can be made by specialists in this field of technology should also be included in the scope of the present application and claims,

1. Preparations for oral administration in the form of liquid syrups medicinal herbs containing as therapeutically active substances of herbal ingredients that provide relief from respiratory diseases, namely cough/pertussis, cough due to common cold, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung abscess, Smoking, chronic bronchiectasis, allergies and the initial stages of whooping cough, characterized in that the herbal ingredients are extracts derived from Ayurvedic plants, selected from

Name plant Botanical name

Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum

Yastimadhu - Glycerrhiza glabra

Sunthi - Zingiber officinale

Haridminalia belerica

Ghritakumari - Aloe barbadensis

Kushta - Saussurea lappa

Bharangi - Clerodendrum serratum

Kantakari - Solanum xanthocorpum

Pippali - Piper longum

2. Drugs under item 1, characterized in that each 10 ml contains extracts derived from the following material:

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) 100 mg; Yastimadhu (Glycerrhiza glabra) 60 mg; Haridra (Curcuma longa) 50 mg; Sunthi (Zingiber officinale) 10 mg; Vasaka (Adhatova vasika) 60 mg; Brahati (Solanum indicum) 20 mg; Kushta (Saussurea lappa) 10 mg; Sungadha Muricha (Piper cubeba) 10 mg; Vibhitak (Terminalia belerica) 20 mg; Ghritakumari (Aloe barbadensis) 50 mg and menthol 6 mg.

3. Drugs under item 1, characterized in that each 10 ml contains extracts derived from the following material:

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) 100 mg; Yastimadhu (Glycerrhiza glabra) 60 mg; Haridra (Curcuma longa) 50 mg; Sunthi (Zingiber officinale) 10 mg; Vasaka (Adhatova vasika) 60 mg; Kantakari (Solanum xanthocorpum) 20 mg; Pushkarmool (Inula racemosa) 20 mg; Sungadha Muricha (Piper cubeba) 10 mg; Vibhitak (Terminalia belerica) 20 mg; Ghritakumari (Aloe barbadensis) 50 mg and menthol 6 mg.

4. Drugs under item 1, characterized in that each 10 ml contains extracts derived from the following material:

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) 100 mg; Yastimadhu (Glycerrhiza glabra) 60 mg; Haridra (Curcuma longa) 50 mg; Sunthi (Zingiber officinale) 10 mg; Vasaka (Adhatova vasika) 60 mg; Bharangi (Clerodendrum serratum) 20 mg; Kantakari (Solanum xanthocorpum) 20 mg; Pippali (Piper longum) 20 mg; Vibhitak (Terminalia belerica) 20 mg; Ghritakumari (Aloe barbadensis) 50 mg and menthol 6 mg.

5. Drugs under item 1, characterized in that th is (a) 60 mg; Haridra (Curcuma longa) 50 mg; Sunthi (Zingiber officinale) 10 mg; Vasaka (Adhatova vasika) 60 mg; Brahati (Solanum indicum) 20 mg; Pushkarmool (Inula racemosa) 20 mg; Sungadha Muricha (Piper cubeba) 10 mg; Vibhitak (Terminalia belerica) 20 mg; Ghritakumari (Aloe barbadensis) 50 mg and menthol 6 mg.

6. The method of obtaining drugs under item 1, which includes the following stages: (i) equipped with a jacketed vessel made of stainless steel is placed 800 l of purified water and boiled for 10 min, cooled to 80oC and add preservatives, kg:

Sodium benzoate - 6,300

Nitromethylene - 1,800

Nitropropiophenone to 0.900

Sorbic acid to 0.900

and mix thoroughly until complete dissolution, (ii) to the mixture of 1500 kg of sucrose, mix until dissolved add 100 kg of glycerol and get the syrup, which is transferred to a 2000 l production capacity of stainless steel, (iii) in hot water at 80oC 200 l capacity stainless steel add preservatives, kg:

Sodium benzoate - 0,700

Nitromethylene - 0,200

Nitropropane - 0,100

Sorbic acid - 0,100

and before each addition the mixture was thoroughly stirred until complete dissolution of the previously added ingredients, iv) dry powder extracts in separate vessels stainless is t in a vessel of stainless steel, stirred for 10 min and stirred for 18 hours at a temperature in the range of 20 - 25oC, a solution of the extracts filtered through a sparkler filter, the filtrate is transferred into the sugar syrup, mix and mix thoroughly to obtain a homogeneous syrup, and then the syrup is cooled, again, it is filtered and check the pH of the syrup, v) establish a pH between 4.5 and 5.5 by adding 1.3 kg citric acid, vi) in 3 l of water at 80oC dissolved 0.6 kg of the dye and this solution is then added to the weight of the syrup, mix and mix thoroughly, (vii) weighted number of menthol added to 4 liters of pineapple odorants were dissolved under stirring, this solution is added to the weight of the syrup, stirred for 15 min to obtain a homogeneous syrup, add to the syrup, a sufficient quantity of boiled and cooled water to bring the volume up to 2000 l, mix and mix well, then through the bottom gate select 10 l of syrup and add it to the top of the vessel, this stage is repeated and the solution is stirred for another 30 min for complete homogeneity of syrup, viii) if necessary, add sugar, therapeutically acceptable dyes, essence, additional preservatives.

 

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4 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: medicine, phytotherapy, pharmacy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparations of vegetable origin. Invention proposes the preparation eliciting immunomodulating effect and comprising aqueous-alcoholic extracts of the following plants, mas. p. p.: glabrous licorice roots, 5.0-15.0; fenestrate Saint-John's-wort herb 4.0-16.0; dandelion roots, 4.0-16.0; sandy immortelle flowers, 3.5-14.0; senna leaves, 3.5-14.0; thyme herb, 1.0-4.0; snowdon rose (rosewort) rhizomes and roots, 0.05-0.2. Also, invention proposes the preparation comprising condensed or an aqueous-alcoholic extract of above said plants and a filling agent. The preparation can be made as tablet or capsule. The preparation normalizes the blood free radicals content and provides elevating level of T-suppressors with the simultaneous reducing amount of T-helpers in blood of patients in treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of breathing organs.

EFFECT: valuable medicinal properties of preparation.

2 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: pharmaceutical industry.

SUBSTANCE: antitussive preparation comprises thermopsis grass in the form of powder or dry extract, sodium hydrocarbonate, pharmaceutically acceptable granulating agent, pharmaceutically acceptable gliding substance, and, additionally, dry or thick liquorice extract, sodium benzoate, ammonium chloride, and anise oil.

EFFECT: improved reliability during tableting and storage.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 16 ex

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