Method control mode saturation transistor

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used to control the saturation of the power transistor switches (JCC) of bipolar transistors. The method is based on the supply and regulating the current from the power sources of the power circuit and the control circuit transistor switch. Simultaneously with the supply to the control circuit TC DC produce a regulated flow in the control circuit of an alternating current with an amplitude not exceeding the level of the DC with the lowest possible amplitude, providing a reliable determination of this component to the background noise. Measured total variable components of the current in the control circuit and power circuit TC, and compares the relationships of the latter with a reference value, equal to the ratio of the voltages of the power sources in the power circuit and the control circuit, and the obtained result is judged on securing saturation mode. Effect: method allows to control the shift operation mode, the transistor switch in the direction key or the active point adopted for the boundary between the core and active modes, to detect even short-term output JCC, in the process, the last mode nasiya the saturation mode transistor switch - the main element in the development of highly efficient power contactless protective and switching equipment. The proposed solution may also be used in the study and consideration of the effects of various influencing factors, for example, radiation of outer space, equipment, containing transistors operating in key mode.

Known methods of control saturation mode transistor, which consists in feeding to the respective power sources of the currents in the power circuit and the control circuit of the transistor of the key, the current change in the power circuit so that the transistor was in key mode and enter active mode, and a sharp increase of the voltage drop across the key is judged on the border between key mode and active mode. This method is widely described in the literature in the relevant textbooks and manuals, for example: O. A. CBS "the power transistors in the switching mode" Energy, M, 1971 at pages 31 - 32.

The disadvantage of this method is the use of indirect parameter (the value of the voltage drop across the transistor) to control the saturation mode transistor. The use of indirect parameter which is the basic mode of operation of the transistors in the protective and switching equipment. Information about the provision of saturation mode transistor, and the confirmation of the execution of this mode in a wide temperature range, supply voltage, exposure to penetrating radiation, etc. is extremely necessary for hardware developers, and quality control of manufactured products.

Information of this nature is often necessary to obtain experimentally, especially when confirming stocks by performance of electronic equipment in extreme conditions during the various tests.

The control method of the saturated transistor switch, based on the supply and regulation of the currents from the power sources of the power circuit and the control circuit transistor switch, the measurement of currents in the power circuit and the control circuit, measurement of voltages in the power circuit and the control circuit, determining the ratio of the currents and comparing the obtained result with the benchmark avoids this drawback. Benchmark every time is the result of the previous measurement. As a result, by the method of successive approximations method allows to determine the control point when the sum of the capacities dissipated in the power circuit and the control circuit tracefile amplification transistor in the key mode, the ratio of the drive current and the load current and, respectively, to control the saturation mode transistor. Description of the method shown and described in detail in the book "Electronic engineering in automation" 15 edited by Y. I. Konev, M. , Energy, 1984 article, Vedeneyev M and other "current transfer Ratio of the transistor in saturation mode". The method allows to determine the ratio of the drive current and the load current transistor that provides the saturation mode transistor. Because the control is carried out taking into account a number of parameters, allowing to directly judge the saturation mode transistor, the proposed method differs significantly higher accuracy, because it is not influenced by such factors as changes in the characteristics of power transistors, ambient temperature, etc.

The disadvantage of this method is its low efficiency, because you want to measure current and voltage in the power circuit and the control circuit of the transistor, to determine the power dissipated in these circuits, the total power dissipated on the key. The comparison of the obtained value with a reference, which is the result predidusceea to the level when dissipated in the power transistor has a minimum value, is performed repeatedly, which causes low efficiency of the method. It should also be noted that while testing the saturation mode transistor switch in the automatic systems, where the control current is generated automatically by internal algorithm, this method becomes difficult or impossible. The method is convenient for laboratory research and experiments, but while testing the saturation mode transistor switch in the factory, requiring high performance, the method is not applicable.

The technical result of the present invention is to increase the efficiency of the audit process.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of controlling the saturation mode transistor, based on the supply and regulation of the currents from the power sources of the power circuit and the control circuit transistor switch, determining the ratio of the currents and comparing the obtained result with the reference value, in contrast to the known, to the control circuit, along with supply a constant current is produced to regulate the relationship of the variables components of current in the control circuit and power circuit in a controlled range of current power circuit transistor, compared with the reference value, equal to the ratio of the voltages of the power sources in the power circuit and the control circuit, and the obtained result is judged on securing saturation mode.

The drawing shows an electric diagram of the setup that implements the proposed method. For comparison with the prototype is a diagram of the installation is also designed for measurements manually.

In the drawing:

1 - supply chain management

2 - diode,

3 - the regulator (resistor) to regulate the current in the control circuit of transistor key,

4 - transistor,

5 - the sensor is the sum of the currents of the power circuit and the control circuit,

6 - electrical load transistor switch,

7 - ammeter to measure the current consumed from the source 7 in the load circuit,

8 - power supply power circuit,

9 - condenser,

10 - resistor

11 is a variable resistor,

12 - AC voltage with a high output impedance,

13 sensor alternating current in the control circuit,

14 - condenser,

15 - condenser,

16 is an operational amplifier (comparator),

17 - voltmeter.

Transistor switch consists of a PEFC is as 2, controller 3 (variable resistor) to regulate the current in the control circuit of transistor key, the power transistor 4 and the sensor current in the power circuit 5. In the drawing these elements encircled by a dotted line.

Power circuit transistor (the transistor 4 and the current sensor 5) is included in the circuit of the load current, where sequentially includes: a load transistor 6, the ammeter 7, the power source of the power circuit 8.

The chain formation of the alternating voltage collected serially connected: the current sensor 13, the generator AC voltage 12, parallel connected resistors 10 and 11, the capacitor 9. The output of the sensor alternating current control circuit 13 through a capacitor 15 is connected with one input of the operational amplifier, and the output of the sensor is the sum of the currents of the power circuit and the control circuit is connected to another input of the operational amplifier 16. The output of the operational amplifier 16 through the voltmeter 17 is connected to the output of the generator 12.

The scheme shown in the drawing for simplification does not contain a number of minor items that are not relevant to the explanation of the principles of the method, for example, the power supply of the operational amplifier, different ents, necessary to ensure the stable operation of the comparator operational amplifier, and patterns of connection are listed in the relevant background literature used types of chips.

Control saturation mode transistor is as follows. From voltage source 1 with the magnitude of the voltage E1, through the diode 2 and the regulator (variable resistor 3) is the current in the control circuit of the transistor 4. The current is regulated by the resistor 3. (Current management is determined by internal circuit transistor switch and is regulated by the internal algorithms of the control transistor. In the drawing the current regulator control is shown schematically in the form of an adjustable resistance 3. The operator, which produces a control, does not interfere in the process of forming the current control. The current consumed from the power source of the power circuit 8 with the magnitude of the voltage E2, the flow of which is the control saturation mode transistor is set by selection of the resistor 6 and is controlled by the ammeter 7. The resistor 5 is the sensor current in the power circuit transistor switch.

A source of alternating voltage 12 supply to the circuit is cnica 1. It should be noted that, for example, the increase in the amplitude of oscillations of the AC more amplitude supplied to the control circuit of the constant current source 1 can cause locking transistor switch at some points of time, which leads not only to the impossibility of control, but is not working properly, a transistor switch. In addition, the increase of the amplitude of the current consumed from a source of alternating voltage 12, leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption from this source, occurrence of high interference level in the load circuit transistor switch. The lower limit of the amplitude of the supplied alternating current is determined by the noise level of the transistor, where it is still possible to make a reliable determination of the variable component.

Coarse control of the magnitude of the alternating current supplied to the control circuit transistor switch is connected in parallel with the resistors 10 and 11. Further adjustment of the variable component of the current in-process control testing is performed by the controller 3. The control law, which is performed by the controller 3, in this case, is not significant, because the/P> In the most General case, the role of the regulator current control transistor 3 in the key can execute the current controllers of different types that perform the function of control current control current load power circuit transistor switch, for example, the voltage drop across the power electrodes of the transistor switch, or based on a different principle. Control ensure saturation mode transistor is to confirm that all the required range of load current, a transistor can provide the required saturation of the latter.

Thus, in the control circuit, along with supply a constant current to produce an adjustable AC current with amplitude not exceeding level DC.

Operational amplifier 16 compares the variables in stress-induced currents in the control circuit and power circuit resistors 13 and 5. Capacitors 14 and 15 serve as a filter for variable stress component.

Resistor 6 provide installation of the required load current, which is necessary to control the saturation mode transistor. In General, as the resistor 6 can be used to load the e only at a fixed load transistor, as in the case of continuous wire resistor, but throughout the range of acceptable current load transistor switch.

Control saturation mode transistor is as follows. Power circuit transistor switch across the load 6, the ammeter 7 is connected with a voltage source 8 in accordance with the drawing. B a control circuit transistor produce a flow of alternating current with an amplitude less than the amplitude of the DC. The initial adjustment of the amplitude of the alternating current produced by the potentiometer 11 and the constant resistor 10. Thus there is a mixing of the currents from two sources: a voltage source 1 and source AC voltage 12. Further regulation of the current in the control circuit is carried out by the internal current regulator transistor. Increase or decrease the constant current component leads, respectively, to a synchronous regulation and the variable component of the current.

Variable components of the currents in the control circuit and power circuit transistor switch cause a corresponding voltage drop at the current sensors 5 and 13. Capacitors 14 and 15 provide filtering variables with the UNT crossing point optimal saturation is monitored by a voltmeter 17, what happens when the ratio of the variable components of the currents in the power circuit and the control circuit is equal to the ratio of the voltages of the power sources. In this case, if the magnitude of the AC voltage, falling on the sensor current in the power circuit 5 is greater than the AC voltage falling on the sensor current in the control circuit 13, the output voltage of the operational amplifier 16 will have the same phase as the voltage of the generator 12. Consequently, the voltage indicated by the voltmeter 17, will have a minimum value close to zero. If the magnitude of the AC voltage, falling on the sensor current in the power circuit 5, is less than the magnitude of the AC voltage, falling on the sensor current in the control circuit 13, the output voltage of the operational amplifier 16 will have a phase opposite to the phase voltage of the generator 12. Consequently, the voltage indicated by the voltmeter 17, will have the maximum value. When the amplitude of the generator voltage in the range 0 To 10 V and the output voltage of the operational amplifier 10, the voltmeter reading will be 0 and 20, respectively, which is sufficient for reliable readings.

Changing the resistor 6, the current in the load circuit and controlling dormancy is loading.

The use of the proposed method assumes that the boundary of the optimal saturation of the transistor passes through the point where the amplification factor of the power transistor becomes equal to the unit. If we denote Ju~increment current control, and through the Jn~the corresponding increment of the load current caused by the Ju~the point of the boundary of the saturation mode transistor is determined by the ratio E1 Ju~= E2 Jn~that corresponds to the mode where the change of the amount of power consumed by the control circuit leads to an equal increase of power in the load circuit. The displacement of the working point of the transistor by increasing the drive current causes the transfer transistor in the key mode, where the increase in the drive current does not cause a noticeable increase in current in the load circuit. Accordingly, the displacement of the working point of the transistor by reducing the drive current causes a transition of the transistor in the active mode, where a small change in the current management leads to significant changes of the current in the load circuit.

The comparator is made at the operational amplifier 16, allows you to define the area in which the of roika comparator (by selection of the ratio of the resistance values of the current sensors 5 and 13) is made on the basis of to the triggering of the comparator occurred when the ratio of the values of the currents:

Ju~/Jn~=E2/E1, (1)

Denote by E2/E1=k, then Ju~/Jn~=k.

Because in this scheme, the current sensor 5 installed in the emitter circuit of the transistor, which made the key, the AC voltage at the current sensor is the sum of the voltage drops from the load current and the current control.

We denote the Ju~+ Jn~= J5~where J5~- the variable component of the current flowing through the current sensor 5. In this case, equation (1) becomes Ju~/ (J5~- Ju~) = k, where Ju~/J5~= k/(k+1), i.e. under this variant, the control circuit condition (1) is achieved by setting the comparator compares the variable components of the currents flowing through the current sensors 13 and 5 in the ratio k/(k+1), where k is the ratio of the voltages of the power sources of the power circuit and the control circuit. This setting threshold of the comparator can be achieved by choosing the appropriate ratio of the resistance values of the current sensors 13 and 5.

The result of control can be determined from the readings of the voltmeter 17. If in the whole range of currents is the same voltage voltmeter has a low output value, the degree of saturation of the transistor switch is sufficient, since Ju~/Jn~> E2/E1. The control process can be easily automated because of revealing the fact of failure of saturation of the transistor is sufficient to identify only the presence of a high voltage level at the output of the comparator in the whole range of load current, a transistor, or any portion of that range.

Thus, the proposed method provides a higher efficiency process control compared to the prototype, because instead of a large number of operations (measurement of current and voltage of the control circuit of the transistor, the definition of power dissipated in the input circuit of the transistor-measurement of current and voltage in the power circuit of the transistor, the definition of power dissipated in the power circuit of the transistor, the addition of the values of these capacities and regulation of the current supplied to the control circuit, to a value when the specified amount of capacity will have a minimum value that requires multiple measurements and storing results) use a smaller number of simpler operations (supply and adjust the alternating current in the control circuit and the comparison aspect] is This peculiarity allows to control the power transistor switches in the manufacturing process in real time, unlike the existing method. Ease of implementation of the operations of method and sequence allows you to automate the control process, providing the control transistor switches in the process of their production.

In addition, simplification of the apparatus implementing the method allows to reduce the cost of the measurement instrument, to reduce the costs of adjustment and maintenance of equipment, requires less skilled workers.

The control method of the saturated transistor switch, based on the supply and regulation of the currents from the power sources of the power circuit and the control circuit transistor switch, determine the ratio of the currents, and compare the obtained result with the reference value, characterized in that the control circuit, along with supply a constant current to produce an adjustable AC current with amplitude not exceeding the level of direct current, produce a measurement of the ratio variable components of current in the control circuit and power circuit in a controlled range of current power circuit transistor switch, is compared with a reference value, equal to the ratio of the voltages of the power sources in the power circuit and the control circuit, and according to the result obtained with the

 

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