Method of reclamation of soil in the extraction of licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice flood plain or steppe ecotype and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for the extraction of licorice raw materials in a natural Bush licorice with preservation of biopotential and ecotype and can be used in agriculture. The method is carried out in the process of soil in the band. In the post-harvest period licorice raw materials during continuous movement of large clods and soil aggregates on the surface of the strip and picayunish rollers cut into agronomically valuable fractions. Further displace the soil with a roller in the middle part of the ditch and in the process of rolling the strip surface give a grooved shape with the water distribution slit along its axis. The device has a frame and an ice rink. In front of the rink successively mounted the disk unit installed and horizontal offset from the middle of the frame left and right piles. The rink is made in the form of two truncated cones connected by large grounds. The rink is equipped with disk silerton established in the plane of the pairing of the bases of the cones. Such technology and design will reduce the recovery time of a population of licorice and exclude the processes of water, wind and solar soil erosion. 2 S. and 2 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. Izobreteny the th, wind and solar soil erosion and productivity licorice flood plain or steppe ecotype in natural Bush and licorice on the long-term plantations.Licorice root in a natural Bush licorice (Glycyrrhiza) is a valuable medicinal raw material of pharmaceutical industry. Currently, issues of harvesting above-ground vegetative parts licorice mechanised way. Extraction of licorice is the most energy-intensive and labor-intensive operation. Developed new mechanized mining technology licorice root in the production of technical means, as well as newly developed, in particular, machines for production of licorice roots MDX-1.1 and MDK-2,5 (see Caldew A. M. extraction Machine the roots and rhizomes of licorice// Tractors and agricultural machines. - 1999. - N 3, - S. 19-21). One of the mechanized technology provides a way of developing natural thickets of licorice. Between the developed strips equal to or multiples of them values left untreated area (reservation) with natural grass and thickets of licorice local ecotype (see Caldew A. M. Environmentally adapted production technologies, lakric is itoria and the formation of a healthy way of life: proc. Dokl. The first international Symposium., 8-14 September 1997 - Volgograd, 1997, - S. 77-78).One way of remediation in the extraction of licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice riparian ecotype with the formation of the machined surfaces of the strips tested in the period from 1997 to 1999 on the ridges of the floodplain R. Volga Lands farm "Rodina" Narimanov district of the Astrakhan region) (see Kruzhilin I. P., Caldew A. M., mother's C. F., Konstantinova T. G., submitted by Jose Marcos C. N. Environmentally friendly technologies for extraction of liquorice in the Lower Volga region of the Russian Federation // Volga environmental Bulletin. - Volgograd: Publishing house of the Volga, 1998. - Vol. 5, - 372 S. - C. 232-236). However, in flood-prone areas of the floodplain of the river Volga and its sleeves require other technologies, i.e., sustainable water erosion during flood and wind and solar erosions in astrotheology periods of time.The known method of combating soil erosion on the slopes, including planting after a certain distance the scenes across a slope and gullies and spreading mulch created between the scenes (see SU, authorship, N 483945. M A 01 CL B 13/16. The way to combat soil erosion on slopes // C. M. Ivonin. Declared 04.02.1974 published 15.09.1975).However, this method e.g. the detention, that is very important in the conditions of unstable and insufficient moisture.There is also known a method of combating soil erosion, including lane cultivation of agricultural crops, followed by leaving at the boundaries of the stripes wings facing up the slope creates erosion furrow mulching of plant mass (SU authorship, N 946420. M A 01 CL B 13/16. The way to combat soil erosion // E. C. Poluektov, V. A. Fedorov. Declared 23.02.1981 published 30.07.1982).Not all crops used in the band seeding, effective in the wings to fight erosion processes from washing soil thawed or flood waters. Lane planting tall crops, as the most effective crops to combat erosion processes and increase absorption by soil runoff water, leads to monocultures, which negatively affects other plant communities. Creating erosion furrows is costly and leads to the alienation of arable land.Agricultural production is also known a method of protecting soils from erosion, including lane sowing across the slope and care in winter scenes, cutting vodoknal crops for the scenes is carried out with simultaneous slicing slits inside the scenes and restore them before leaving the scenes in the winter, and next year the scenes sow offset below the hill from last year's location at a distance equal to their width, and mulch use the crop of last year's cultural scenes (see RU, patent, N 2108010. IPC6A 01 B 13/16. The way to protect the soil from erosion // C. M. Kononov, M. C. Kononov, I. C. Poulin in. A. Leont'ev, I. B. Borisenko. Declared 09.04.1996 published 10.04.1998).The disadvantages of the above discussed methods of combating soil erosion is something that requires reseeding any C. agricultural crops. However, the floodplain of the river Volga flooded for a period of 30 to 60 days the water layer from 0.5 to 1.8 m Planted the seeds for this period completely lose their crop quality.There is also known a method of combating soil erosion and accumulation of moisture on slope fields, referred to as the method of selevinia soil in winter cereals, pastures, and seeded perennial grasses on the slopes, including cutting slits across a slope and compaction - draft rollers - expansion, in which, in order to reduce the processes of water erosion, enhance water catchment and areas of precipitation in the slot, simultaneously with meleanie make crafts water introduction channel that connects the mouth slit with the ground surface (see SU, author of svidetel is and slopes // E. Century Gryzlov, N. T. Rozhkov, Y. A. Kuznetsov et al. Stated 03.01.1972 published 19.10.1973).This method is not acceptable to fight against water and wind erosion on arrays natural thickets of licorice in flood-prone floodplains South of the Russian Federation on a number of climatic and soil conditions.In addition, there is a method of combating soil erosion on the slopes, including the creation of a parallel earth rolls in them vertical screens, in which, to improve the effectiveness of the erosion and reduce nutrient losses to a depth from the top edge rolls to solid subsurface soil produce cutting slit, while the screens form filling that gap with a solution of a polymeric material capable of hardening (see SU, authorship, N 886765. M CL3A 01 B 13/16. The way to combat soil erosion on slopes // VP Kustarev. Declared 13.02.1978 published 07.12.1981).The claimed method is applied to combat soil erosion in the thickets licorice is unacceptable for two reasons: 1. Need hack cracks; 2. Running water and compareprices screen of polymer material eliminates the spread of the roots in osvoboditsa.The closest way to the same destination to the claimed object on the totality of symptoms is the way of conservation tillage, including the consolidation of the soil and give it a rough surface, in which, to improve the windproof peat soils, in the process of soil surface give a ribbed shape of streamline protrusions in contact with their bases, followed by an additional seal these projections (see SU, authorship, N 1166678. M CL4A 01 B 29/04 // A 01 B 13/16 // A 01 B 79/00. The way to control erosion of soil and device for its implementation // I. C. Lagatsky, A. I. Fedotov, A. P. Gavrilchik and others Claimed 23.01.1984 published 15.07.1985).However, this method of conservation tillage has the desired effect on the arrays subjected to continuous processing without stubble background and large clods and aggregates.A more simple solution for the implementation of this method is the packer seeder containing hollow drum in which, with the goal of increasing soil compaction and improve water regime in the area of seeding, the surface of the hollow drum is made in the form of codetest, N 946421. M CL3A 01 B 29/04, A 01 C 7/00. Packer seeder // A. A. Pain, V. A. Kozlov, S. C., Stefurak, C. A. Black, and others Claimed 01.12.1980 published 30.07.1982).Before sowing in early spring the soil surface sown fields cut into agronomically valuable soil aggregates with sizes of lumps not exceeding 3-4 cm in the extraction of licorice raw materials in terms of the Lower Volga region during the period from June to November of each calendar year, the size of soil clods greater than 20-30 see the Work mentioned rink in the described conditions does not give any positive results.The closest device of the same purpose to the declared object on a set of attributes is a device for erosion of soil containing frame and cylindrical roller device for profiling the surface of the soil, in which, to improve the windproof peat soils, a device for profiling made in the form of a number of parallel circular depressions on the surface of the rink, each of which has a seal in the form of a trough, which is connected to the frame with spring-loaded relative to her leash, thus the trough and the trough in cross section have the shape of a p is authorized tillage and device for its implementation // I. C. Lagatsky, A. I. Fedotov, A. P. Gavrilchik and others Claimed 23.01.1984 published 15.07.1985).The obstacles to achieve the desired technical result when using the known device, taken as the closest analogue in of the device, are unacceptable handling of the strips in the cleaning of root mass licorice natural thickets of licorice. This is hindered by the complex nature of the profile strip and the size of soil aggregates on the strip and along it.The invention consists in the following.The problem to which the invention is directed, is the removal of the processes of water, wind and solar erosions.The effect and the technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the invention, expressed in shortening the recovery of the population flood plain or steppe ecotype licorice in the retracted strips and maintaining a vegetative cover of grasses herbs.The effect and the technical result in the implementation of the invention are achieved by the fact that in the known method of soil reclamation in mining licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice riparian ecotype, including compacting the soil of large clods and soil aggregates on the surface of the strip and picayunish ridges cut into agronomically valuable fractions, displace them from the soil in the middle part of the ditch and in the process of consolidation of the surface give the grooved shape with the water distribution slit along its axis.For the implementation of this method provided by the device for soil reclamation in mining licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice flood plain or steppe ecotype, which in contrast to the known device in front of the rink sequentially mounted disk section and horizontal offset set from the middle of the frame left and right piles, and the rink, made in the form of two truncated cones, large paired bases, equipped with disk silerton installed in the cavity of the pairing of the bases of the cones; saleres made in the form of a ring and on the surface of the rink is installed with the possibility of dismantling; dumps are mounted on the frame with the possibility of convergence (remove) and vertical movement.Spent an analysis of the level of technology (methods and techniques, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the Applicants have not found counterparts (like the frame of the invention. The proposed analogues for the method and the device allowed to identify a set of essential towards perceived by the Applicants technical result of the distinctive features in the claimed method and device for implementing the method set forth in the claims.Therefore, the claimed invention meets the requirement of "novelty" by applicable law.To verify compliance of the claimed invention to the requirement of inventive step, the Applicants conducted an additional search of the known methods and technical solutions in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features from the nearest similar features of the claimed invention. The test results show that the claimed invention should not be for the specialist explicitly known level of technology and engineering, in particular, the claimed invention does not provide a known transformation.Therefore, the claimed invention meets the requirement of "inventive step" by applicable law.The proposed method of remediation of the soil in the extraction of licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice sing the In Fig. 1 shows a plot of the natural thickets licorice riparian ecotype with virgin deposits, stripes with the extracted roots and rhizomes of licorice as raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, the ranks of reservatol during production in an environmentally safe way technology extraction of the root mass in the range of 90-95% and their reclamation of post-harvest period.In Fig. 2 - section a-a in Fig. 1, the cross-section of virgin formation after harvesting, mowing ground shoots in the pre-harvest period and the root system in the form of Karabash, rope roots, horizontal and vertical rhizomes roots.In Fig. 3 - section b-B in Fig. 1, the cross section of the strip after cleaning the root mass from the surface.In Fig. 4 - section B-B in Fig. 1, the profile of erosion-resistant strip after reclamation in natural thickets of licorice when strip mining technology licorice raw materials.In Fig. 5 is a schematic representation of a device for the remediation of bands in the post-harvest period licorice raw materials, side view (N. D. - direction) on vulnerable and erosion unstable arrays floodplains and wet meadows.In Fig. 6 - same as existing.The proposed method is implemented as follows.In the post-harvest period at the completion of extraction of licorice raw materials during continuous movement of large clods and soil aggregates on the surface of the strip and picayunish rollers cut into agronomically valuable fractions, shifting them from the soil in the middle part of the ditch and in the process of rolling the strip surface give a grooved shape with the water distribution slit along its axis.An example of the method of soil reclamation in mining licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice riparian ecotype.After the disappearance of the flood water on the floodplain of the river Volga aboveground shoots licorice and plant communities in Solodkova Association for 30-40 days to reach peak values of the action potential. By mid-July - mid-August and aboveground shoots harvested mounted rotary mowers SCC-2,1 in the spreading. After 5-6 days the moisture content of hay is reduced to 18-24%. Hay raked in rolls or transverse rake GP-14, or wheel-finger rake GVK to 6.0. Depending on the distance of the location of grassland collect rolls or stacks and form a stack (ameti), or press roll presses PDP-1.6 in roonie thickets form a stubble height of 20-35 see Before the mass production of licorice raw materials in the desired direction cooked strips of a width of 1.8-2.0 m, deleting the aftermath of licorice, stubble grass, Karabash and stubble licorice, preserve the top layer to a depth of 3-4 cm When milling the top layer creates a mulch layer of stems and plant residues. Treated bands in a further move cleaning machines, including tractors class traction 30-50 kN and machinery for the production of licorice roots MDX-1,1 (MDK-2,5). From karastergiou layer 1 (see Fig. 1 and 2) in continuous motion in the virgin lands 2 remove the root mass 3 and placed on the surface of the strip 4. After drying in natural conditions within two to three days the extracted roots and rhizomes of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glalra L., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. , Glycyrrhiza korschinskyi G. Grig), their moisture content with 42-45% reduced to 20-26%. Pre-dried mass is removed by the pick-up of licorice roots DCC-2,0. At the completion of harvesting on the surface of the strip 4 part soil and clods form Picayune rollers 5 and 6 along the trenches 7. The profile of the ditch 7 shown in Fig. 3. Then in the post-harvest period licorice raw materials - the root mass 3 with continuous movement of large clods and soil aggregates 8 on the surface of the strip 4 and so the Nawa 7 and in the process of covering the surface of the strip 4 give a grooved form 10 with the water distribution slot 11 along its axis (see Fig. 4).The proposed method of remediation in the commercial production of licorice raw materials in large amounts of natural thickets licorice exercise device, schematically shown in Fig. 5 and 6.The device comprises a frame 12 with brackets attachment to thrust all systems attached to the tractor and an ice rink 13 with a device for profiling the surface of the soil. In front of the rink 13 sequentially mounted the disk unit 14 and an opposed installed offset from the middle of the frame 12, the left blade 15 and the right blade 16. Rink 13, made in the form of two truncated cones, large paired bases, equipped with disk silerton 17, mounted in the plane of the pairing of the bases of the cones.The disk unit 14 on the frame 12 mounted on two legs with bearing supports. Section 14 provided with a position change its axis of rotation to the longitudinal axis of the frame 12. This allows the section 14 with its disk working bodies to change the angle of attack from 10 to 35ospeed at specified intervals every 5o. The disks in the partition 14 can be made flat, spherical or cut, and can be derived from commercially available with the right blade 16. The surface of the piles 15 and 16 bar and relate to the type of cultural surfaces. Dumps 15 and 16 are mounted on the frame 12 with the possibility of mutual rapprochement or removal. Each of the tips 15 (16) installed on the frame 12 with the racks 18 and provided with a possibility of vertical travel.Rink 13 are hollow. On the left side of the rink 13 threaded cap 19. This allows the use of liquid ballast to change the mass of the rink 13 and, therefore, the specific pressure per unit of surface primatively strip 4. The taper of the surface components of the rink 13 is made within 15 3o. In the middle part of the rink 13 posted by detachable disk saleres 17. Performing scelerata 17 in the form of a detachable ring allows you to change its thickness and width, therefore, the width and depth distribution of the slit 11 on the surface of the strip 4.The device operates as follows.The unit, composed of a tractor-class draught of 14 kN and mounted machine dened above sequence working bodies, the method selenia moves along the trench 7. If you move the device rotary actuators for the disk partition 14 is crushed large clods of soil on a 5 and 6 together with stubble licorice and grasses are crumbling. When moving the unit loosened rollers 5 and 6 together with vegetable and root residues left by the blade 15 and the right blade 16 are shifted to the middle of the trenches 7. Formed after leaving the piles 15 and 16, the shaft of the earth comes first annular edge of the disk scelerata 17 and together with the roller 13 with a tapered surface is pressed in the direction of the bottom and side walls of the trenches 7. After passing the Assembly surface of the strip 4 takes the grooved form 10 with the water distribution slot 11 along its axis. The lower Volga region is characterized astrotheology climate during the growing season. For remediation of bands 4 must be created in the ditches 7 soil moisture. When the loss of even small amounts of precipitation in the spring and summer last with compacted grooved surface of the roll into the water distribution slot 11, and the moisture is distributed in the cavity of the trench 7. During the extraction of the root mass of licorice in the gutter 7 remain small roots with renewal buds and Karabash. The consolidation of the soil in the ditch 7 creates the contact of the roots with soil, removes the air from the voids, creates contact soil aggregates 8 with the walls and bottom of the trenches 7. Compacting soil aggregates 8 in the gutter 7 pottage the conditions for the development of vegetative shoots and korneobrazovateley from axillary buds remaining roots and Karabash licorice. Simultaneously, through the sealed walls of the trenches 7 roots and rhizomes of licorice from untreated zones reservations penetrate into the treated band and their master. Research results in the period from 1997 to 1998 found that one field season in the treated strips restored the biopotential of licorice roots from 10 to 18% of its original productivity. Along with this complicated surface strips on the treated post-harvest period arrays creates a wind-resistant background, excluding the processes not only wind, and water erosion. Created conical surfaces of the rink 13 zheloboobraznogo profiles depending on the orientation of the directions of movement of the unit on the sides of the light form microcolony or Northern and southern exposure, or Eastern and Western exposure, or combinations thereof. These profiles also reduce to a minimum the negative impact of solar erosion.After three or four seasons of growth of productivity roots in earlier removed the bands becomes commensurate with the stocks of raw licorice in the areas of reservations. These profiles are in the trenches 7 are used in the future when cleaning as tramline method cellania in the extraction of plant materials not in production licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice flood plain or steppe ecotype not only preserves views and natural herbage, it also improves the biopotential licorice and qualitative composition of the grass grassland floodplains.Thus, the above data confirm that the implementation of the use of the claimed invention cumulative conditions: the claimed method and device for its implementation are intended for use in agriculture for the production of licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice, where the device is used for soil reclamation in the post-harvest period; the possibility of carrying out the invention is achieved by means of known methods and tools; the proposed method of remediation of the soil in the extraction of licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice flood plain or Prairie ecotypes has an extremely high efficiency, achieved at all stages of the life cycle of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., from korneobrazovateley and ending with the occupation of free space, method of reclaiming a positive effect on the processes of preservation and reproduction of the soil by improving the living conditions of soil bacteria; the technical result of the proposed device for implementing the method is achieved when simple is therefore the claimed invention meets the requirement of "industrial applicability" under the current law. 1. Method of reclamation of soil in the extraction of licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice flood plain or steppe ecotype, including the consolidation of the soil and give it a rough surface, wherein the post-harvest period licorice raw materials during continuous movement of large clods and soil aggregates on the surface of the strip and picayunish rollers cut into agronomically valuable fractions, shifting them from the soil in the middle part of the ditch in the process of rolling the strip surface give a grooved shape with the water distribution slit along its axis.2. Device for soil reclamation in mining licorice raw materials for natural thickets licorice flood plain or steppe ecotype containing a frame and an ice rink with a device for profiling the soil surface, characterized in that the front of the rink successively mounted the disk unit installed and horizontal offset from the middle of the frame left and right piles, and the rink, made in the form of two truncated cones, large paired bases, equipped with disk silerton, slaves made in the form of a ring and on the surface of the rink is installed with the possibility of removal.4. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the left and right piles are installed on the frame with the possibility of mutual rapprochement (removal) and vertical movement.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shallow plowing, deep basic tillage and surface tillage (cultivation) of soil by cutting furrows; after harvesting of cereals, performing simultaneously shallow plowing, surface tillage of soil to depth of up to 16 cm, crushing of soil lumps, compacting, leveling and mulching of soil top layer; in September, providing deep tillage of soil on fields arranged on slopes with gradient exceeding 5 deg while forming vertical slits to depth of 40 cm and inclined slits; simultaneously with slitting procedure, forming water-accumulating vessels, holes and intermittent furrows. Apparatus has hitch, carrier wheels, bearing system and replaceable working tools in the form of disk batteries, flat narrow hoes, rippers with chisel, ring-and-serrated roller, and leveling drum. Blades of leveling drum are arranged at an angle α=30 deg relative to drum axis.
EFFECT: reduced soil erosion and provision for retention of moisture in soil root layer.
3 cl, 9 dwg