The processing method of the hide

 

(57) Abstract:

The method refers to the leather industry and can be used in making leather for various purposes. The hide obezbolivaet ammonium sulfate. Then subjected to abating the enzyme preparation in the presence of phthalic anhydride at their expense, respectively, 0.01 to 0.02% and 0.3 to 0.9% by weight of the hide. The method improves the quality of skin. table 1.

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in making leather for various purposes.

A method of processing of the hide, including his washing water in the presence of phthalic anhydride in the amount of 0.2-0.3% by weight of the hide, obessolivanie ammonium sulfate when the flow rate of 1.25-1.75% and the abating of the enzyme preparation in the amount of 0.3% by weight of the hide / SU authorship, 1638166, A1, 30.03.1991/.

The disadvantage of this method is that it does not allow you to get ready skin with high strength properties.

The closest analogue of the proposed technical solution is the method of processing of the hide, including his obessolivanie ammonium sulfate in the presence of phthalic acid in an amount of 0.4 to 0.8% by weight of the hide and Mr CLASS="ptx2">

The disadvantage of this method is that the introduction in the process of obessolivanija phthalic acid leads to the formation of aluminothermic substances and insoluble phthalates calcium, which precipitated on the surface of the hide, hinder the process of obessolivanija and subsequent bating, which leads to deterioration of the quality of finished leather. A sufficiently high flow rate of enzyme preparation in abating contributes to the formation of the skin such defect, as detached. In addition, the sharp change in the pH of the treatment solution creates the risk of emissions of toxic hydrogen sulfide.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of the leather.

This result is achieved by the fact that in the processing method of the hide, including his obessolivanie ammonium sulfate and abating enzyme preparation, abating the enzyme preparation is produced in the presence of phthalic anhydride at their expense, respectively, 0.01 to 0.02% and 0.3 to 0.9% by weight of the hide.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that the bating in the presence of phthalic anhydride with loosening effect on the structure of collagen fibers, provides the and properties.

Use of the enzyme preparation in an amount of less than 0.01% and phthalic anhydride less than 0.3% by weight of the hide does not allow quality to the process of abating.

The introduction of phthalic anhydride in more than 0.9% by weight of the hide, creates in the processing solution is too low the pH at which the enzyme loses its activity.

Use of the enzyme preparation in the amount of more than 0.02% is impractical because further enhance the effect of bating is not happening and creates the danger of the appearance of the skin blemish of tbsistuste.

The method is as follows.

The hide, obtained by standard methods from the skins of cattle, after ashing washed and obezbolivaet when W.to. 1.0 to 1.2 and a temperature of 35-37oC for 30-40 min ammonium sulfate in the amount of 2.0 to 2.5% by weight of the hide, then the processing fluid is injected 0,01-0,02% of enzyme preparation and 0.3-0.9% of phthalic anhydride and spend the abating of the hide within 60-90 minutes Subsequent processes and operations carried out by standard methods.

Example 1. The hide, obtained by standard methods from the skins of cattle, after ashing and washing obezbolivaet when W.to. 1 and a temperature of 37oC is-SX and 0.3% phthalic anhydride and conduct abating within 90 minutes Further processes and operations carried out by standard methods.

Example 2. The hide, obtained by standard methods from the skins of cattle, treated as in example 1, but the abating produce the Pancreatin in the amount of 0.015% by weight of the hide, in the presence of 0.6% phthalic anhydride.

Example 3. The hide, obtained by standard methods from the skins of cattle, treated as in example 1, but the abating produce an extract of the pancreas in the amount of 0.02% by weight of the hide, in the presence of 0.9% phthalic anhydride.

Example 4. The hide, obtained by standard methods from the skins of cattle, treated as in example 1, but the abating produce at a flow rate of protocolin G-SX 0,008% phthalic anhydride and 0.2% by weight of the hide.

Example 5. The hide, obtained by standard methods from the skins of cattle, treated as in example 1, but the abating produce at a flow rate of Pancreatin 0.03% and phthalic anhydride and 1.0% by weight of the hide.

Qualitative indicators of finished leather in comparison with the skin of the prototype presented in the table.

Using the proposed method allows to obtain a soft, supple leather with high strength properties.

The processing method of the hide, including his obessolivanie SolDat in the presence of phthalic anhydride in their consumption accordingly from 0.01 to of 0.02% and 0.3 to 0.9% by weight of the hide.

 

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FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises pickling, tanning, and neutralizing the semifinished item. During pickling and subsequent tanning, the picking liquid is provided with acetate sodium in amount of 0.2-0.5 % and, then, chromic tanner in amount of 1.5-1.8%. The tanning is carried out until the pH of the solution reaches 4.2-4.4.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of tanning.

2 tbl

FIELD: defatting of crude sheepskin-and-fur material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating crude material in bacterial suspension having lipolytic activity of 20-30 units/g and proteolytic activity of 2.5-3.5 units/g. Suspension contains product of total microorganism vital activity used in an amount of 4-8 g/dm3, synthetic surfactant used in an amount of 0.25-0.5 g/dm3, and prokaryotic crop of Pseudomonas sp. type used in an amount of 107-109 cells/cm3, water the balance. Treatment is conducted at temperature of 40±2 C during 45 min by providing mechanical actions, and liquid coefficient of 7-10.

EFFECT: improved quality of defatting sheepskins, improved elastoplastic properties and reduced level of toxic contamination of sewage water.

3 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, process for pickling of sheepskin fur coats and raw fur material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling fur sheepskins in solution such as sour-milk composition having titratable acidity of at least 300 T, lactic acid concentration of at least 25 g/dm3 and medium active reaction below 3.5; providing said process at temperature of 30±2 C during 16 hours at variable mechanical action, with liquid to acid ratio of 7, sodium chloride consumption of 20 g/dm3.

EFFECT: improved quality of fur sheepskins due to reduced curling of hair-covering and improved elastoplastic properties thereof.

4 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: fur industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to processing fur sheepskin intended for manufacturing clothing, headgears, footwear parts and other fur items. Crude fur sheepskin of all preservation types is subjected to soaking, first degreasing, squeezing, haircutting, and fleshing according to known technology. Then fur sheepskin is subjected to additional processing in aqueous solution of sodium chloride (15-20 g/L) and nonionic surfactant composition (1-2 g.L) for 2-6 h at 30-32°C. After second degreasing and washing, pickle salting is carried out for 20-24 h. 4-6 hours after the beginning of pickle salting, processing solution is supplemented by 3-5 g composition of nonionic surfactants (1:1 mixture of Neonol AF 9-12 and syntamide 5). Finally tanning and greasing are performed.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics fur sheepskin intermediate product.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: leather and fur industry.

SUBSTANCE: method envisages culturing of kefir fungal or kurungal ferment (obtained in amount 50%) on a nutrient medium, which medium is pasteurized skim milk for four first culturing days, pasteurized mixture composed of skim milk and fat-free curds whey on 6-14th days, and pasteurized fat-free curds whey on 15-18th days. Culturing is carried out for 18 days at 22±1°C and mechanical shaking twice a day for 15 min to give ferment with acidity 350-360°T. Ferment may be added to pasteurized cooled milk or to pasteurized curds whey in amounts 25% followed by fermentation at 22±1°C and acidity 350-360°T.

EFFECT: increased stability of ferment (double storage time), its acid-generating capability, and population autoregulation, increased activity to accumulate lactic acid by 2 1/2 times, and reduced restoration time by 4-6 h.

2 cl, 4 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling leather depilated hide with sodium chloride and sulfuric acid, addition of chrome tanning agent to the same bath in its consumption 0.5-0.6% of depilated hide mass as measured for chrome oxide, and chrome-plating is carried out for 2-4 h. Aliphatic dialdehyde is added to same bath in the concentration 3-6% of depilated hide mass, and treatment is carried out for 2-3 h wherein glyoxal or glutaraldehyde is used as dialdehyde. Invention provides enhancing thermal stability and strength properties of leather and can be used in tanning leathers for different designation and assortment.

EFFECT: improved tanning method.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: material processing.

SUBSTANCE: method provides degreasing and/or drying of animals' skins. According to method, skins, being subject to degreasing and/or drying, are brought in contact with one or more extractants. At least one dissolvent, selected from group consisting of dimethyl ether, methylal, dioxolane, diethyl ether and methyl ethyl ketone, is used as single dissolvent. Sheep, cows', goat's or pig's skins are subject to degreasing and drying. Process is carried out in stator or rotor reactor under pressure of 1-12 bar and at temperature between 5°C and 40°C.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of cleaning; improved ecological safety of process.

14 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves degreasing sheepskin-fur raw material and can be used in fur production during degreasing of sheepskin-fur coat and fur raw material. Processing of the raw material is carried out in a degreasing bath containing a bacterial suspension, which has both lipolytic 50-60 units/gram and proteolytic 8-10 units/gram activity, with the total product of life activity of the microorganisms at a value of 5-6 g/dm3, synthetic surface-active substance - 0.5-1.0 g/dm3, catalase-positive procariotic culture of genus Erwinia sp. in the quantity 109-1010 cells/cm3 in the degreasing bath hydrogen peroxide is additionally added in the quantity 0.1-1.0 g/dm3, preliminarily dissolved in a tenfold amount of piped water. Processing is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°C, for 60 min., with some mechanical action from time to time and liquid crystallisation=10.

EFFECT: increase in quality of degreasing sheepskin and reduction in the level of toxic sewage production.

4 tbl, 4 ex

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