The adsorbent for wastewater treatment

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the adsorbent can be used for deep purification of industrial wastewater containing multiple pollutants of different nature. The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the composition of the adsorbent based on the products of low-temperature thermolysis of peat introduced poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol and hydroxides of aluminum and iron. The proposed adsorbent can effectively clean the waste water from oil, oil products and heavy metals, thus it is superior in the degree of extraction of heavy metal ions the product of low-temperature thermolysis of peat, and its adsorption capacity in relation to petroleum products is comparable with the capacity of coal SKT. 3 table.

The invention relates to the field of physico-chemical methods of wastewater treatment and can be used for deep purification of dilute wastewater containing mineral admixtures and for wastewater purification from organic pollutants.

Known adsorbent for wastewater treatment, which represents a heat-treated peat [Mikulich, S. M., study of the process of thermal degradation of the aromatic acid is, the. 21]. Getting it carried out in the processes of low-temperature thermolysis and at a temperature of 200oC peat becomes hydrophobic properties.

The disadvantage of this sorbent is that exposure to high temperatures, allowing you to increase the total pore volume, leads to a reduction in the composition of humic acids carboxyl COOH groups and phenolic hydroxyl OHfthat is the active centers responsible for ion-exchange properties of peat.

Known adsorbent based on peat, which represents a weak acid cation exchange resin [Belkevich P. I., Chistov L. R. Ion-exchange properties of peat. The exchange of cations in the peat. - Proceedings of peat Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR, T. 626, 1957, S. 130]. The method of obtaining this cation exchange resin is in the handling of peat acids, which leads to partial demineralization of the sample with subsequent treatment with alkali, increasing the number of carboxylic groups by breaking down complex ester bonds.

The disadvantage of this adsorbent is a porous underdeveloped structure with a high content of the active acid groups, as samples with a high degree of decomposition and therefore with a high content in the composition of the organic part of humic acids, is of Atala. Therefore, the adsorption by the use of such materials will only go on the active centers with the formation of organo-mineral complexes.

Closest to the proposed to the technical essence and the achieved result is the adsorbent based on peat treated with salts of calcium, aluminum or iron and aqueous suspension of natural or synthetic fiber, machined aluminum salts [RF Patent N 2054315 a Method of producing a sorbent for the purification of waste water from organic substances]. The method consists in the fact that the waste water is filtered through a pasty adsorbent obtained by mixing aqueous slurry of peat and water suspension of fibers, at a certain ratio. In pasty adsorbent as additives use salts of divalent or trivalent metals.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the narrow scope of the sorbent for purification of municipal wastewater from organic impurities due to the low hydrophobicity of the sorbent, and low ion-exchange properties and the impossibility of cleaning at the same time present of toxic heavy metals and petroleum products in the industrial wastewater. High hydraulic resistance which is the development of a carbon-containing adsorbent based on peat, with a well-developed porous space and a high content of active acidic groups, which will allow you to learn from industrial and domestic wastewater pollutants of different nature, simultaneously present in them.

The problem is solved adsorbent for wastewater treatment based on peat-treated aluminum and iron hydroxides, which according to the invention as the basis of the adsorbent contains heat-treated peat, as well as polymer - poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol modifying the surface of the peat, with the following content of components (wt.%):

The aluminum hydroxide - 10-40

Hydroxide of iron - 10-40

Poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol - 0,1-0,25

Heat-treated peat - Rest

The invention consists in the following: peat is subjected to low-temperature thermolysis at a temperature of 200-350oC, preferably at a temperature of 250oC, and mixed with powdered inorganic gidrolizuemye salts, for example 18, a hydrated sulfate of aluminum, and inorganic gidrolizuacy iron salt, such as nonahydrate iron sulfate.

According to the technical specifications 6-00-00204168-252-94, who received a health certificate N 1I-11/349 on April 5, 1994 The state Committee for sanitary and epidemiological supervision of the Russian Federation.

The selection and processing of peat samples for laboratory tests were carried out according to GOST 5396-77 and GOST 13674-78. Because according to SNiP 11-31-74 peat as a filter loading is considered at a certain ratio of fractional composition, there was used a mixture of: 5% of granules with the size of 1.83-2.00 mm; 85% - size of 1.12-1.83 mm; 10% - size 0,63-1,12 mm (GOST 16188-70). It is recommended to use the weak peat decomposition degree (R < 25%) and low ash content (Ac < 5%).

Nonahydrate sulfate iron (III) is a derivative of ferrous sulfate (III), derived from ferrous sulfate (GOST 6981-75).

Raw material for producing hydrate of aluminum sulfate, containing 18 mol of water, such as aluminum sulfate (purified) GOST 12966-75.

You can enter in the composition of the products of low-temperature thermolysis of peat not gidrolizuacy inorganic salts of aluminum and iron, and the prior and air-dried products of the hydrolysis of the aluminum and iron hydroxides.

All the components are mixed in water at 60-70oC for 1.5-2 hours. For neutralization of hydronium ions formed during hydrolysis proizvodyat washed with water and methanol to the lack of filtrate traces of flocculant.

The following examples illustrate the production technology of the adsorbent.

Example 1.

The proposed adsorbent prepared as follows: the product of low-temperature thermolysis of peat (thermolysis is carried out at a temperature of 200-350oC, preferably 250oC) is mixed with powdered inorganic gidrolizuemye salts of aluminum and iron. 18-Hydrate of aluminum sulfate and nonahydrate iron sulfate (3) take in the ratio of 1:1 in terms of the products of hydrolysis, which is 8,55 and 5.25 g, respectively, and poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol weight was 30 mg, given the fact that the main form of its production is a gel with a basic substance content of 40%. All components were mixed in water at 600oC for 1.5 hours. For neutralization of hydronium ions formed during hydrolysis produced alkalization of water 10% ammonium hydroxide solution, maintaining the pH of 8. The ratio of the dry mixture and water was 1:30. After 30 minutes of settling and filtering off the solid phase prepared sorbent was washed with water and a little methanol to the lack of filtrate traces of flocculant. Drying is carried out at room temperature for 48 hours.

Example 2.

Instead calculated in example 1, the quantities of salts of metals of Al2(SO4)318H2O and Fe2(SO4)39H2O in the composition of the mixed adsorbent happened previously air-dried 2 g Al(OH)3and 2 g of Fe(OH)3. The composition of the mixed adsorbent corresponds to the composition of the adsorbent obtained in example 1.

Example 3.

To the product of low-temperature thermolysis of peat by weight of 4.4 g and defined as the optimal ratio of aluminum and iron hydroxides (example 1) add poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol weight is 75 mg.

The ratio of dry material and water corresponds to the amounts specified in example 1. The composition of the adsorbent in the translation products of hydrolysis correspond to the ratio, wt.%:

Al(OH)3- 10

Fe(OH)3- 40

poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol - 0,25

peat - rest

Studies have shown that the particles of the products of low-temperature thermolysis of peat, having in the aquatic environment negative charge, which can absorb large quantities of Tlakula is giving speed sorption extraction of organic pollutants, there is a sharp reduction in total pore volume, therefore, the introduction of large amounts of flocculant is not expedient.

Characteristics of the carbon sorbent, obtained by the method of low-temperature thermolysis of peat, followed by chemical modification, are given in table. 2.

The resulting sorbent allows you to simultaneously removed from the wastewater of oil refineries oil, oil products and heavy metals, while their presence.

The adsorbent was tested on model mixtures containing 100 mg/l oil, 250 mg/l of phenol and 50 mg/l of heavy metal ions by a standard method, research Institute of VODGEO [Smirnov A. D. Sorption purification of water. - L.: Chemistry, 1982. - 168 S.]

The results are given in table 3.

As can be seen from the presented data, the obtained multifunctional sorbent is superior in the degree of extraction of heavy metal ions the product of low-temperature thermolysis of peat, from which it can be concluded that inorganic gidrolizuacy salt, forming polynuclear equalitarianism remaining after degradation of the active centers of humic acids restore the microstructure, intensificar and the decrease in sorption capacity with respect to petroleum products, but she still remained comparable with the capacity of coal SKT, derived from peat at high temperatures the activation 900-1000oC. Given the immense volume of wastewater generated at chemical and petrochemical plants, the high cost of ion-exchange materials with their low exchange capacity and the amount of energy for use in the processes of deep purification of active coals, it becomes apparent that the use of relatively cheap and available material on the basis of peat will not only save money, but to increase the degree of purification of domestic sewage.

The adsorbent for wastewater treatment based on peat-treated aluminum and iron hydroxides containing polymer, characterized in that as the basis of the adsorbent contains peat subjected to thermolysis at 200 - 350oC, and as polymer - poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol modifying the surface of the peat, with the following content, wt.%:

The aluminum hydroxide - 10 - 40

The iron hydroxide - 10 - 40

Poly-1,2-dimethyl-5-vinyl-pyridinemethanol - 0,1 - 0,25

Peat is subjected to thermolysis - Rest

 

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