The way the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy and a device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a pulse technique, in particular to magnetic concentration of energy, where the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out using a shock wave explosives. Electromagnetic energy, thus obtained, can be used for powering high-impedance loads, such as electronic accelerators, plasma sources, microwave devices, etc., and also to create a super-high pulsed fields with the aim of studying the behaviour of substances in these fields. The technical result is to increase energy by increasing the magnetic field strength, coefficient of adjustment of the inductance of the circuit device and increase the speed of the output inductance. This technical result is achieved in that in the method the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, including the creation of the initial magnetic flux, the introduction of it into the deformable contour, compression of the magnetic flux through the shock wave of an explosive charge (CC) and removal of magnetic energy in the load, the operation of the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out in a toroidal circuit formed by a multiturn coil, deforming each of the tour, the explosive charge and the system initiation. Deformable contour is made in the form of a multiturn coil, coiled in the toroid, and between the coil and the explosive charge is additional dielectric element. 2 S. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The invention relates to the field of pulse technique, in particular to magnetic concentration of energy, where the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out using a shock wave explosives (he). Electromagnetic energy, thus obtained, can be used for powering high-impedance loads, such as electronic accelerators, lasers, plasma sources, microwave devices, etc., and also to create a super-strong pulsed magnetic fields with the aim of studying the behaviour of substances in these fields.

The known method the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, see the collection of scientific papers "problems of modern experimental and theoretical physics /edited by A. P. Aleksandrov - Leningrad. Science, 1984, page 258, Fig. 20. The method includes the steps of creating an initial magnetic flux, its introduction into the deformable contour, the initial compression of the magnetic flux through the shock wave of the explosive charge and excretion of magnetic energy in the ku carry out as a result of its deformation divergent, converging or simultaneously converging and diverging shock wave from CENTURIES.

To increase the power and energy generated pulse in a high-impedance load having a resistance that is measured from units to hundreds of Ohms, it is necessary that the speed of the output inductance of the circuit was greater than the ohmic resistance of the entire circuit.

The disadvantage of this method is the low primary inductance (of the order of hundreds of nanohenry), which does not allow for a relatively short time (of the order of ten microseconds) to provide a high coefficient of adjustment of the inductance of the circuit (KL), determined by the ratio of primary inductance of the circuit to the remaining inductance after deformation, and the relatively high speed output (changes) of its inductance, and thereby use it to power high-impedance loads.

Closest to the claimed method is the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, see the collection of scientific papers "problems of modern experimental and theoretical physics". /Edited by A. P. Aleksandrov - Leningrad. Science, 1984, page 260, Fig. 21.D. The way the prototype includes the creation of the initial magnetic potjie magnetic energy to the load. The operation of the compression of the magnetic flux are also in coaxial circuit (cavity), with the inner side limited by a cylindrical conductor, and the outer spiral guide (solenoid). During the operation of the compression diverging shock wave is deformed only cylindrical center conductor and turns of the spiral conductor experience the impact of diverging shock waves CENTURIES. Due to the introduction of the spiral conductor, which is part of the circuit, it is possible to increase the inductance of the loop (Lg), and the magnetic field strength H.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the insufficient level of the generated magnetic energy due to constraints on the magnetic field strength, the coefficient of adjustment of the inductance of the circuit and the speed of the output inductance.

This invention solved the problem of creating a method explosive accumulation of magnetic energy to implement it when getting powerful pulses of magnetic energy microsecond range to high-impedance loads.

Technical result achieved in the solution of this task is to increase energy by p is t o inductance.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in comparison with the known method the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, including the creation of the initial magnetic flux, the introduction of it into the deformable contour, compression of the magnetic flux through the shock wave of the explosive charge and the removal of magnetic energy in the load, what is new is that the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out in a toroidal circuit formed by a multiturn coil, deforming each round.

Since the circuit is formed helical coil compression of the magnetic flux is directly under the deformation of each coil of the coil, i.e., the coil inherent simultaneously two functions: it is a current-carrying circuit to generate a high magnetic field strength (H 106E) between the coils due to the small cross section of the conductor, and she plays the role of the missing liner compression of the magnetic flux. High multiturn inductor toroidal coil in combination with a small time warp contour achieve large KL, higher speeds, the output inductance and the displacement of the magnetic flux. As well as, in addition, creates high Toby to provide efficient energy conversion CENTURIES in the electromagnetic on a small plot of braking without significant losses all these conditions make it possible to increase the energy output to the load and to increase its capacity. Small time warp contour of the coil is determined by the maximum radial size of the toroidal cavity and radial average speed of deformation of the coil VRin this location. The average phase velocity VFwhich occurs along the perimeter of the circumference of the coil advancing contact closures that occur when forming each coil shall be determined in accordance with addiction

> VFVR(D1+hm)/hm,

where D1- the inner diameter of the coil, hm- the maximum transverse dimension of the cavity of the coil at the moment of approach (contact) internal (D1its surface to the outer (D2). For the case when the axis of the explosive charge coincides with the axis of the coil, the moving contact of the circuit will occur almost instantly c VF_ . When creating simultaneously converging and diverging shock wave coil is deformed directly from within and from without, which provides the greatest rate of deformation, and hence less time.

A device for implementing the method of the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, see Bankova - Leningrad. Science, 1984, page 258, Fig. 20. The device includes a deformable conductive coaxial circuit, the explosive charge is located inside a cylindrical conductor, outside, or both inside and outside the contour, the system initiation. The load connection to this circuit depends on the location of the explosive charge and method of its initiation.

The disadvantage of this device is low speed output inductance and small KLnot allowing to use it effectively on the previously discussed load.

Closest to the claimed is a device for implementing the method of the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, see see the collection of scientific papers "problems of modern experimental and theoretical physics". /Edited by A. P. Aleksandrov - Leningrad. Science, 1984, page 260, Fig. 21.D. The device prototype contains a deformable conductive path, the explosive charge and the system initiation. Deformable compromise circuit is made in the form of a solenoid and installed coaxially with the national center conductor. The explosive charge is located inside the center conductor, and an initiation system placed along the axis of this CENTURY.

Land the speed of the output inductance at his work, therefore reducing the efficiency of such devices in high-impedance load. It is experimentally shown that the stretching of the tube without breaking occurs by increasing its diameter is about two times. Thus, the subject of this ratio between the liner and the solenoid, providing standards is if the minimum size of the explosive charge with an extended system of initiation providing simultaneous erosion along the axis, to try to make a 25 mm diameter, with pipes (wall thickness 1 mm), outer diameter of the solenoid is subject to the terms of the stretching of the liner twice is 54 mm, Therefore, the base span of the liner until it comes into contact with the spiral will be 13.5 mm Maximum velocity in the pipe is 2.5 km/s, i.e. the time warp will be no less than 5 μs. The increase of the outer diameter of the liner from BB to 48 mm in order to provide time 1 µs, will lead to a significant reduction of its inductance. It will be reduced by at least 80% of the value of the inductor, which corresponds to a separate solenoid. Thus, the presence of a metal liner significantly reduces the initial settings of the device, which, in turn, imposes a limitation on using it to power high-impedance loads.

The technical result is to increase the power generated by increasing the magnetic field strength, coefficient of adjustment of the inductance of the circuit and increase the speed of the output inductance.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in comparison with the known device for warioware charge, what's new is that the deformable contour is made in the form of a multiturn coil, coiled in the toroid, and between the coil and the explosive charge is additional dielectric element. The axis of the coil is offset from the axis of the explosive charge in the load side or the axis of the outer surface of the coil offset from the axis of the inner surface in the direction of the load. The coil is made with increasing in the direction of the load step of winding. The cross-sectional area of the toroidal coil is made to increasing load.

Deformable contour is made in the form of a multiturn coil, coiled in the toroid in order to be able to locate CENTURIES concentrically above and below this path. Using this geometry makes it easy to form as cylindrically converging and diverging shock wave at the initiation of these CENTURIES. Since the circuit is formed helical coil compression of the magnetic flux is directly under the deformation of each coil of the coil, i.e., the coil inherent simultaneously two functions: it is a current-carrying circuit to generate because of the small cross-section of the conductor of high magnetic field strength (H 106E) is there a multiturn coil in combination with a small time warp contour achieve large KLspeed of the output inductance and the displacement of the magnetic flux. As well as, in addition, creates a high magnetic field strength H, which corresponds to the high energy density of the magnetic field (H2/8) to provide efficient energy conversion CENTURIES in the electromagnetic on a small plot of braking without significant loss, that all these conditions allow to increase the output energy to the load and to increase its capacity. Small time warp contour of the coil is determined by the maximum radial size of the toroidal cavity and radial average speed of deformation of the coil VRin this location. In the case of simultaneously converging and diverging shock wave coil is deformed directly from within and from without, which provides the greatest rate of deformation, and hence less time warp. The presence of the dielectric element and the existing insulation in the form of an air film or insulation of the turns of the coil is necessary to ensure that the products of detonation (explosion) are unable to penetrate the deformable contour, and the coils were not perumytilus in the deformation process. Breakthrough products of detonation would cause local bending deformable conductors of the coil images is restaurantname electrical breakdown between the coils and a sharp decrease in output voltage. In addition, since the coil has a toroidal form, it turns out veeravalli: contact between a diameter D1and not have more common ground to outer diameter D2. As a result of this arrangement of coils material of the dielectric elements in the deformation process will be to penetrate the existing gaps between them (the mass of the dielectric element is less than the mass of this element to turn on him), thus providing additional inter-turn insulation. The increasing use of the step of winding and increasing cross-section in the direction of the load makes the most efficient to increase the current (and hence energy) during the entire period of operation of the device while maintaining the coil at the appropriate maximum level of magnetic field 1 DOE. It is necessary that the axis of the coil was shifted relative to the axis of the explosive charge, or that the axis of the inner circle does not coincide with the axis of the outer and was displaced in the opposite direction from the load. All the above allows to significantly extend the class directly connected to the device to different types of loads.

In Fig. 1 shows sheerest for implementing the method of the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy when creating, for example, diverging shock wave.

In Fig. 3 shows a section a-a of the device.

In Fig. 4 depicts the inventive device when creating e.g. both diverging and converging shock waves for initiating EXPLOSIVES.

In Fig. 5 shows the inventive device, when the axis of the coil is offset from the axis of the explosive charge in the load side.

In Fig. 6 depicts the inventive device for the case when the coil is made with an enlargement in the direction of the load step of winding.

In Fig. 7 depicts the inventive device for the case when the cross-sectional area of the toroidal coil is made increasing the load side.

In Fig. 8 shows a section a-a of the coil shown in Fig. 7.

The claimed method explosive accumulation (Fig. 1) includes creating the initial magnetic flux, the introduction of it into the deformable contour 1 and excretion of magnetic energy to the load through the shock wave of the explosive charge 2 initiation system 3. The operation of the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out in groupassum circuit 1 formed by a multiturn coil 4, deforming each round. Magnetic energy is discharged to the load connected to clemena the implementation of how the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy was as follows. The initial magnetic flow in deformable contour was created from charged to 10 kV battery with a capacity of 0.35 pF, which when triggered spark gap was discharged to the multiturn coil. The operation of the compression of the magnetic flux carried in the toroidal circuit, for example, as in the specific case of diverging shock wave of the explosive charge 2, located within this circuit, where the stream was compressed with increasing energy density. Independent (without shorting between a) the deformation of the coils allows you to save the toroidal magnetic field during the whole time of the compression of the magnetic flux that provides effective reinforcement of the current and, consequently, increase energy pulse to the load.

The device for implementing the method of the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy contains (Fig.2-8) deformable conductive circuit 1, the explosive charge 2 initiation system 3, while the deformable contour is made in the form of a multiturn coil 4 wound in the toroid, and between the coil 4 and the explosive charge 2 is posted additional dielectric element 5. The axis of the coil 4 is displaced relative to the axis of the explosive charge 2 in the direction of the load. The coil 4 is made with increase in the load side sagol the outer surface of the coil 4 is displaced relative to the axis of the inner surface of the coil 4 in the direction of the load. The load is connected to terminals 6, and the primary source of magnetic flux to the terminals 7. If the top coil 4 no charge 2, this place is an annular weighting 8 turns of the coil 4 of dielectric material. The coil has a radial slot 9 in the maximum transverse dimension h.

The device operates as follows. When connecting the source of the primary magnetic flux (e.g., capacitor banks) in a deformable conductive circuit 1 starts to leak current, increasing during the discharge, and inside multiturn coil 4 generates a magnetic field B. firing the explosive charge 2 on all their surfaces is carried out by the initiation system 3, forming converging and/or diverging detonation front. The moment of initiating EXPLOSIVES 2 is selected so that accelerated the pressure of the shock wave contour plots destroyed the insulation at the connection 7 primary source of magnetic flux at the time of maximum current. Thus, in the toroidal coil 4 terminals 7 are closed shorts and receiving magnetic flux from the source is terminated. Under the action of a shock wave dielectric elements 5, together with the conductor of the CSO field. Because of the presence of the dielectric element 5 and the existing insulation between the turns required to have a multiturn coil 4, the products of the explosion does not penetrate toroidal conductive circuit 1, the coils are not parameciums in the deformation process and the magnetic flux through the gap 9 is displaced to the load. For the device shown in Fig. 2-4, the deformation process is reduced to only the cross-sectional area of the coil S, and the current I circulates in the coils during the entire operating time of the device. Therefore, the total magnetic flux (f = INS) is displaced from the volume coil as the sum of the individual magnetic fluxes fi= IS,(i = 1...N), where N is the total number of turns of the coil 4. The result of this operation, although there is a rapid compression of a large initial magnetic flux generated by the full voltage U ~ /t, applied in place of removing the magnetic flux (slot 9), is not very large due to the fact that a simultaneous deformation of the entire volume of the toroidal cavity having a large inductance, uniformly distributed along the perimeter of the coil. The share of high-impedance load has a voltage, measured typically from a few tens to hundreds of kilovolts, which is udonna between all the turns N of the coil 4 with a relatively small amplitude (U/N). Therefore, a small turn-to-turn insulation (tenths-hundredths of a millimeter) is enough to prevent turn-to-turn electrical breakdown. For the device shown in Fig. 4-8, the principle of operation is somewhat different. After the termination of the receipt of the initial magnetic flux in the coil 4 of the dielectric elements 5, together with the conductor coil 4 are accelerated radially under the action of a shock wave towards each other, doing work against the ponderomotive force of the magnetic field. Thus, the following occurs. In the course of deformation of the coils are fully compressed gradually (not, as in the above device, where they are fully compressed at the same time all at once) or from the point where the mass of the dielectric element with the coils will be the smallest and ending in place of the greater mass (Fig. 4), or from the point where the transverse size h of the coil will be minimal, and then moving in the direction of the maximum transverse dimension (Fig. 5-8). At the initial stage of deformation total magnetic flux is excluded from the volume coil as the sum of all individual flows fi= ISi(i = 1...N). Next, the total magnetic flux in the circuit of the coil will gradually reduce the same duration. For example, to achieve a shorter front rise of the pulse at the initial stage of deformation than in the device shown in Fig. 2-4, and then have some cost. This can be achieved by altering the pitch of the winding, the cross-sectional area of the coil in the direction of load, etc., In this particular case, the cross-sectional area S=h1 toroidal coils shown in Fig. 4-8 performed increases due to a change in lateral dimension of the toroidal cavity (hi....hk). Although S can also increase as a result of changes made to one 1, and simultaneous changes 1 and h. In order for the device to work, you must have either the offset of the axis of the coil relative to the axis of the charge, or to use a coil whose axis of the inner circle does not coincide with the axis of the outer circumference.

The specific example in Fig. 2 is a toroidal contour formed multiturn coil with D1= 79.8 mm, D2= 86.2 mm and 1 = 10 mm Coil wound four parallel wires brand sew-2. The diameter of individual conductor insulation - 0.1 mm Conductors are evenly distributed along the perimeter of the coil. Together connection of load coils on the length of 40 mm are missing is, and its cross-section is made of a rectangular ( = 90o). The conductors are isolated from each other varnish insulation having a thickness of 0.015 mm, the Inductance and resistance (active) coil respectively Lg= 37.4 mH and Rg= 7.1 Ohms. The coil is placed on Orgsteklo tubular element. The wall thickness of the tube 5 mm. Inside this element inserted disk explosive charge from TG 50/50 and a thickness of 15 mm System initiation consists of a single radial blasting cap detonator placed in the center of this charge. The power source was the capacitor Bank capacitance C = 4 μf and a charging voltage of 12 kV. The load resistance was equal to 8 Ohms, and the inductance was 0.07 µh. The battery (about 1 µs) was determined by the moment of approaching the inner surface of the coil to the outside. The calculations showed that at this point, the coil was still not bred inductance equal to 1.16 µh, This inductance is caused by the penetration of the magnetic field in the conductor and by the presence of insulation. When created in the coil primary current is equal to 3 kA, in the load when the device was obtained current 19 kA. (The strength of the device was provided by submerging it in a transformer masorete output inductance = 36 MT/s, the maximum magnetic field strength was about 600 CE. The load was received magnetic energy of 12 j, and the average power was 12 MW. Consider the prototype having the same dimensions, and that the claimed device. The length of the solenoid is 10 mm, and the diameter on which it is wound, is equal to 86 mm as it is wound four wires, each of which has a diameter of 0.1 mm, the number of coils in the solenoid will be 25. The metal pipe has a diameter of 80 mm to ensure that the device worked 1 µs.

The inductance of such a device, as follows from the calculation is the value of 12 µh, and the resistance 4.2 Ohms. When the device is in the load inductance 0.07 µh, since the resistance of 7 Ohms, there is no longer any gain energy and increase the magnetic field strength, while KL= 24. Energy and power transmitted in a high-impedance load when operating the inventive device increase. The same is observed with H, which in the inventive device is increased about 6 times and reaches 600 CE, and in the prototype is on the contrary a decrease in the initial field of 100 kOe at once since the beginning of the deformation path. In particular the inventive device speed in the

1. The way the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, including the creation of the initial magnetic flux, the introduction of it into the deformable contour, compression of the magnetic flux through the shock wave of an explosive charge and removal of magnetic energy to the load, characterized in that the compression of the magnetic flux is carried out in a toroidal circuit formed by a multiturn coil, deforming each round.

2. The device for implementing the method of the explosive accumulation of magnetic energy, containing a deformable conductive path, the explosive charge and the system initiation, characterized in that the deformable contour is made in the form of a multiturn coil, coiled in the toroid, and between the coil and the explosive charge placed additional dielectric element.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the axis of the coil is offset from the axis of the explosive charge in the load side.

4. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the coil is made with increasing in the direction of the load step of winding.

5. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the cross-sectional area of the toroidal coil is made increasing the load side.

 

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