The x-ray source with shaped radiation pattern


H01J35/32 - Tubes wherein the X-rays are produced at or near the end of the tube or a part thereof, which tube or part has a small cross-section to facilitate introduction into a small hole or cavity

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: to obtain a constant or pulsed x-ray radiation of low power. The x-ray source includes a casing (12), a power source, an elongated tubular probe (14), the node (26) of the target node (29') beam control. The cover covers the source (22) of the electron beam and has elements for generating an electron beam along the path of the beam. The power source is programmed to control the voltage, current, and time of generation of the electron beam. Node (26) of the target includes a target element, located along the path of the beam and adapted to emit x-ray radiation in a given spectral region in response to incident electrons. Node (29') beam steering element includes (30) deviation contour (31) feedback and controller (144) deviations. Element (30) deflection deflects the beam from an imaginary axis, the selected surface area on the element (26) of the target in response to the control signal deviation. Circuit (31) feedback includes elements of registration deviations for registration deflection elements and to generate characteristic in this case the feedback signal. Technical rez the General invention relates to compact, programmable x-ray source low power for use when obtaining substantially constant or pulsed x-ray radiation with a low power level in a specific area.

Traditional medical x-ray sources are located stationary aggregates of large size. Usually the head x-ray tube is placed in the same room, and the management console next. Rooms are divided by a protective wall, which has a window for observation. Typical dimensions of the x-ray tube is approximately between 20 to 35 centimeters (cm) long and about 15 cm in diameter. Power supply high voltage is placed inside the rack, which is located in the corner of the room containing the x-ray tube. Patients sent for x-rays for diagnostic, therapeutic or palliative treatment.

Diagnostic x-ray machines typically operate at voltages below 150 kilovolts (kV) and currents from approximately 25 to 1200 milliamps (mA). For comparison, the currents in therapeutic devices typically do not exceed 20. mA at voltages that may be in the range of above 150 is Nevskogo radiation in the human body is limited to cloth and so it can be used in the treatment of skin damage. At higher voltages (of the order of 250 kV) results in deep penetration of x-ray radiation, which is used in the treatment of tumors. X-ray machines high voltage operating voltage range from 4 to 8 megavolt (MB), used for the removal or destruction of all types of fabrics, in addition to the surface skin damage.

Traditional x-ray tube includes an anode, grid and cathode Assembly. Cathode Assembly produces an electron beam that is directed to the target by the electric field formed between the anode and grid. Falling on the target of the electron beam, in turn, produces x-rays. The radiation absorbed by the patient, mainly is the radiation which is transmitted from the target in the x-ray tube through a window in the tube, resulting in transmission losses. This window is usually performed in the form of a thin plate of beryllium or other suitable material. In conventional x-ray apparatus, the cathode Assembly consists of tarirovannoj tungsten helix diameter of about 2 mm and a length of from 1 to 2 cm, which is heated by passing current is 4 Amperes (A) or above, by thermoelectric emission electroporation on oppositely located anode, which also works as a target. In models with a grid, the grid controls the trajectory of the electron beam and focus it.

The passage of the electron beam from the cathode to the anode affects bulk electronic charge, which becomes noticeable in a traditional x-ray machines at a current greater than 1 A. In such conventional apparatus, the beam is focused at the anode in the spot diameter in the range from 0.3 to 2.5 millimeters (mm). In many applications, most of the energy of the electron beam is converted into heat at the anode. For removal of such heat in the medical x-ray sources of high power is often used coolant and rotating with high speed anode. Thus, set an increased effective size of the target area and is provided with a small Focal spot size while minimizing the effects of local heating. To achieve good thermal conductivity and effective heat dissipation anode is usually made of copper. Furthermore, the area of the anode that receives an electron beam, it is necessary to perform from a material with high atomic number to ensure efficient x-ray generation. To fulfill the requirements of lvremove alloy usually add stranded.

In the working mode, the exposure time of the x-ray source is directly proportional to the integral over time of the intensity of the electron beam. During the relatively long exposure time (i.e., within 1 to 3 seconds) the anode temperature may rise significantly, bringing it to a bright glow associated with local surface proplachennymi and pitting, which reduce the power of the output radiation. However, thermal evaporation spiral primocanale cathode tube most often leads to the failure of traditional tubes.

The efficiency of x-ray radiation depends not only on the current of the electron beam, but also on the accelerating voltage. Below the level of the voltage of 60 kV only a few tenths of a percent of the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into x-ray radiation, while at a voltage of 20 MB conversion efficiency increases to 70%. In the spectrum of x-ray radiation contains a number of discrete energy transitions between the boundary of the electronic energy levels of the target element. In the spectrum is also present energy x-ray continuum radiation known as bremsstrahlung, to genoscope radiation may not exceed the maximum values of the electron energy in the beam. In addition, the curve maximum emission of bremsstrahlung in the approximately one-third of the electron energy.

The increase in the current of electrons leads to a proportional increase in the emission of x-rays at all energies. However, changing the accelerating voltage leads to an overall change in the output intensity of the x-ray radiation is approximately equal to the square of the voltage, with a corresponding shift in the maximum energy of x-ray photons. The effectiveness of education bremsstrahlung increases with the atomic number of the target element. The peak output intensity curve bremsstrahlung and characteristic spectral lines are shifted to higher energies as increasing atomic number of the target. Although tungsten (z=74) is the most commonly used target material in modern tubes, gold (z=79) and molybdenum (z=42) is used in some tubes for special purposes.

X-ray interaction occurs in a variety of ways. For biological samples, the most important are the following two types of interaction: Compton scattering x-ray s-shell electrons. In these processes, the probability of atomic ionization decreases with increasing photon energy in soft tissue and bone. For the photoelectric effect, this ratio follows from the law of 1/3 for the electron.

The lack of modern x-ray devices used for therapy is the high voltage required by irradiation of soft tissue within or beneath the bone. An example is exposure to x-ray regions of the human brain, closed bone. For penetration of radiation into the bone requires high energy x-ray beam, which is often damaged skin and tissue of the brain. Another example in radiation therapy can be irradiation of x-rays soft tissue inside the body cavity, which is found in other soft tissue, or internal structure, containing calcium. These high-voltage devices are limited in their capacity in such areas.

Another disadvantage of modern x-ray sources with high voltage the output voltage is the damage caused in the skin, when exposed to the organ or tissue of a person. Therefore, the high-voltage device of modernity is asdah tissue and the skin, especially when used for the treatment of tumors of the person. However, because these devices use x-rays in the target areas, located inside the patient, from a source located in the outer region of the target, such accidental tissue damage is almost impossible.

Treatment of brain tumors requires precise techniques for the implementation of specific tissue destruction, especially in brain tissue that lacks any real ability to regenerate. When using conventional x-ray devices in the treatment of brain tumors often lack precision volumetric irradiation, causing damage not cancerous brain tissue and associated glandular structures.

An alternative form of treatment of tumors, called brachytherapy involves the implantation of prisoners in capsules of radioisotopes in the tumor that needs to be treated, or near it. Although such use of radioisotopes can be effective in the treatment of certain types of tumors, the introduction of isotopes requires procedures invasion of the body, which has possible side effects, in the form of a possible infection. Moreover, in some applications the tea cannot provide the required control the irradiation time or the desired value of the radiation intensity. Service and location of such radioisotopes has a certain risk to operating personnel and to the environment.

Methods of intrusion into the human brain requires precise control of the exposure dose by selecting the concentration used isotopes. Intracranial irradiation leads to a significant risk, also known in the art.

From the point of view of the above requirements and restrictions for the use of modern x-ray machines in therapeutic, diagnostic, palliative, or the analyzed environments there is a need to create a relatively small, easy to use, manageable, low-power, x-ray devices, in which the x-ray source can be installed in the immediate vicinity of the environment that will be irradiated.

Such a device operating at low energies and capacities, will be suitable for various applications described herein.

Thus, the present invention is to provide a simple handling and low-power x-ray device.

Another object of the invention is to provide a relatively small, low-power re the invention - to provide a relatively small, low-power x-ray device that is implanted in the patient for directly irradiating a desired region of tissue x-rays.

Another object of the invention is to provide a low-power x-ray device for irradiating the volume with the target to establish the profile of absorption determined by a given contour isodose in order to reduce tissue damage outside the desired area of exposure.

Another object of the invention is to provide a relatively small installed on the surface, low-power x-ray device for influencing the desired area of the surface of x-rays.

Another object of the invention is to provide a relatively small, low-power x-ray device that is inserted into the patient for direct irradiation special areas of x-rays.

Another object of the invention is to provide a relatively small, low-power x-ray device for use with a corresponding node of the Frame for controlled positioning of the x-ray source located near the tumor the object of the invention - to provide a small, low-power x-ray device that can pass through the existing host irregular shaped passages.

Another object of the invention is to provide a small, low-power x-ray device which includes an improved mechanism for transporting the electron beam on the target element.

Summary of the invention

Briefly, the invention is an easy to use device that has low power, electron beam (e-beam) generated by the x-ray source, with preset or adjustable duration of radiation, the current energy and intensity. For use in medicine the device (or the probe) may be wholly or move introduced, implanted in the desired location of the patient's body or mounted on its surface for irradiation area of the body x-rays. In addition, the device can be collected with a variable thickness of the x-ray display for radiation and consistent absorption in it the pre-selected power level, which is determined by establishing the contours isodose so as to reduce the effects of rent the m frame, for example, a stereotactic frame, and connected and the communication device that is used in the treatment of brain tumors. The device is also suitable for the irradiation of other tumors such as those found in the breast or liver, or in other places; also, the device can be used to treat cancer cells on the surface of the body cavities of the type of the bladder.

The device operates at relatively low voltage, for example, in the range from about 10 kV to 90 kV, and at low current, for example, in the range from approximately 1 to 100 μa. In order to obtain the desired radiation pattern over a desired area, with minimal exposure to other areas of the x-ray emission comes from conventional or existing "point" source is placed inside or next to the target area that will be irradiated. Preferably, a point source is used in conjunction with a mask or screen for the configuration management of the emitted x-ray beam. In some applications, any portion of the desired region is irradiated with a low dose rate of x-ray radiation, or continuously, or periodically over the normalized periods of time. When Uzzah for one dose. When using repeating the localizer" only the dose can be moved, if required, through cycles of high dose rate, i.e., fractionated treatment.

The device includes a controllable or programmable power source placed outside the desired area, which will be irradiated to provide possible changes in voltage, current and time interval of the electron beam. An electron beam is controlled by passing along the desired axis of the beam will fall on the target, which is preferably placed in the patient's body, although for irradiation of the surface of the body, the axis of the beam and target are outside the body. The axis may be straight or curved. The composition and/or geometry of the target or x-ray radiation, the material selected to provide the desired pattern of x-ray radiation. The shielding on the target or around the target, in addition, allows the energy management or spatial profile of x-ray radiation in strict accordance with the desired distribution of radiation over the desired area. The x-ray source with a stable and reproducible characteristics can be created using e-spots, a larger ionov and ultimately may lose spherical isotropy of stimulated emission.

The present invention further provides a method for irradiation of malignant cells detected in tumors in vivo using the device described above. In General, the method involves the identification and detection of malignant cells by a device generally suitable technique, such as computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance image (MRI). The biopsy needle type tumors can be present to confirm the diagnosis. Then select the area of treatment and is determined by the radiation dose. This treatment planning radiation includes determining the size and configuration of the tumor, determining their exact location in the body and the identification of critical sensitivity to radiation of biological structures surrounding the tumor, the choice of correct decisions on the distribution of radiation dose in the tumor and surrounding tissue and internal trajectories in tumors implanted parts of the device. For spherical tumors treatment planning, you can submit manually when using CT or MRI information. However, for more complex geometries close to critical structures or procedures with high precision, it is preferable three-dimensional the Eski segmentmrussia on a sequence of digital CT scan, and is a three-dimensional image, which allows you to view the tumor in any direction. For radiosurgical procedures developed various software systems, such as those that use the linac (Linac or gamma knife, and some are suitable for commercial applications. For example, the company Radionics Software Applications from Arlington, Massachusetts, offers for sale software that allows you to get the image CRW and BRW-stereotactic frames, together with a graphical banner of the skull. Profiles isodose overlap on tumors and other brain tissue. Such software can be used in conjunction with the invention described in U.S. patent N 955494, in which the image will be in accordance with the stereotactic frame, which is used together with the target of the electron beam that generates x-ray radiation, which is inserted into the tumor. Contours isodose around the target are superimposed on the tumor and nearby tissue. The absolute dosage of radiation received along each path is determined by experimental dosimetry is presented to calibrate the probe. In these trials, the dose is measured at multiple which is through the ionization chamber such that how is the firm PTW from Freiburg, Germany, in which ions, generating x-ray radiation, create a small current, which is detected by an electrometer, such as a commercially suitable option card company Radiation Mesuvement from Cleveland, Ohio. On the other hand, the target can be immersed in simulating biological tissue imitator. Such plastic "hard water" simulators find commercial application (firm RMI, Middleton, WI) and simulate various tissues of the body, soft tissue of the brain. Thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), or calibrated x-ray sensitive film (i.e., saphronovo film company Far West Technologies, Goleta, CA) can be set in "hard water" to directly measure the dose. Using the picture and the results of the dosimetry of radiation treatment planning, the source of the electron beam of low power and a target for generating x-ray radiation with selectable form of a picture, and the node screen, installed within or adjacent to an area containing cells that will be irradiated, in General, tumor cells, for example, in conjunction with stereotactic recruitment, of the type described in U.S. patent N 955494. You can use other mustache and screen materials are generated and selected according to the characteristics desired area, which will be irradiated. Features programmable power supply, which can be used to change the voltage, current and duration of the radiation source is an electron beam to determine, in accordance with dosimetric information required electron beam, which is directed at the target. As a result, x-ray radiation emitted by the target, as modified by the host screen, extends through the desired area, which will be irradiated for cell disruption in this area. Using the method of signal with negative feedback, in which x-ray radiation, victimae from the target in the opposite direction along the path of the electron beam, is controlled by the detector set behind electronic emitter. Regulation of beam deflection can be performed in automatic mode control and in optimal position of the drop of the electron beam or spot on the target.

In particular, the treatment of brain tumors can be performed using the device of the present invention containing the combination of x-ray source low power for generating a controlled radiation pattern with a device for technine can thus be accurately placed into the tumor or close. The x-ray source with the target and the host screen of the present invention can be used in different parts of the body to develop common type of radiation in the treatment of various types of tumors. Also, the irradiation can be created for each treated tumor. However, the geometric similarity for many tumors will allow this treatment with a standard installation screens.

According to a further embodiment of the invention, the probe can be really flexible to allow it to pass through the existing aisles or around obstacles. According to one such embodiment of the photoemission element (i.e., the photocathode) is placed along the target element in the target node. In addition, a flexible fiber optic cable, through which passes the light from the laser light source to the photocathode, will form the basis for a flexible probe.

Single output high voltage power supply connected to the photocathode through the electric wire is introduced into the optical fiber cable. Another output of the power source is connected to the element of the target, through an electric wire, flexible outside shell formed howling acceleration of electrons, emitted from the photocathode toward the element of the target. As discussed in the previous versions embodiment, the target element produces x-ray radiation in response to incident electrons from the photocathode.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is further explained by the specific version of its embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 - General view of the x-ray source, low power, embodying the present invention;

Fig. 2 - scheme shell, adapted for use with the device shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3A and Fig. 3B is a General view and a view in section, respectively, installed on the surface of the device embodying the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a block diagram of the embodiment shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 5A and Fig. 5B is a graphical representation of the spectrum of x-rays of tungsten and molybdenum targets, respectively;

Fig. 6 is a detailed block diagram of the power supply of the embodiment shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 7 is a detailed circuit diagram of the power supply shown in Fig. 6;

Fig. 8 - General view of site control beam embodying the present invention;

Fig. 8A is a view in the sky radiation, containing stereotactic frame for positioning an x-ray source;

Fig. 10 is a General view of the x-ray source and a connection node of the system of Fig. 9;

Fig. 11 is a diagram of a power source of high voltage x-ray source shown in Fig. 10;

Fig. 12 is a view in cross section of the end of the probe, having an alternate site of the target, which includes the screen x-ray radiation and the target x-ray radiation to obtain stable and reproducible x-ray source;

Fig. 13 is a view of fragments of the cross-section of one geometric shape of the x-ray target;

Fig. 14 is a block diagram of the laser system milling for the production of x-ray screens with variable thickness;

Fig. 15A and Fig. 15V - common types of probe and host targets for precise angular adjustment of the x-ray screen;

Fig. 16 is a view in cross section of the x-ray source, low power, having an inner node of the control beam, which includes a feedback circuit for setting the electron beam;

Fig. 17 is a view in cross section of the x-ray source, low-power, with>Fig. 18 is a view in cross section of the node shown in Fig. 17, shown along lines 16C;

Fig. 19 is a view in cross section of the device of the mechanical installation of the probe to irradiate a wide area;

Fig. 20A and 20B are the views in cross section of the flexible probe, which consists of photoemitter placed inside the node target;

Fig. 21A-21F - depict examples of various circuits isodose, which can be obtained by means of the invention;

Fig. 22 is schematically depicts in sectional view, the probe tip having a screen that is installed near the photocathode source, is shown in Fig. 20A.

Similar to the items listed on each figure represent the same or similar elements.

Description of the preferred options

The present invention provides a relatively small, excited by an electron beam, an x-ray of low power. The device can be used for medical purposes, for example, when therapeutic or palliative treatment by irradiation of tumors or for other purposes.

For medical use, the device can be fully implanted or partially to enter in a pre-selected inside the Oh exposure. On the other hand, the device can be installed on the surface of the patient external to the area that will be irradiated. Also described is a method for the treatment of tumor patients using the device of the invention.

In General, the device of the present invention includes an electron beam (e-beam) generated by the x-ray source, which operates at relatively low voltages, i.e. in the range from about 10 kV to 90 kV, and a relatively small current of the electron beam, i.e. in the range from approximately 1 to 100 μa. Under these operating voltages and currents, the output x-ray radiation is relatively small, and the device can be made relatively small and adapted for implantation in medical therapeutic applications. From the point of view of the low level of the output x-ray radiation adequate penetration into the tissue and destructive radiation dose can be achieved by placing the x-ray source near the area that will be irradiated, or inside her. Thus, x-rays are generated from a well-defined, small source is placed inside or next to the area that will be irradiated. In one tumor, either permanently or periodically over specified periods of time, i.e. up to one month. When using a stereotactic frame for the treatment of brain tumors higher dose intensity can be used for tumors for more than short periods of time (i.e., from 5 minutes to 3 hours).

The present invention provides an intermediate radiotherapy, similar to that which is achieved through implanted capsules, needles, tubes and filaments containing natural radioactive isotopes, known as brachytherapy. However, programmable power supply can be included in the x-ray source of the present device to change the energy, intensity and duration of radiation. This differs from brachytherapy to the fact that the intensity and the penetration depth of x-ray radiation can be changed without surgical or without invasion of the body moving isotopes. Moreover, the present invention is not limited to the half-life is characteristic of the isotope and there is no risk of radiation when turned off.

Fig. 1 shows the x-ray device 10 embodying the present invention. The device 10 includes a housing 12 and a cylindrical zones of the high voltage shown in the electrical schematic of Fig. 6 and 7). The probe 14 is a hollow tube having an electron beam generator (cathode) 22 near the source 12A power supply high voltage. The cathode 22 is located in close proximity to all of the focusing electrode 23 is usually under the same potential as the cathode 22. Round the anode 24 is installed at a distance of approximately 0.5 cm or more from all the focusing electrode 23. The hollow tubular probe 14 is located along the same axis as the cathode, a grid and a slit in the anode. The probe 14 is a one piece with the casing 12 and extends forward toward the node 26 of the target. In different embodiments, the portion of the probe 14 can be selectively screened to control the spatial distribution of x-ray radiation. In addition, the probe 14 can be provided with a magnetic shield to prevent exposure from external magnetic fields, which cause deflection of the beam away from the target.

The generator 22 of the electron beam may include thermometer (managed unloaded power supply low voltage) or photocathode (irradiated by the led or laser). Power supply high voltage sets the accelerating potential difference between the cathode and the generator 22 and grounded the ANO site 26 target with the region between the anode 24 and hub 26 of the target being essentially free field. The elements of the generation and acceleration of the beam adapted for installing thin (i.e., with a diameter of 1 mm or less) of the electron beam within the probe 14 along conventional rectilinear axis 16.

In a preferred variant embodiment, the probe 14 is a hollow cylinder with rolled back by the air taken from beilieve (Be) nozzles and molybdenum-rhenium (Mo-Re), molybdenum (Mo) or mu-metallicheskogo the housing and the elongated end of the stainless steel. The cylinder has a length of 16 cm with an inner diameter of 2 mm and an external diameter of 3 mm, the Node 26 of the target includes a radiating element, consisting of a small bailieboro (Be) element 26A targets, coated with a thin film or layer 26C of the element with the highest Z, such as tungsten (W), uranium (U) or gold (Au) exposed to the incident electron beam side. For example, electrons, which are accelerated up to 30 Kev, dumitrana tungsten film with a thickness of 2.2 microns absorbs all the incident electrons, when the transfer of approximately 95%, from 30 Kev, 88% of 20 Kev, and 83% from 10 Kev x-ray radiation generated in this layer. In a preferred variant embodiment barelyevil element 26A of the target has a thickness of 0.5 AI to the substrate, and passed through a tungsten target, passes then through beilieve substrate and out to the remote end of the probe 14. Although the element 26A of the target shown in Fig. 3B, is made in the form of a disc, you can use items with other forms, those which have a hemispherical or conical outer surface.

In some forms of the target element 26A of the window, you can include a multilayer film (or alloy) 26B, in which the different layers may have different emission characteristics. For example, the first layer may have a peak emission (energy) at a relatively low energy, and the second (core) layer may have a peak emission (energy) at a relatively high energy. With this form of the invention can be used low energy electron beam to generate x-ray radiation for achieving the first characteristic radiation. As an example, an electron beam having a width of 0.5 mm is emitted at the cathode and accelerated to 30 Kev anode, with transverse electron energy of 0.1 eV, and arrives at a node 26 of the target set from the anode at a distance of sixteen inches, with a beam diameter less than 1 mm on the element 26A of the target. X-rays are generated in the node 26 of the target in accordance with a pre-wybaczenie passes through the element 26A barelyevil target in the probe with minimal loss of energy. As an alternative to beryllium element 26A of the target can be made of carbon or other suitable material that allows x-rays to pass through with minimal loss of energy. The best material for element 26A target is carbon in the form of diamond, since this material has excellent thermal conductivity. Using these parameters, the resulting x-ray radiation has sufficient energy to penetrate into the soft tissue to a depth of one centimeter or more, the exact depth depends on the energy distribution of x-ray radiation.

The device shown in Fig. 1, partially adapted for full implantation in the patient, where the casing 12 has a biocompatible outer surface and closes as the circuit 12A power supply high voltage, intended to establish the control voltage for the generator 22 of the beam, and the combined battery 12B to control this circuit 12A. In this case, the combined controller 12C controls the output voltage in the circuit 12A of the high-voltage source, as described below.

The device shown in Fig. 1, can also be used in the form, where only the probe 14 enters the station to move some or all of the various elements, shown within the casing 12.

In transcutol form the device 10 can be used with an elongated closed end (or Cup) of the shell 34, as shown in Fig. 2, having a biocompatible biodiveristy, for example, made of medical quality aliphatic polyurethane, which is manufactured under the brand name of the company "Tecoflex by Thermedis, Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts. With this configuration, the probe 14 is first inserted into the shell 34. The shell 34 and the probe 14 is then entered into the patient through the skin. On the other hand, you can enter the port through the skin and to join him, as for example, in the port Dermaport made by firm Thermedis Inc. , Woburn, Massachusetts. The probe 14 are then transferred into the port.

The inner covering shell or port can be represented in the form of x-ray screen through the introduction of barium sulfate or bismuth trioxide or other materials, shielding x-rays, in the shell. If necessary, the probe 14 and the casing 12 can be placed in the patient's body to prevent any relative movement during the entire time of treatment. Shell 34 is shown in Fig. 2.

In one variant embodiment of the device as shown in Fig. 1 the main body of the zones is towith of a nonmagnetic metal, having preferably a high modulus value of the young and the limits of elasticity. Examples of this material include molybdenum, rhenium or alloys of these materials. Internal and external surface of the probe 14 can be further coated with an alloy having a high magnetic permeability type of permalloy (approximately 80% Nickel and 20% iron) in order to provide magnetic shielding. On the other hand, a thin sleeve of mu-metal can pick up on or within the probe 14. The x-ray device 10 can further be used in an environment in which there are fixed and variable magnetic fields associated with electrical energy, the Earth's magnetic field or other magnetic body capable of reflecting electron beam from the axis of the probe.

In the implanted configuration source 12A power supply and the node 26 of the target is preferably closed by a metallic capsule to protect the passage of current from the x-ray source to the patient. Closed bonnet 12 and the probe 14 is placed in a capsule with a constant outer shell of the corresponding shielding material such as those listed previously.

A high-voltage source 12A power in each of the depicted variants of embodiment of Prati power battery; and 3) independently variable voltage and current of the x-ray tube, which allow you to program the device for special applications. Powerful high-frequency pulse Converter is used to meet these requirements. The most appropriate scheme for the generation of low-power and high-voltage is a flyback Converter operating in conjunction with a high voltage multiplier manufactured by Cocknft-Walton. Low power loss, the control mode of the switching power supply based on integrated circuits (IC) suitable at present for the management of such schemes that have multiple elements. In order to secure the effective management of x-ray radiation, the preferred embodiment of the present invention establishes the independent control of voltage and current of the cathode without the use of a grid electrode. In this form of the invention the heating is carried out by a high-frequency current; 22, preferably using is connected to the power source filament transformer with a voltage of 0.6 V and changing the current 0-300 mA at the cathode with a potential of 40 kV.

Fig. 3A and 3B show alternative cooking direct placement on the patient's skin. This form of the invention is particularly used for the treatment of x-ray radiation skin lesions or tumors or other dermatological applications. In Fig. 3A and 3B, the elements that correspond to elements in the variant embodiment shown in Fig. 1, shown with reference to a similar designation. The device 10' generates an electron beam in the channel 40, a closed casing 12, in which the channel 40 corresponds to the probe 14. In this variant embodiment, shown in Fig. 3A and 3B, the node 26 target (element 26A or 26B) works as the anode as x-ray emitter. On the other hand, the device 10' is similar to device 10. By using the configuration of Fig. 3A and 3B x-ray radiation of low power can be directed to the desired area of the patient.

In all above described embodiments, the embodiment of the element emission of x-rays of the target node adapted to be located near or within the area that will be irradiated. The close location of the radiating element to the target area, i.e., to a tumor, eliminates the need to use modern high-voltage devices to achieve sufficient penetration of x-rays through the body surface in raspi and limit the destruction of the surrounding tissue and on the surface of the skin at the point of penetration. For example, getting a dose of 4000 rad, which is necessary after a mastectomy when the voltage of the electron beam 40 kV and current of 20 μa, can require from about 1 to 3 hours of irradiation. However, after the x-ray source in this preferred variant of embodiment, is installed near or within the area that will be irradiated, significantly reduces the risk of falling doses of radiation in other parts of the body of the patient.

In addition, the specificity of tumors can be achieved by selecting the geometry of the target and the screen material in place of irradiation. This selection facilitates energy management and spatial profile of x-ray radiation, ensuring a more uniform distribution of radiation that passes through the target tumor.

Fig. 4 schematically depicts the device 10 of the x-ray source shown in Fig. 1. In this preferred configuration, the housing 12 is divided into a first part 12' and the second part 12". Closed from the inside of the first part 12' of the housing has a rechargeable battery 12B, the discharge circuit 12B, which is adapted for use with an external spark gap 50, and a telemetry circuit 12E, adapted to otobralis to the second part 12" casing. The second part 12" casing includes source 12A power supply high voltage, the controller 12C and the probe 14 and the element 22, which generates an electron beam. In one variant embodiment, the electron beam generator includes thermometer 22, which in turn generates electrons which are then accelerated toward the anode 24. The anode 24 not only attracts the electrons, but passes them through its Central hole in the direction of node 26 of the target. The controller 12C controls the source 12A power to dynamically control the voltage of the cathode, a current of the electron beam, the timing or provides a pre-installation voltage, beam current and time characteristics.

Also it is shown that there is an alternative electron beam generator, which includes photoemitter 22, irradiated by a light spring 56, such as a laser diode or led, powered by the control device 55. Light is focused on photoemitter 22 through a focusing lens 58.

In the depicted variant embodiment of the device 52 and circuit 12E work together, allowing external control (dynamic or given) to manage source 12A power and time characterset directly be used to control operation; in this case, there is no need for circuit 12E.

In an important aspect of the invention, the node 26 of the target can be formed so as to receive x-ray radiation with a desired pattern of radiation in a given spectral region, and having a given spatial distribution. Partially fulfil the target with a given range by the choice of target materials with known characteristics. For example, as shown in Fig. 5A and 5B, the emission spectrum for a tungsten target (Fig. 5A) and molybdenum targets (Fig. 5B) differs. Fig. 5A depicts a spectrum of x-rays from a tube with a tungsten target, operating at voltages of 30 and 50 kV. It should be noted that dominates the spectrum of the bremsstrahlung and the generation of x-rays occurs in a wide energy range. Fig. 5B shows the spectrum of radiation from a tube with a molybdenum target, also operating at voltages of 30 and 50 kV. It should be noted the near absence of brake x-ray radiation. It should be noted that the change of potential stress in the tube 30 to 50 kV results in a negligible change of the emission spectrum of the x-ray tube using a molybdenum target. Thus, the and to provide the desired radiation penetration into the fabric, for example, a tumor.

The spatial distribution of x-ray radiation can also be formed by changing the geometric configuration of the element 26A of the target. For example, the element 26 of the target can be formed so that the electrons directed from the anode will be rejected at a given angle, or can be selectively directed to different areas of the field, which will be the issue. For example, the element 26A of the target can be made so that it was quite thin and opaque to electrons, but thin enough to fulfill the role of transparency to x-rays. Especially important if you have a spherical element of a gold target with a thickness of about 0.5 μm, and when the voltage of the electron beam 40 kV, substantially all of the electrons stop element of the target and to a large extent can be displayed all x-rays generated in the target element.

The spatial distribution of x-ray radiation can also be formed by use of the transmission screen of the x-ray radiation having a profile with variable thickness, node 26 of the target. Fig. 12 depicts a probe 14 having an alternate site 126 target dnom variant embodiment, the probe 14 is substantially similar to the probe 14, it is shown in Fig. 1, except the node 126 of the target. Node 126 of the target includes the upper portion 126 of the probe from the material (e.g., Be), which is the banner for the x-ray target 126B x-rays to generate x-rays upon irradiation of the electron beam is attached to the probe 14 along the axis 16 of the probe on the end part, distant to the cathode 22 and the anode 24 (shown in Fig. 1). In a preferred form, the outer surface of the upper portion 236B of the probe convex and preferably hemispherical, as shown in variant embodiments, although you can use other convex surface. Node 126 of the target is made so that the external diameter of the upper portion 126A of the probe is less than the external diameter of the probe 14. The variable thickness of the x-ray screen (or shadow mask 128, and lying under the screen carrier 128A is located on the upper part 126A of the probe node 126 of the target. At the connection node 126 of the target and probe 14 outer diameter node 126 of the target substantially corresponds to the diameter of the probe 14.

The screen 128 x-ray radiation is made of a material that has a high degree of absorption, and supported by media 128A of the screen. Stream rentgenovskogo axis, passing from the target 126B and passing through this point. Thus, in accordance with the invention uses a selective restriction on the thickness of the screen x-ray radiation to generate a change in the space distribution of x-ray radiation dose.

In a preferred embodiment, the probe 14 has an external diameter of 3 mm and an inner diameter of 2 mm and has a typical length of 10 to 16 see the Media 126 target made of beryllium and has a thickness of 0.5 mm Media 128A of the screen is made of light elements, such as barely, magnesium, aluminium or carbon, and has a thickness of 0.2 mm, and the screen 128 has a thickness in the range from 0 to 0.1 mm if made of gold.

Target 126B x-ray radiation is a small disk (for example, with a diameter of 0.1 mm), made of a material having the emission of x-ray radiation (e.g., a metal with a high atomic number type of gold), located in the center of the carrier 126C target. As will be discussed below, the size of the target 126B x-ray radiation may be small relative to the diameter of the electron beam, which is installed along the axis 16 of the probe, so that the x-ray source is determined by the AMB screen 128 x-ray reproducible and stable x-ray source. However, for an electron beam whose spot on the target 126B is greater than the target 126B, reduced by losses in the efficiency of x-ray generation. Such losses can be avoided by focusing the beam to a small spot, comparable to the size of the target 126B, and controlling its position on the target 126B appropriate means.

The spatial resolution of the pre-selected level of radiation dose, which can be obtained through use of the screen 128 is limited by several factors, including the penumbra due to the finite size of the x-ray source; the instability of the size and position of the x-ray source, due to the characteristic instability of the e-spots that occur when generating x-ray radiation; scattering of x-rays, giving the contribution of the energy level of the radiation dose; and the reproducibility of the parameters of the x-ray source from the probe to the probe and its position relative to the screen 128.

Penumbra is determined by the ratio of the size of the x-ray source to its distance from the screen 128. For a uniform source, the preferred range for this ratio is what zlecenia and its position is preferred for a small percentage of the optimal source in the distance.

One way to establish an acceptable partial shade and registration shielded x-ray source is to manage the position and size of the x-ray source by controlling the focal length and the deflection of the incident electron beam along the axis 16. For example, an electron beam can be focused to a spot at the exit surface of the x-ray target 126B, thus the diameter of the focal spot sizes x-ray source. This method requires not only that the spot size was correct, but also to the position of the spot relative to the screen 128 x-ray radiation was accurately known and supported.

In this variant embodiment the target may be theoretically large, as in the manufacture with regard to traditional requirements. However, in a preferred variant embodiment, the target 126B x-ray radiation has a size the same or slightly greater than that of the electron beam.

In order to ensure that the position of the electron spot on the screen is as stable over time for any given compact x-ray system and the spatial in the e starting mark together with the deflection of the electron beam to determine the position of the electron spot on the screen. Such a starting mark consists of the angle that defines the boundary between the two areas, which are very different character of the electron beam. For example, in this case, the boundary between the material 126B targets such as Au, and material 126C media targets such as Be, can serve as a starting corner. The existing difference in properties is that Au has a much higher efficiency as an x-ray source than Be, when exposed to an electron beam with high energy. As the beam passes across the starting line, the x-ray detector can detect a difference in the intensity of x-ray radiation and generate a corresponding control signal to the deflection of the beam.

The x-ray detector may be injected into the control loop feedback to control the motion of the beam relative to the target and preferably in the center of the target is in the field of view of the electron source. In one such configuration, where the position of the target in General is known in relation to the trajectory of the beam, but it is advisable to center trajectory of the beam on the target, the beam can be the first h passes the starting angles of the target (for example, when the beam meets the target during the scan, and then when the beam leaves the target), the controller identifies the starting position angles and determines the component along the x-axis control signal, captures the midpoint between the two starting corners in the scan in the direction of the x axis. The beam is then set in accordance with the element control signal (i.e., mid-way between the detected starting angles of sweep on the x axis), and deployed in the second (y) direction orthogonal to the direction along the x-axis and the trajectory of the beam. During the scan direction on the y-axis are detected starting the corners and is determined by the control signal component along the y-axis, which shows the average point between the two base angles determined during the sweep in the direction of the y-axis. Components along the x-axis and y are then used to control the beam by centering on the target.

In the case where the target position is initially not known about the trajectory of the beam, it is possible to quickly establish the relative position by means of the scanning raster of the beam as long as the target is encountered during the scan in the direction of the x axis or scan. Then after discovering odprtem is scan in the direction of the y-axis, i.e. along the bisectors, perpendicular to the line connecting the starting angles identified by the scanner. In response to detection of the starting angles in the scan along the y-axis, is determined by the average point in the direction of the y-axis and uses the signals show the average point in the directions along the x-axis and y-axis for centering the beam on the target. Despite the above definition of the target center, you can define other desired reference point on the target, and rejected the beam will fall into these points.

Another way to set the correct position of the source and, therefore, to ensure that the spatial resolution of the shielded radiation field for all systems, if you use a small target 126B x-ray radiation, which has a size of required x-ray source. However, in principle you can use any size of the electron spot, which is required to create patches with the same size or smaller than the target 126B in order to obtain maximum conversion of electron energy into x-ray radiation and, therefore, reduce the time for treatment of patients or for any other desired task, ISOE is so, 90% of the electrons in the spot contained in the designated thus the spot size, then the creation of this spot with the small size of the target is optimal in the sense that the stain with more smaller sizes will not lead to a significant improvement of the efficiency of the system. In any case, the use of a small target ensures that all x-ray probes, using the screen to define the area of exposure will have essentially the same spatial resolution and position relative to the tip of the probe.

As is shown in Fig. 12 media target 126C is conveniently located in the end part of the tip 126A of the probe. In the depicted embodiment, embodiment, the target 126B x-ray radiation is located on the carrier 126C of the target, before it is inserted into the tip 126A of the probe. In examples where the tip 126A probe attached to the base of the probe 14 prior to placement of the target 126B x-ray and media 126C target carrier 126C of the target can be produced so that the inner diameter of the probe 14 is slightly larger that the outer diameter of the carrier 126C of the target in order to make easier the introduction of the bottom of the probe 14.

In General it is desirable that the carrier 126C target just came Nakonechny, parts manufacturer with the "tightness" or when using thermal expansion for fixing two parts. In the latter case, the cold carrier 126C target (for example, chilled with liquid nitrogen) is introduced in a relatively hot (e.g., room temperature) tip 126A of the probe. When the parts reach thermal balance, then they are rigidly fixed together.

In an alternative embodiment of the tip 126A of the probe can be made including solid media target. Tip 126A probe attached to the probe 14 in series with the placement of the target 126B x-rays.

Target 126B x-rays should be placed on the carrier 126C of the target perpendicular to the axis 16 of the probe, and in the center of the concentric hemispherical surfaces that define the end portion of the tip 126A of the probe. This concentric placement of the purpose of x-ray radiation is largely simplifies the calculations required for the design variable reconstruction of screen 128 x-ray radiation with variable thickness to provide the required contours isodose x-ray radiation. Used herein, the term "circuit isodose refers to the surface Treherne">

After the target 126B x-ray radiation can be positioned on the carrier 126C target before the introduction of the probe 14, you can use any of several methods for forming the target 126B of x-rays in the center of the carrier 126C target. One way to obtain such a target 126B x-ray radiation is in the coating of metal with a high atomic number across the screen, which is introduced into the cavity in the carrier of the target. The screen may consist of a disk with a Central hole corresponding to the target 126B x-ray radiation, and through which the metal is deposited on the carrier 126C target.

In addition to the above, you also need to know the size of the x-ray source and the position of the screen 128 x-rays to calculate x-ray absorption in the target 126B x-ray radiation in the direction tangent to the plane of the target 126B x-ray radiation. Such absorption can be reduced by using the target 126B x-ray radiation and a curved surface instead of a flat surface. For example, in Fig. 13 depicts a hemispherical recess of the carrier 126C of the target, which serves to define the shape of the target 126B x-ray irradiation is of the target, and for the correction of any "remainder" angular dependence of x-ray radiation emitted from the target 126B x-ray radiation. The total result can be much more isotropic emission of x-rays from the target 126B x-ray radiation, which radiates the screen 128 x-ray radiation, is placed on the carrier 128A of the screen. The curve shape of the target, shown in Fig. 13 is only one of the variants of the embodiment; can also be used and other effective forms such as hemispherical or spherical cross-section in combination with a truncated cone.

When the target 126B is applied in the recess, it is possible to make with the carrier 126 targets inside tip 126A probe or as a part of the tip 126A of the probe. Spray deposition may cover the recess and surrounding the surface 126D. Metal with a high atomic number, shown on the surface 126D, can to some extent be removed from the surface flat strepera, which is not in contact with the recess.

There are applications for x-ray probe of the present invention, which requires sources with a limited scope of point x-ray source. For example, UDA the tumor. May require subsequent removal by irradiation "tumor ridge" in order to destroy any remnants of tumor cells at the periphery of the removal. In a preferred embodiment, in order to reduce tissue destruction, remote from the requested amount of irradiation, irradiation wide field x-ray device using the screen 128 x-ray radiation substantially similar to that shown in Fig. 12. Wide area radiation can be easily obtained by placing node 126 of the target probe 14 at a certain distance from the surface, which will be irradiated. Fixed-angle radiation emerging from a node 126 of the target, can be operated via the screen 128 x-ray radiation. The thickness of the screen 128 at each point is determined so that substantially to get the same picture of the radiation. Node 26 of the target can be used in the same way.

Fig. 19 depicts a mechanical positioner 300, which is used with the x-ray device of the invention for achieving the required accuracy between node 26 or 126 of the target and the irradiated surface (cloth). Mechanical positioner 300 includes a flat plate section is genoscope radiation type Be, With or plastics. The partition plate 302 is attached to the probe 14 through opaque to x-rays of the back plate 304. Further picture of a specific area of the radiation surface is normally located to the x-ray transparent plate section 302 can be performed partially transparent to x-rays through the x-ray screen in a way similar to the x-ray screen 128, described above.

Another application of such an x-ray source with a wide area is intracavitary radiation inside the body, such as the inside of the bladder. In this case, the partition plate 302 between the fabric and the x-ray source a wide area can be inflatable ball, pulling the bottom of the probe 14 so that the node 126 of the target is in the center of the ball. In this case, the back plate 304 is opaque.

Fig. 21A-21F depicts examples of different paths isodose that can be provide by the present invention. Fig. 21A depicts with features of the probe 14, which is adapted for receiving paths isodose that form the field of radiation 300 centered at the tip 126 of the probe. Fig. 21B depicts the probe 14, the lighting is Ajeet probe 14, have a tip 126 adapted to receive a radiation area as compressed at the poles of the ellipsoid (i.e., in the form of a "pancake"), as shown in perspective at 304A and located along the axis 305 on 304B. Fig. 21 depicts a probe 14 having a tip 126 adapted to receive the radiation field in the form of an elongated ellipsoid (i.e., in the form of a "cigar"), as shown in perspective in 306A and along the axis 307 on 306B. As shown in Fig. 21D), the probe 14 is included in the ellipsoid 306A along its minimum axis. Fig. 21E shows the tip 126 is also adapted to receive the radiation field in the form of an elongated ellipsoid. The ellipsoid is shown in perspective 308 and along the axis 309 308B. As can be seen, the probe 14 is included in the ellipsoid 308A along its main axis. Fig. 21F depicts the tip 126 of the probe, adapted to obtain an asymmetric radiation field, shown in perspective on 310A and along the axis 311 on 310B.

The design of the x-ray screen 128 with variable thickness for x-ray generation principally within the specified contours isodose will, in General, to begin with the digital information describing the size and shape of the desired amount of exposure (tumor type), which is obtained by a certain method izobrazheniya x-ray radiation from the materials of the probe and screen, it is possible to accurately calculate the thickness profile of the probe. In General, the contours isodose can take a variety of shapes and sizes and can be not necessarily symmetric.

You can use different ways to translate design information into the physical screen. For example, a hemispherical media 128A of the screen is covered with a layer of metal with a high atomic number (e.g., Au) is about 100 microns thick. The thickness of the shielding materials, deposited on the carrier 128 screen is well controlled in order to know how much of the substance to be eliminated in the subsequent milling process. One way to achieve a high degree of thickness control is spraying materials that absorb x-ray radiation, the galvanic method.

Fig. 14 shows a system 200 laser milling for the production of the corresponding variable thickness of the x-ray screen 128 to obtain the set of paths isodose x-ray radiation. It is well known that a powerful laser pulses it is possible to remove the surface layers of the metal. The system 200 laser milling is shown in Fig. 14 includes a mechanical positioning device, shown in General as the controller 202 provisions ketogenesis screen 128 and the carrier 128A of the screen can be rotated about the axis 16 of the probe or axis 212, which is perpendicular to the axis 16 of the probe. In a preferred embodiment, the microprocessor 210 has direct control over the movement of the controller 202 provisions, and information about the current position of the surface of the x-ray screen 128 is transmitted back to the microprocessor 210 to confirm special provisions.

The parameters of the x-ray screen, i.e., the thickness of the profile is calculated before milling and based on these data, the processor 210 issues commands to the controller 208 of the laser, for example, what is the radiation power is required to remove the desired amount of shielding material in every single point of the irradiated surface in the x-ray screen 128.

If the shielding material is completely metal, you may need a powerful and expensive laser in order to complete the milling process within a reasonable period of time. The preferred laser is an excimer laser. However, when the shielding material is composed of suspended particles of metal in organic material such as polyamide, there can be used a laser with a much smaller capacity, for example, a nitrogen laser.

In another variant embodiment, can be provided. This technique is also amenable to automation and the pattern of deposition can be controlled by a microprocessor-based drive system.

In another variant embodiment, the screened material is first coated carrier with the required maximum thickness of about 100 μm for gold, and then machined on the CNC machine with high precision. This variant embodiment has the advantage of using simple mechanical processors and eliminates the need for the included calibration system, which is required for laser milling.

Fig. 15A and 15B depict one variation of the embodiment of the design of the probe, which allows accurate angular adjustment of the carrier 128A of the screen, and thus, the x-ray screen 128 with the probe 14. Mechanical key, depicted in the form of loops 140 in the probe 14 and a corresponding groove 142 at node 126 goals can be ensured between the two to ensure accurate positioning of the x-ray screen 128 and transmitter 14 to Orient the picture of the x-ray with the geometry of the desired amount of exposure. The device Fig. 15A and 15B can also be used in combination with the hub 26 of the target depicted in Fig. 1.

As gave the selective surface emission element, for example, in which the target has different emission characteristics in different spatial areas. Control of the electron beam can provide the telematics control or by pre-programming the power source before introduction of the entire device 10 or its parts.

Fig. 8 depicts an exemplary node 29 of the electrostatic beam control. In the depicted embodiment, the embodiment of the cathode 22 generates electrons by the way, consistent with the above-described variant embodiments. The electrons are accelerated through a focusing electrode 23 toward the anode 24 and pass through the aperture 24A in the direction of node 26 of the target. On the way to the node 26 of the target, the electrons pass through the node 30 of the electrostatic deflection, shown in cross section in Fig. 6A. The site includes four vent 32. By changing the voltage applied to opposite pairs of baffles 32, the electron beam incoming to the node, along the axis 16A rejected, or "managed" as they pass forward to the node 26 of the target along the axis 16B. Thus you can control the axis of the beam, making it straight or curved as required. As described below, can alternatively be used, you can move the magnetic coils of the deflector, which are controlled by the currents, which provide the magnetic field necessary to achieve the characteristic deviation of the beam.

In another form of a variant embodiment of the control beam, an electron beam passes through the device coil, generating a magnetic field, rather than passing the electron beam through the node 30 with electrostatic deflection. The coil can cause the configuration similar to the plates of the electrostatic deflection of node 30. Changing the current through the coil creates a magnetic field with the specified characteristics, which affects the trajectory of the electron beam.

In this form, you can control the electron beam, directing an electron beam at specific physical locations on the cone-shaped node of the target (Fig. 8) or target any particular geometric configuration. For example, in the depicted embodiment, embodiment, the electron beam bombarding the corner side of the node 26 of the target, it will generate x-ray radiation from the side, with little or no accidental radiation transmitted to the opposite side of the target node.

In another form of a variant embodiment of the beam control, you can control the characteristics of the to radiation depending on energy) at different points of the node 26 of the target, for example, the spatial pattern of the type "warning light", the beam can be controlled relatively high energy x-rays or in areas of relatively low energy x-rays. Thus, the beam can be selectively sent to the node area of the target to achieve the required characteristics and orientation of x-ray radiation.

Node 29 of the control beam, shown in Fig. 8, can also be used in combination with the node 126 of the target depicted in Fig. 12.

Fig. 16, 17 and 18 depict an alternate site 29 beam control, which includes the system 31 with a feedback loop for accurate positioning of the electron beam on the x-ray target 126B. In the depicted embodiment, the embodiment of the node 30 deflection substantially similar to that shown in Fig. 8, (except that the magnetic deviation is positioned outside the tube) and a detector 142 x-ray control x-ray radiation emerging from the x-ray target 126B. The detector 142 x-ray radiation can be installed off-axis electron beam, as shown, or placed on an axis behind the cathode 22.

Changes in trajectory e is the deviation which is preferably controlled by a microprocessor may use the data detector 142 x-ray radiation and, by controlling the voltages applied to the deflectors 32 node 30 deflection, it is possible to accurately capture an electron beam.

For example, the system 31 with the feedback circuit can be used in the center of the electron beam on a small target 126B x-ray radiation. However, when a change in the control signal indicates that the center of the beam moves from the center of the target, there is information in which the direction of movement takes place. Therefore, it may be necessary for the periodic deflection of the beam in a known direction and observation of a deviation of the control signal in order to center the beam.

The control signal required to maintain the beam, which is installed on the target 126B x-ray radiation, can be obtained by moving the detector 142 x-ray radiation behind electronic optics 138 to control the x-ray radiation, which is radiated back along the axis 16 of the probe 14. In Fig. 16 and 17 shows the control x-rays 140, which takes place in one side of e is about you can design the system that x-ray radiation 140 passes through the electron optics 138 and the cathode 22. The detector 142 can be placed either inside or outside the casing 12, as shown in Fig. 16 and 17, respectively. As is shown in Fig. 17, if the detector 142 is placed on the outside of the casing 12, the output of the x-ray window 148 is placed in the wall of the casing to provide optical communication detector 142 target 126B x-rays.

Then the beam is exactly centered on the target 126B. The feedback system depicted in Fig. 16 and 17, can be used to optimize the focal length of the electron beam to produce the maximum output of x-ray radiation. For example, this can be done by maximising the signal-controlled feedback system using the controller 144 deviation to adjust the voltage on the focusing elements (such as a focusing electrode 23) e optics 138.

The feedback system depicted in Fig. 16 and 17, can also be used with node 26 of the target shown in Fig. 1 or 8. For example, you can use the feedback system for positioning the beam, which will fall on each individual emission point elementsarray above). In addition, the feedback system can be used to control the accelerating voltage of the electron optics.

As shown in the above described embodiments, embodiments, the device 10 depicted in Fig. 1, includes a power source 12A. Fig. 6 is a block diagram of the source 12A. In Fig. 7 shows a more detailed diagram of the source, is shown in Fig. 6. As shown in Fig. 6 and 7, a variant of the embodiment includes a flyback switching Converter (LNB) and the stabilizer 280, transformer 282 voltage transformation ratio 30 connected to the output 282A control voltage (or high voltage input of the multiplier) and 10x multiplier 284 voltage connected to the high voltage output 282, and adapted for excitation of the filament of thermometer 22. Exciter high-frequency power filament and the Converter 290 voltage-frequency (V/f) and acting together high-frequency exciter 292 filament connected across the output 292A of the current management and capacity Cothrough a scheme 286 excitation filament K. filament emitter 22.

Differential amplifier 294 sets the current feedback loop by controlling wkowy the feedback signal on line 295 and applied by the control signal of the emission line 296. The latter signal can be selectively controlled to establish the desired time variation of the current of the cathode ray tube filament emitter (;) 22. High-voltage amplitude of the feedback circuit is set by a pulse Converter and stabilizer 280 in response to a detected difference between the voltage feedback signal on line 297 and applied high voltage control signal on line 298. The latter signal can selectively be controlled by setting the desired amplitude variations of potential on the filament emitter (;) 22.

A more detailed description of the power supply shown in Fig. 7 are given in the application U.S. N 5153900 and also in the initial application U.S. N 955494.

Fig. 9 depicts an exemplary system 300 that is used for the treatment of x-ray radiation brain tumor. The system 300 includes a stereotactic frame 302 in combination with low-power x-ray device 10A connected to it. In this configuration, the x-ray device 10A is generally similar x-ray device 10 depicted in Fig. 1, but has a cylindrical geometry. The corresponding elements of the two x-ray devices 10 and 10A them the second reference structure relative to the skull of the patient. Although the preferred embodiment described above, more suitable for stereotactic frame, other variants of embodiments of the invention can be similarly adapted for use with these or other personnel, or with the main control frames, such as frame, establishing working still installed fittings, featured parts of the body other than the head. In the depicted embodiment, the embodiment of Fig. 9 stereotactic frame 302 is substantially similar to the system Cosman-Roberts-Wells produced by Radionis Inc., Birlington, Masscachusetts.

In the depicted embodiment, the embodiment of the frame 302 sets the master system of reference coordinates x, y, z, located relative to the desired starting point 0. The frame 302 includes a General U-shaped element 304 of the support defining the reference plane. Four pens 306A, 306B, 306C and 306D (not shown) extend from the support frame 304. Each pen is installed in a specific location pin 308. The pins 308 are facing in General towards each other from the respective remote tip pens 306A, 306B, 306C and 306D. When using four pins 308, located opposite the skull of the patient to install fiksirovannoj is t x, y, z in relation to the skull of the patient.

The x-ray device supports item 310 connected to the support element 304 by a pair of connecting nodes 312 clutch and a pair of linear nodes 314 clutch. Item 310 x-ray device supports curved link 310 support. The x-ray device 10 is connected to the link 310A support by connecting node 316. Node 316 connection provides controlled movement of the x-ray device 10 on a circular path along the link 310A and between the inner end accurate and external end point along the axis (e.g. axis 316'), located radially directed circular trajectory curved link 310A towards the starting point, 0.

In addition, the rotation of the rotating bushings nodes 312 connection allows the x-ray device support part 310, which will be rotated to move around the x axis. Item 310 support the x-ray device moves in the direction perpendicular to the plane defined by the x and y axes (the x-y plane), by moving along the tracks 314A, linear nodes 314 connection. In the depicted embodiment, embodiment, T-shaped the structure perpendicular to the x-y plane. Installing the screws 332 in the block 314B can be adjusted closing node 310 support the x-ray device at the specified height relative to the frame 304 support.

Item 310 x support can be moved in the z axis direction by movement of studs installed from the workpiece 310 in the tracks element 304A 304 support. Position driven parts 310 along the tracks 304A may be set using the closing screws 334.

In addition, element 304 of the support can be adjusted in the direction of the axis x by means of the sliding part 304 on its part 305 support, and can adjust the position with three degrees of freedom, setting the desired position at the beginning of the reference points 0 inside the skull of the patient.

Node 316 connections are shown together with the x-ray device 310A disassembled, is shown in Fig. 10. As shown, the node 316 connection includes a receiving unit 316 inserted into the sleeve element 316B, together with additional formed part of the x-ray device 10A. As shown, the Central axis 16 of the probe 14 of the x-ray device 10A coaxial axis 316'. An electron beam probe 14 is conventional and coaxial to the axis 316', but mo is. 0.

Cylindrical, inserted into the sleeve element 316B is installed partially within and coaxially receiving unit 316. Inserted into the sleeve element 316B slide (in the direction of the radial axis 316') and may be selectively locked in place relative block 316 using the installation screws 318A. Inserted into the sleeve element 316 includes a Central hole (diameter D), passing along its Central axis.

As noted above, the x-ray device 10A similar to the x-ray device 10 depicted in Fig. 1, but has a generally cylindrical casing 12; the probe 14 includes a cylindrical part 14A of the shoulder (having a diameter of not a lot less D) directly next to the casing 12, with the main part and the small diameter (3.0 mm in the preferred embodiment, incarnation). In this configuration, the x-ray device 10A can be installed with its axis 16 coaxial to the axis 316' and part 14A shoulder set with slip inside the hole, inserted into the sleeve element 316B. The relative position of the x-ray device 10A can be fixed along the axis 316', using the set screws 320 element 316B.

The x-ray device 310A may include a magnetic subsystems is to shown in Fig. 18, mounted on the axis 16 within the part 14A of the shoulder. These coils are excited for the regulated control of the axis of the beam so that the beam impinges on the target node 126 (depicted, for example, in Fig. 16 and in Fig. 17) as needed. In the preferred form of radiation produced by the device 10A, is controlled (for example, by means of the detector 142 x-ray radiation, is shown in Fig. 16 and Fig. 17, and/or x-ray detector installed outside of the patient), and the coils of the deflector are excited respectively by the control currents for deflecting X1, X2, Y1 and Y2 lines, applied to the deflection coils, is shown in Fig. 11. As shown in Fig. 9, the controller based on a microprocessor may not be located within the enclosure 12, but to stir outside the casing 12 in the control unit 342. Unit 342 controls connected to the x-ray device 10A via cable 342'. An elongated probe 14 and the x-ray device 10 has such a configuration that allows the probe 14 to pass through the track left by the biopsy needle, by allowing easy insertion of the probe 14 in the patient's brain. For tumors that are composed of solid tissue, and using a biopsy needle is less than Sinai needles with the intermediate size of the needles.

In this configuration, the tip of the probe 14 includes a target with the emission of x-rays, and can move in and out relative to the cranial introduction by means of movement along axis 16'. The x-ray device 10A can be strengthened in this position along the set screws 318A and 320. The length of the probe 14 of the x-ray device 10A is selected so that the center of curvature of the tip of the probe of the probe 14 when fully put down in the direction of smaller lower bounding position along axis 316 and 316 were placed exactly on the main reference point 0, when x-ray device 10 is completely leaves at the top of the bounding point along the axis 316', remote from the center of the probe tip 14 is going to be out of the skull of the patient. The coordinates of the curved support track 310A can be set so that the reference point 0 is at the required irradiation isocenter. Thus, by rotating the x-ray device 10A item 310 of the support and positioning of the x-ray device 10A along the circumference of the exact track support track 310A and along the axis 316', the user can select the appropriate path (preferably the least destruction to weddiny probe 14 at the bottom of the bounding point.

Fig. 11 depicts a diagram of a preferred high-voltage power source 12A for use with the x-ray device 10A shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. In this power supply high-voltage control signal is a control signal with a voltage from 0 to 9 Volts. This signal controls the field-effect transistor (FET) Q1, a flyback pulse Converter, which, in turn, controls the high voltage flyback transformer. Voltage high voltage flyback transformer is changed from +12 Volts to several thousand volts. High voltage multiplier D1-D28, in turn, increases the voltage to the desired output voltage from 15 to 40 kV. The feedback circuit of the voltage outputs information feedback for the controller 12C so that the output voltage of the high voltage multiplier can be maintained at a constant level.

Positive and negative circuit filament provide respectively 9 and 250 kHz pulse control rectangular shape for field-effect transistors 02 and 03. These field-effect transistors convert the variable DC voltage to the filament of the AC voltage, and control transformer T2, from which they transformer enables only the secondary coil to control the thread attacked the x-ray tube. This, in turn, helps to ensure the small size of the transformer, while maintaining the required isolation for high voltage. The current in the circuit FB allows the controller 12C to register the current of the electron beam, and the controller then sets the DC voltage filament to the desired beam current, and providing appropriate heat when electric current flows in thermometer 22. Chain reject X1, X2, Y1, Y2 produce a current control signal for the magnetic deflection coils.

As discussed above with reference to Fig. 1, the device 10 includes a beam generation and accelerating elements for generating and accelerating electrons before the electrons will fall into the probe 14. The generated electron beam then passes through the probe 14, bombards the target 26B, and thus produces x-ray radiation. In the absence of magnetic fields, the electrons pass through the probe 14, following a straight trajectory. Therefore, the probe 14 is usually hard without any bends.

However, in certain medical applications, it is useful to use a flexible probe. One such application includes passing through the x-ray source down the existing path, such as the trachea. Another is primene vessels.

Fig. 20A depicts a diagram of a device 200 that includes a flexible probe. The device 200 includes a high-voltage circuit 218, the laser source 220, the node 214 of the probe and the node 226 of the target. According to the first aspect of the invention, the device 200 provides the desired flexibility without the use of powerful magnetic fields, by moving elements, generating and accelerating electrons in the target node 226. The target node 214 comprises a laser source 220, and a high-voltage circuit 218 at node 226 of the target. The site of the probe includes a flexible fiber optic cable 202, enclosed in a flexible metal tube 204 with a small diameter. Node 226 of the target, which may be, for example, a length of from 1 to 2 cm, passes from the end node 214 of the probe and includes a membrane that closes the target 228. According to one variant embodiment, the node 226 of the target is rigid and generally cylindrical shape. In this variant embodiment of the cylindrical shell that covers the target node can be considered to provide a casing for the source of the electron beam, as well as tubular probe extending from the housing along the path of the electron beam. The inner surface 226A of the node 226 is along the line with an electrical insulator, while the outer surface 226B CE node 214 of the probe and from the evacuated air. According to other variant embodiments of the air inside the node 214 is pumped out.

The final output 202A fiber optic cable 202 is preferably covered at least part of its surface, translucent photoemission substance such as Ag-O-Cs, thus forming the photocathode 216. High-voltage conductor 208, introduced in the fiber optic cable 202, brings the electrons to the cathode 216 of the high-voltage circuit 218. Similarly, the flexible tube 204 connects the earth, turning away from the target 228 to high voltage circuit 218, through the establishment of a high voltage field between the cathode 216 and the target 228. Fiber optic cable 202 acts as an insulating dielectric between the high voltage conductor 208 and grounded by a flexible tube 204.

In one variant embodiment, to correct the absorption and scattering of light from the fiber optic cable 202 via a high-voltage wire 208, fiber-optic cable may be of a circular configuration, as shown in cross section in Fig. 208. The laser light 220 is directed down into a round hole 250 of the fiber optic cable 202. Shell 260 on each side of the hole 250 has a refractive index such quantities of the metal tube 204 surrounds the outer shell 260.

As in the previous described embodiments, embodiments, the target 228 may be, for example, beriyeva (Be), covered on one side with a thin film or layer 228A, containing an element with a high atomic number such as tungsten (W) or gold (Au).

In the process, a small semiconductor laser 220, which shines on the fiber optic cable 202, affects the transmission photocathode 216, which generates free electrons 222. High-voltage region between the cathode 216 and the target of 228 accelerates these electrons through their focus to apply surface 228A of the target 228 and develop x-rays. In order to generate, for example, a current of 20 μa of Ag-O-Cs photocathode 216 using laser 220, emitting light at a wavelength of 0.8 μm with a quantum yield equal to 0.4% of the photocathode 216 for this wavelength, it is necessary that the laser 220 radiated optical power equal to 7.5 mW. Such diode lasers are already used commercially. According to the invention photoemission surface, which Forms the cathode 216, may in fact be quite small. For example, the current density at the cathode 216 1 A/cm2you must have a diameter of photoemitter about 50 microns.

<, is the quiet will generate the collision in the film 228A target 228. These ions will be accelerated towards the photocathode 216, bombing and possibly destroying its surface. As depicted schematically in Fig. 22, in one variant embodiment to minimize ion bombardment of the photocathode 216 screen 217 high electric resistance (toroidal shell) is installed in close proximity and electrically connected along its outer corner to the photocathode. A small slot 217A in this screen 217 focuses the free electrons 222 and scatters them on the target 228. Returning electrons hit the screen 217 instead of the photocathode 216.

One difficult aspect of making this invention is in the fabrication of the photocathode 216, which for real substances with moderate quantum yield above 10-3that ought to contain in a vacuum. This procedure can be performed using a fiber-optic cable 202 installed in a dome-shaped receptacle, where, for example, photopolarimetry of Ag-O-Cs manufactured in the traditional way. Subsequently, without exposure to the air optic cable 202 can be inserted in the tube 204 and the photocathode 216 to be placed in direct contact with ekrano what I probe 14 or 214 along its combined node 26, 126 or 226 of the target it is possible to cover the two-part outer layer such as titanium nitride on the Nickel. For additional protection shell, for example, the probe can be applied polyurethane such as is shown in Fig. 2.

The invention can be implemented in other specific forms without violating the spirit and essence of characteristics. This variant embodiment should therefore be considered in all respects as illustrating and not limiting the scope of the invention represented by the amended claims to a greater extent than the preceding description, and all changes that are identified in the scope and significance of equivalence of the claims are therefore included here.

1. The x-ray source containing casing (12, 212) that hosts the tool (22) generating a beam designed to generate an electron beam along the path of the beam and including a source (22', 22", 216) of the electron beam, an elongated tubular probe (14, 214), passing along the Central axis (16) of the casing and near the path of the beam, the target node (26, 126, 226), including the element (26A, B, 228) of the target which emits x-rays fall on him electrons, and the tool is audica fact, that contains the site (29, 29') beam steering, comprising means (30) beam deviation from the conventional axis-to-axis that intersects the selected region of the surface of the target element in response to the control signal rejection circuit (31) feedback, including means (142) registration deviation of the beam and means for generating a feedback signal, the controller (144) variances connected to the tool deflection and to the feedback circuit and including means for developing a control signal deviation in response to the feedback signal.

2. Source under item 1, characterized in that the registration tool deflection includes means (142) x-ray registration for the registration of the emission of x-ray radiation from the element (W) target.

3. Source for p. 2, characterized in that the means (142) registration of x-ray radiation is placed near the source (22") of the electron beam.

4. The x-ray source under item 3, characterized in that at least part of the x-ray radiation (140') spreads from host (126) of the target before means (142) registration of x-ray radiation.

5. Source under item 3, characterized in that the source (22") elektronnoy least part of the x-ray radiation (140') passes through the source of the electron beam by means of x-ray registration.

6. Source for p. 2, characterized in that the means (142) registration of x-ray radiation is placed outside the casing (12).

7. Source for p. 2, characterized in that the controller (144) deviation includes management tool deflection, whereby the means (142) x-ray registration registers the maximum value of x-ray radiation from the element (W) target.

8. Source for p. 2, characterized in that the hub (29') beam control includes a calibration tool for the periodic deflection of the beam along at least one pre-defined rectilinear axis calibration means (142) registration of x-ray radiation.

9. Source under item 8, characterized in that formed one of the boundaries.

10. Source under item 9, characterized in that the hub (29') beam control includes means (30) deflection of the beam along at least one pre-defined rectilinear axis, while the host (126) target includes a tool (S) media support element (V) of the target, and one or b is related adopted as a basis the corners, perpendicular to the United one rectilinear axis.

11. Source under item 10, characterized in that formed two boundaries and the United rectilinear axis mutually perpendicular.

12. Source on p. 11, characterized in that the means (30) deflection of the beam includes an installation tool to control the beam that falls in the center of the target (228), and includes means (32) for scanning the beam across the target (228) in the first X-axis direction orthogonal to the trajectory of the beam, and detection taken as the basis of the angles in the scan and identify control points in the direction of X-axis on the target between the detected adopted for the basis of angles; means for scanning the beam across the target in the second Y-axis direction, in which direction Y orthogonal to the direction along the X-axis and the trajectory of the beam, and detection taken as the basis of the angles in the scan and identify control points in the direction of Y-axis of the target between the detected adopted for the basis of angles; means for generating a control signal, which shows the average point in the direction of X-axis and the corresponding point in the direction of the Y-axis, and the means of application of the control signal means to the nick.

13. Source under item 12, characterized in that the point in the appropriate direction along the X-axis is the midpoint along the line connecting the detected angles are taken as the basis of comparison, along the scan direction along the X-axis, and the point in the appropriate direction along the Y-axis is the midpoint along the line connecting the detected angles are taken as the basis of comparison, along the scan direction along the y axis.

14. Source on p. 11, characterized in that the means (30) deviation includes means (30) recognition of the target, comprising means (32) of the control beam to scan in a raster scanned charts at the distal end of the probe from the casing (12) and the ID of the scan in which the beam traverses the element (228) goals and detection of corners taken for a basis of comparison, along the scanning in response specifies the first corresponding point along the identified scanning site.

15. Source under item 14, characterized in that the first relevant point is the midpoint between the two angles, taken as a basis of comparison, which are found along the identified scanning site.

16. Source for p. 15, characterized in that it further comprises environments the control signal to the means (30) deviation through which the beam is installed along located perpendicular bisectors connecting the reference angles identified by scanning; means (32) for scanning the beam along a straight axis perpendicular to said line, and detecting the reference angles along a straight axis and in response to determining the second control point along a straight axis between the detected reference angles, while the second control point is the midpoint along a straight axis between the detected reference angles; means for generating a control signal, which will display the first and the second control point; means for applying a control signal to the tool deflection, through which the beam enters the center of the target, which is in the field of view of the source.

17. Source under item 7, characterized in that the controller (144) reject placed in the casing (12).

18. Source under item 7, characterized in that the controller (144) reject placed outside the casing (12).

19. Source under item 1, characterized in that the electron beam is characterized by the current of the electron beam and the electron beam source further includes a vehicle controller, responsive to the means (142) registration of x-ray SS="ptx2">

20. Source (10, 10', 200) x-ray radiation, containing a casing (12, 212) that hosts the tool (22) generating a beam designed to generate an electron beam along the path of the beam and including an electronic source(22', 22", 219), an elongated tubular probe (14, 214), located along the Central axis (16) of the casing and near the path of the beam, characterized in that it contains a node (26, 126, 226) of the target, located along the Central axis and including means for connecting the node of the target to the distal end of the probe element (26A, B, 228) target having a first surface and mounted on the trajectory of the beam, in which the target element is responsible for the fall of electrons to the first surface from the beam to emit x-ray radiation, the node (A) the tip of the probe, including means for maintaining the first surface of the target element on the trajectory of the beam and which is transparent to x-rays and establishing the outer surface at the distal end of the probe, and the screen (128), made with the selected profile transmission and mounted on the outer convex surface of the upper node of the tip of the probe to control the spatial distribution of contours isodose from source rentgenovskoj node (126) the target is arranged to move from an elongated tubular probe (14).

22. Source for p. 21, characterized in that the tubular probe and the target node includes means (140, 142) of the internal alignment of target node relative to the tubular probe about its Central axis.

23. Source for p. 20, wherein the node of the tip of the probe includes an element (S) media goals, having a first side adapted to support the target element, and a second side opposite the first side, and an outer surface, the upper element (A) probe, mounted coaxial with the media item of the target and attached.

24. Source for p. 23, characterized in that the element (S) media target is made hemispherical and is mounted concentrically around an element (W) target.

25. Source for p. 23, characterized in that the element (S) media target made of beryllium.

26. Source for p. 23, characterized in that the carrier (S) of the target and the top element (A) probe pressed tightly to each other.

27. Source for p. 23, characterized in that the carrier (S) target cooled relative to the upper element (A) probe to concentric connection to the top element of the probe over the media item to the target, while the upper elemene, so the media item of the target and the top element of the probe are in thermal equilibrium.

28. Source for p. 23, characterized in that the element (S) media target and the top element (A) probe formed together.

29. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the hub (126) of the target element includes (A) media screen placed between the outer surface of the upper node (A) probe and screen (128).

30. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the screen (128) has a specified thickness profile.

31. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the first surface element (V) target is concave.

32. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the first surface element (V) target is convex.

33. Source for p. 32, characterized in that the element (V) target is generally hemispherical.

34. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the first surface element (V) target flat and the element of the target set so that the first surface is perpendicular to the Central axis (16).

35. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the element (V) target made of a metal with a high atomic number.

36. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the electron is the maximum dimension d2across the axis of the beam, measured through the axis of the beam at the target element, and d2less than or equal to d1.

37. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the electron beam has a generally circular cross section with diameter d1the element of the target, which is the minimum size of d2across the axis of the beam, measured through the axis of the beam at the target element, and d2greater than or equal to d1.

38. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the screen (128) has a hemispherical surface facing the element (V) target, which has a maximum dimension d2across the axis of the beam at the target element, and the inner cross section of the beam axis with the target set at a minimum distance of d3from the hemispherical surface of the screen, and d2/d3is in the range of 1/3 - 1/20.

39. Source for p. 38, characterized in that the electron beam has a circular cross section with diameter d1the item (V) of the target, and d1/d3is in the range of 1/3 - 1/20.

40. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the first surface of the element target (V) concave.

41. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the first surface of the element target (V) is convex.of the top node of the probe (126) and then milled with a laser to provide the desired thickness profile to select paths isodose x-ray radiation, generated from the upper node of the probe.

43. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the screen (128) deposited by the method of vapor deposition with a thickness profile on the opposite surface of the upper node of the probe.

44. Source for p. 20, characterized in that the screen (128) caused by galvanic method on the outer surface of the top node of the probe and then processed to provide a predetermined thickness profile.

45. Method for manufacturing site (26, 126, 226) of the target for operation in combination with a source of an electron beam to generate x-ray radiation with a spatial distribution that is determined by the set of paths isodose, in which the forming element (26A, B, 228) of the target intended for x-ray generation in the fall of electrons, forming a node (A) the tip of the probe, including means for maintaining the trajectory of the electron beam so as to intersect the target element, in which the node of the tip of the probe is the banner of x-rays and has an external surface, characterized in that what does the formation of the screen (128), which is characterized by the selected transfer profile and posted border contour isodose.

46. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that when forming the screen provide galvanic deposition of metal to create the screen (128) on the outer side of the node (A) the tip of the probe.

47. The method according to p. 46, characterized in that it further carry out the laser milling of the screen (128) to form a profile with the specified thickness for the implementation of the selected contours isodose.

48. The method according to p. 46, characterized in that it further carry out machining of the screen (128) to achieve the specified thickness profile for the selected contours isodose.

49. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that when forming the screen additionally carry out the deposition of the screen on the convex outer surface node (A) the tip of the probe, and the screen (128) are precipitated with the profile of a given thickness, which is defined at least partially by the contours isodose.

50. The method according to p. 45, characterized in that when forming the screen carry out the deposition of the screen (128) on the convex outer side surface node of the tip of the probe.

51. The method according to p. 50, characterized in that conduct laser milling screen for forming a profile with the specified thickness for vypolneniya transmission using a particular computer model.

53. Source (200) x-ray radiation, containing the source (218, 12A power supply including a first output (22A) and second (22B) and the tool (286) control to set the output voltage between the first and second conclusions, which has a maximum value in the range of 10 to 90 kV, characterized in that it contains a node (214) with a flexible fiber optic cable having an input end (V) and the output end (A) and includes fiber-optic element (202) from the input end to the output end for transmitting light from the input end to the output end, a source (220) light, comprising means for generating a light beam directed to the input end of the fiber optic node, and the node (226) of the target attached to the output end nodes of a fiber-optic cable and electrically connected to the power source through the first and second pins, and including means for generating x-ray radiation in a given spectral region in response to the light transmitted to the output end.

54. Source for p. 53, characterized in that the beam of light is substantially monochromatic.

55. Source for p. 54, characterized in that the source (220) light assetsat the photocathode (216), with photoemission surface, and the photocathode is placed near the output end (A) fiber-optic element and is responsible for a portion of the light beam falling on him from the output end for emitting electrons (222) with photoemission surface.

57. Source for p. 56, characterized in that the node (226) target includes an element (228) target located in the side of the photoemission from the surface, and means for generating x-ray radiation due to the impact of electrons (222) on the target element with photoemission surface.

58. Source for p. 57, characterized in that the first output (22A) source (218, 12A power supply electrically connected to the photoemission element (216) and second (22B) a power source electrically connected to the element (228) of the target, thus forming an electric field, which is used to accelerate electrons emitted from photoemission surface toward the target element.

59. Source for p. 58, characterized in that the second conclusion (22B) is grounded potential.

60. Source for p. 58, characterized in that the node (214) fiber optic cable includes an electrical conductor (208) current raspada (22A) power supply (218, 12A) to the photocathode (216).

61. Source for p. 60, characterized in that the node (214) fiber optic cable includes a flexible conductive outer shell (204) that is intended for electrical connection of the second output (22V) source (218, 12A) power to the node (226) of the target.

62. Source for p. 61, characterized in that the node (226) of the target includes a conductive outer surface, which brings together the shell and the element (228) of the target.

63. Source for p. 61, characterized in that the node (226) of the target is hard, has a cylindrical shape and includes an electrically insulating inner surface, the first fixed end and the second fixed end, the first fixed end is located opposite the second core end along the longitudinal axis, the photocathode (216) installed next to the first main end, and the element (228) target is set next to the second end of the main.

64. Source for p. 63, characterized in that the node (226) of the target includes means for sealing site of the target and forming a closed chamber defined by an inner surface, the first main end and the second end of the main.

65. Source for p. 64, characterized in that the air from the closed chamber otkazivau-optical element (202).

67. Source for p. 66, characterized in that the node (226) target includes an element (228) targets placed in the side of the photocathode (216), and the means for emission of x-rays in the fall of electrons (222).

68. Source for p. 67, characterized in that the first output (22A) source (218, 12A power supply electrically connected to the photocathode (216) and second (22B) is electrically connected to the element (228) of the target for forming the electric field, which is used to accelerate electrons (222) emitted by their photoemission surface toward the target element.

69. Source under item 68, wherein the second conclusion (22B) is grounded potential.

70. Source under item 68, wherein the node (214) fiber optic cable includes an electrical conductor (208), located inside the fiber-optic element (202) and adapted to connect the first output (22A) source (218, 12A) power to the photocathode (216).

71. Source for p. 70, characterized in that the node (214) fiber optic cable includes a flexible conductive outer shell (204), which is designed to connect the second output (22V) source (218, 12A) power to the node (226) Masnou surface, which connects the shell (204) with the element (228) of the target.

73. Source for p. 72, characterized in that the node (226) of the target is hard, has a cylindrical shape and includes an electrically insulating inner surface, the first fixed end and the second fixed end, and the first fixed end is located opposite the second core end along the longitudinal axis, and the photocathode (216) installed next to the first main end, and the element (228) target is located next to the second end of the main.

74. Source for p. 53, characterized in that the source (218, 12A power supply further comprises means to selectively control the amplitude of the output voltage.

75. Source for p. 57, characterized in that the fall of electrons (222) on the element (228) the target of the photoemission element of the beam is characterized by a current in the range 1 - 100 µa.

76. Source for p. 58, characterized in that the fall of electrons (222) on the element (228) target photoemission from the surface is accelerated by the electric field to energies in the range 10 to 90 Kev.

77. Source for p. 53, characterized in that the node (214) fiber optic cable further comprises a conductive cable (208) to the conductive shell (204), concentrically located around the optical fiber element.

78. Source for p. 57, characterized in that the node (214) fiber optic cable further comprises a first membrane (260) coating having a refractive index less than the refractive index of the optical transmitting core and concentrically disposed between the conductive cable (208) and fiber-optic element (202).

79. Source for p. 78, characterized in that the node (214) fiber-optic cable contains the second shell (260) coating having a refractive index less than the refractive index of the optical transmitting core (250) and a concentrically disposed between the fiber-optic element (202) and an electrically conductive outer shell (204).

80. Source for p. 57, characterized in that it has an element (217) toroidal coating of the screen next to the photocathode (216), which defines the Central aperture (217), which allows to pass through it in a certain emitted electrons (222) in the item (228) target and lock in a specific balance of electrons.

81. Source for p. 80, characterized in that the element (217) screen is a material with high the NYY cable (208), characterized in that it contains an optically conductive core (250), concentrically located around the electrically conductive cable, and an electrically conductive outer shell (204), concentrically located around the optically conductive core.

83. Host by p. 82, characterized in that it contains the first shell (260) coating having a refractive index less than the refractive index of the optical transmitting core and concentrically disposed between the conductive cable (208) and an optically conductive core (250).

84. Host by p. 83, characterized in that it contains a second shell (260) coating having a refractive index less than the refractive index of the optically conductive core (250) and a concentrically disposed between the optically conductive core and an electrically conductive outer shell (204).

 

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