# The phase method of direction finding and phase direction finder for its implementation

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to radar, radio navigation and can be used to determine the location and movement of radiation sources of complex signals. The technical result is to enhance the functionality of the basic method by measuring the radial velocity D and the angular velocities of the source signal in azimuth and elevation . The proposed method can be implemented in the phase direction finder, which contains the antenna 1-5, 6-10 amps high frequency first local oscillator 11, a mixer 12 to 16, 23, 51, 53, amplifiers 17-21, 52 of the first intermediate frequency, a multiplier products 25-29, 44, 45, narrowband filters 30-34, 46, 47, 54, phasemeter 35-40, the counters 41, 48, 49, 55, computing unit 42 unit 43 registration, 2 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill. The invention relates to radar, radio navigation and can be used to determine the location and movement of radiation sources of complex signals.Known phase methods measurements and the phase direction finders (RF patents NN 2003131, 2006872, 2010258, 2012010, 2134429; Space trajectory measurement. Under the General editorship PA. Agadzhanova and other M: Owls. radio, 1969, S. 244-245; I. E. Kinkelin and other Phase method prelegal" (patent of the Russian Federation N2134429, G 01 S 3/00,1997), which provides a measurement of the angular coordinate , and the distance D to the source of the radiation signal, i.e., allows to determine the location of the radiation source signal.However, the potential of this method have not been fully utilized. In this way it is possible to measure the radial velocity and angular velocity of the radiation source signal in azimuth and elevation and thereby to determine the modulus of the velocity vector of the source signal:< / BR>

Object of the invention is to enhance the functionality of the basic method by measuring the radial velocity and angular velocity of the radiation source signal in azimuth and elevation

The task is the fact that the method based on the reception signals of five antennas, arranged in a geometric straight angle, the top of which is placed the antenna of the measuring channel, common to the four dynamical channels located in the azimuthal and elevation planes, two on each plane, thus forming in each plane, two measurement bases d and 2d, between which establish the inequality:

< / BR>

where is the wavelength;

in this case, smaller base d image is the one of the corners, converting the received signals in frequency, the selection voltage of the first intermediate frequency re-converting the frequency of the voltage of the first intermediate frequency measuring channel, the selection voltage of the second intermediate frequency, the multiplication with the voltage of the first intermediate frequency direction-finding channels, the allocation of the received voltage harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the second lo preserving phase relationships, measuring the phase difference between the harmonic oscillations and the voltage of the second local oscillator and the evaluation of the values of the azimuth and elevation of the source signal, the multiplication of the received signal of the first DF channel voltage of the first intermediate frequency of the second dynamical channel in the azimuthal plane, the allocation of the received voltage harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the first local oscillator preserving phase relationships, the measurement of the carrier frequency of the received signal, the angle of sight and the difference of difference of phases between the first dynamical and measurement channels, as well as between the second and first dynamical channels in the azimuthal plane and the evaluation of their values digestibility radiation source signal, Peremohy voltage of the first intermediate frequency measuring channel voltage of the first intermediate frequency of the second and the fourth direction-finding channels located in the azimuthal and elevation planes, respectively, are extracted from the received voltage harmonic oscillations with frequencies equal to the difference between the Doppler frequency and evaluate the values of the angular velocities of the source signal in azimuth and elevation, in the measuring channel perform dual conversion frequency of the received signal using two reference frequencies and frequency stand, which is injected to determine the sign of the Doppler shift, emit harmonic oscillation with Doppler shift, measure the frequency and the magnitude and sign of the Doppler shift estimate the magnitude and direction of the radial velocity of the source signal, the measured values of the range, radial velocity and angular velocity in azimuth and elevation determine the modulus of the velocity vector of the source signal.The location and the module of the velocity vector of the radiation source, for example, a complex signal with phase shift keying (QPSK) for the proposed method is gnali with unstable carrier frequency of five antennas 1 - 5, located in the geometric form of a right angle (Fig. 2), the top of which is placed the antenna 1 of the measuring channel, thus forming in each plane, two measurement bases d and 2d:

< / BR>

where U

_{1}-U

_{5}- amplitude signals;

_{c}, T

_{c},

_{1}-

_{5}- carrier frequency, duration, and initial phase signals;

- instability of the carrier frequency due to various destabilizing factors, including the Doppler effect;

_{k}(t) = {0,} - manipulated component phases, reflecting the law of phase manipulation, and

_{k}(t) = const for K

_{n}< t < (K+1)

_{n}and may change abruptly at t = K

_{n}, i.e., at the boundaries between elementary parcels (K=1,2,...,N-1);

_{n}N - the length and number of basic assumptions which form the signal duration T

_{c}(T

_{c}= N

_{n}).

2. Convert them to frequency using a voltage of the first local oscillator (lo:

U

_{r1}(t) = U

_{r1}cos(

_{r1}t+a

_{r1})

where U

_{r1},

_{r1},

_{r1}the amplitude, frequency and initial phase of the voltage of the first local oscillator;

and allocate the voltage of the first intermediate frequency:

< / BR>

0tT

_{c},

where

< / BR>

K

_{1}- coeff

thus forming one measuring and four dynamical channel, two on each plane.3. In the measuring channel voltage U

_{PR1}(t) the first intermediate frequency second time transform on the frequency using the voltage of the second lo:

u

_{r2}(t) = U

_{r2}cos(

_{r2}t+a

_{r2})

where U

_{r2},

_{r2},

_{r2}the amplitude, frequency and initial phase of the voltage of the second local oscillator;

and allocate the voltage of the second intermediate frequency:

u

_{p}(t) = U

_{p}cos[(

_{AC2})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{p}],

where

_{AC2}=

_{PR1}-

_{r2}the second intermediate frequency;

_{p}=

_{1}-

_{r2}.

4. Peremohy voltage of the second intermediate frequency U

_{p}(t) of the measuring channel with voltages U

_{AC2}(t)-U

_{WP5}(t) the first intermediate frequency direction-finding channels.5. From the obtained stress emit harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the second local oscillator preserving phase relationships:

< / BR>

0tT

_{c},

where

< / BR>

K

_{2}- transfer coefficient multiplier products;

< / BR>

d, 2d measuring base;

- the angular coordinates in azimuth and angular planes. the second lo U

_{T2}(t) and evaluate the values of the azimuth and elevation of the source signal.7. Peremohy the received signal U

_{2}(t) of the first direction-finding channel voltage U

_{AC3}(t) the first intermediate frequency of the second dynamical channel in the azimuthal plane.8. From the obtained voltage emit harmonic oscillation at a frequency of

_{r1}the first local oscillator preserving phase relationships

u

_{10}(t) = U

_{10}cos(

_{r1}t+a

_{r1}+

_{5}), 0 t t

_{c},

where

< / BR>

9. Measure the phase difference

_{5}between harmonic oscillation U

_{10}(t) and the voltage of the first lo U

_{G1}(t).10. Measure the carrier frequency of the received signal and the difference of the difference of phases:

< / BR>

Expressing sin

_{1}and sin

_{3}through the sides of right-angled triangles 11' And 22' And 33' And get

< / BR>

< / BR>

where D is the distance from the radiation source signal.The above expression can be written in the approximate form:

< / BR>

< / BR>

The value of difference of difference of phases in approximate form as follows:

< / BR>

11. The desired distance to the radiation source signal estimate using the following formula:

< / BR>

12. And the.13. Measure the radial velocity of a source of the radiation signal. The specified dimension is based on the use of the Doppler effect.The essence of it lies in the fact that the frequency f

_{with}accept fluctuations different from the frequency f

_{0}emitted oscillations, if the emitter and receiver are moving relative to each other.As we know from the General theory of relativity, the relationship between frequency f

_{with}and f

_{0}is determined by the ratio

< / BR>

where C is the speed of light;

V - full speed signal source;

the radial component of velocity of the source signal (emitter).Since

< / BR>

< / BR>

the expression for the carrier frequency can be written as

< / BR>

Limited to the first summands in the first part of the last equality, we obtain

< / BR>

where F

_{g}- Doppler shift frequency.Replacing the exact ratio close causes a truncation error of measurement of radial velocity. To measure the radial velocity of the emitter in the measuring channel perform dual conversion of the received signal using two reference frequencies f

_{1}. The voltage of the first intermediate frequency f

_{PC}where is the gain of the received signal, is determined by the difference

f

_{PC}=f

_{with}-f

_{1}=f

_{0}+F

_{g}-f

_{1},

where f

_{1}the frequency of the reference signal, participating in the first frequency conversion of the received signal.The reference signal is participating in the second frequency conversion of the received signal, has a frequency of

f

_{2}=f

_{0}-f

_{1}-F

_{0}.After the second frequency conversion of the received signal are generated oscillation frequency

f

_{ISM}= f

_{PC}-f

_{2}= f

_{0}+ F

_{g}- f

_{1}-f

_{0}+F

_{0}= F

_{g}+F

_{0}.Depending, f

_{ISM}> F

_{0}or f

_{ISM}< F

_{0}determine the sign of the Doppler shift, and hence the direction of the radial velocity.14. Measure the angular velocity of the emitter. These measurements in two planes based on the comparison of Doppler shifts in the two systems separated antennas, the base of which is oriented in space at an angle of 90

^{o}(Fig. 2). While derivatives are measured two guide cones:

< / BR>

From derivatives not difficult per the ski frequencies in azimuth and angular planes.Fg

_{1}= Fg

_{3}-Fg

_{1}, Fg

_{2}= Fg

_{5}-Fg

_{1}.

Thus, to measure the angular velocities of the source signal, in addition to the Doppler difference frequency, it is necessary to measure direction cosines in the azimuthal and angular planes.On detected values of angular velocities determine the tangential components of the velocity vector of the source signal:

< / BR>

15. The module of the velocity vector of the source signal

< / BR>

find how the measurement result is six radio navigation options: three coordinates, D and three speeds

The proposed phase method of direction finding can be implemented in the phase direction finder, a block diagram is shown in Fig. 1. The mutual arrangement of the receiving antennas is shown in Fig. 2 and 3.The phase signal includes receiving antennas 1 and 5 amps 6 - 10 high frequency first local oscillator 11, mixers 12 - 16, 23, 51, 53, the amplifiers 17 - 21, 52 of the first intermediate frequency, a second local oscillator 22, an amplifier 24, a second intermediate frequency, multiplier products 25 - 28, 29, 44, 45, narrowband filters 30 - 34, 46, 47, 54, phasemeter 35 - 40, frequency 41, 48, 49, 55, computational block 42, block 43 of the Desk.Will measure the progress of which is connected to the output of the local oscillator 11, amplifier 17, the first intermediate frequency and the frequency of 41.Each DF channel consists of a series of 2 antennas (3, 4, 5), amplifier 7(8, 9, 10) high frequency mixer 13 (14, 15, 16), a second input connected to the output of the local oscillator 11, the amplifier 18 (19, 20, 21) of the first intermediate frequency, multiplier 25 (26, 27, 28), a second input connected to the output of the amplifier 24, a second intermediate frequency, narrow-band filter 30 (31, 32, 33) and phase meter 35 (36, 37, 38), a second input connected to the output of the local oscillator 22. The output of the amplifier 7 high frequency sequentially connected to the multiplier 29, the second input connected to the output of the amplifier 19, a narrow-band filter 34, the phase meter 39, a second input connected to the output of the local oscillator 11, the phase meter 40, a second input connected to the output of the phase meter 35, the computing unit 42, a second input connected to the output of the phase meter 39, and a third input connected to the output of the counter 41, and the recording unit 43, second, third, fourth and fifth inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the phase meter 35-38, respectively. The output of the amplifier 17, the first intermediate frequency connected in series multiplier 44, a second input connected to the output maximizing the input of the computing unit 42 and the sixth input of the recording unit 43. The output of the amplifier 17, the first intermediate frequency connected in series multiplier 45, a second input connected to the output of the amplifier 21 and the first intermediate frequency, narrow-band filter 47 and the counter 49, the output of which is connected to the fifth input of the computing unit 42 and the seventh input unit 43 of the Desk. The output of the amplifier 6 high frequency connected in series mixer 51, a second input connected to the first output unit 50 reference frequencies, the amplifier 52, the first intermediate frequency, a mixer 53, a second input connected with the second output unit 50 of the reference frequency, narrow-band filter 54 and the counter 55, the output of which is connected to the sixth input of the computing unit 42 and the eighth input unit 43 of the Desk.The phase signal is as follows.Accept FMN signals from the outputs of the antennas 1 - 5 6-10 amps high frequency received at the first inputs of the mixers 12 to 16, respectively, the second inputs of which are supplied with voltage of the first local oscillator. The outputs of the mixers 12 to 16 are formed voltage Raman frequencies. Amplifiers 17-21 are voltage U

_{PR1}(t)-U

_{WP5}(t), only the first intermediate frequency. The voltage of the first input voltage U

_{T2}(t) lo. At the output of mixer 23 is formed voltage Raman frequencies. The amplifier 24 is allocated the voltage of the second intermediate frequency, which is fed to the second inputs of the multiplier products 25 - 28, at the first input of which receives the voltage U

_{AC2}(t)-U

_{WP5}(t) the first intermediate frequency. From the obtained stress narrowband filters 30-33 stand out harmonic oscillations U

_{6}(t)-U

_{9}(t) received at the first inputs of the phase meter 35-38, the second inputs of which are supplied with voltage U

_{T2}(t) of the local oscillator 22. The measured phase shifts

_{1},

_{2},

_{3}and

_{4}register unit 43 of the Desk.The phase meter 39 is measured phase shift

_{5}. The difference between the phase difference () = (

_{1}-

_{5}) is measured by the phase meter 40 and arrives at the computing unit 42, where it is indirectly determined by the distance D from the radiation source complex signal and then recorded in the block 43 of the Desk. In the last determined location of the radiation source complex signal.The maximum error in determining the distance D is determined by the expression

< / BR>

For measured values of azimuth , elevation and distance D is determined octopole the(t) c the output of the amplifier 6 high frequency is supplied to the first input of the mixer 51, the second input of which is applied the first reference frequency f

_{1}. At the output of mixer 51 are formed voltage Raman frequencies. Amplifier 52 is allocated the voltage of the first intermediate frequency

f

_{PR1}- f

_{with}- f

_{1}= f

_{0}+ F

_{g}- f

_{1},

which is supplied to the first input of the mixer 53. To the second input of mixer 53 is fed Opera signal whose frequency is determined by the expression

f

_{2}=f

_{0}- f

_{1}-F

_{0},

where F

_{0}the frequency of the stand, which is output to determine the sign of the Doppler shift F

_{g}.At the output of mixer 53 is formed of the oscillation frequency

f

_{ISM}= f

_{PC}- f

_{2}= f

_{0}+ F

_{g}- f

_{1}- f

_{0}+ f

_{1}+ F

_{0}= F

_{g}+ F

_{0},

which is separated by a narrow-band filter 54, is measured by the frequency counter 55 and enters the computing unit 42 unit 43 of the Desk. The magnitude and sign of the Doppler shift estimate the magnitude and direction of the radial velocity of the source signal.To measure the angular velocity of the emitter along the azimuth and elevation angle of the voltage U

_{PR1}(t), U

_{p is the input of the multiplier products 44 and 45. While narrowband filters 46 and 47 produce harmonic oscillations at frequencies equal to the difference between the Doppler frequencies in the azimuthal and angular planes:Fg1= Fg3-Fg1, Fg2= Fg5-Fg1.These differential Doppler frequency measured by the frequency 48 and 49, respectively, are received in the computing unit 42 and fixed unit 43 of the Desk.In the computing unit 42 are determined by the tangential components of the velocity vector of the emitter< / BR>and the module of the velocity vector of the emitter,also fixed unit 43 of the Desk.Thus, the proposed method is compared with the reference provides definition not only the distance D and angle coordinates , but also the radial velocity and angular velocity in azimuth and elevation, radiator. While on the measured values of the distance D and the angular velocities are determined by the tangential components of the velocity vector of the emitter and on the measured values of the six navigation options: three D coordinates, three velocity is determined by the modulus of the velocity vector of the emitter, i.e., along with the location determined by the parameters of movement of the radiation source with the 1. The phase method of direction finding based on the reception signals of five antennas, arranged in a geometric straight angle, the top of which is placed the antenna of the measuring channel, common to the four dynamical channels located in the azimuthal and elevation planes, two on each plane, thus forming in each plane, two measurement bases d and 2d, between which establish the inequality< / BR>where is the wavelength,a lower base d form a rough but clear scale of reference angles and the large base 2d form accurate but ambiguous scale of reference angles, converting the received signals in frequency, the selection voltage of the first intermediate frequency re-converting the frequency of the voltage of the first intermediate frequency measuring channel, the selection voltage of the second intermediate frequency, the multiplication with the voltage of the first intermediate frequency direction-finding channels, the allocation of the received voltage harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the second lo preserving phase relationships, measuring the phase difference between the harmonic oscillations and the voltage of the second local oscillator and the evaluation of the values of the azimuth of the voltage of the first intermediate frequency of the second dynamical channel in the azimuthal plane, the allocation of the received voltage harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the first local oscillator preserving phase relationships, the measurement of the carrier frequency of the received signal, the angle of sight and the difference of difference of phases between the first dynamical and measurement channels, as well as between the second and first dynamical channels in the azimuthal plane and the evaluation of their values, the distance to the radiation source signal, determining from the measured values of azimuth, elevation and range location of the radiation source signal, wherein Peremohy voltage of the first intermediate frequency measuring channel voltage of the first intermediate frequency of the second and the fourth direction-finding channels located in the azimuthal and elevation planes, respectively, are extracted from the received voltage harmonic oscillations with frequencies equal to the difference between the Doppler frequency and evaluate the values of the angular velocities of the source signal in azimuth and elevation, in the measuring channel perform dual conversion frequency of the received signal using two reference frequencies and frequency stand, which is injected to Opredelenie and the magnitude and sign of the Doppler shift estimate the magnitude and direction of the radial velocity of the source signal, on the measured values of the range, radial velocity and angular velocity in azimuth and elevation determine the modulus of the velocity vector of the source signal.2. The phase signal containing measuring and four dynamical channel while measuring channel consists of series-connected antenna, amplifier high frequency mixer, a second input connected to the output of the first local oscillator, amplifier first intermediate frequency mixer, a second input connected to the output of the second local oscillator, the amplifier of the second intermediate frequency and the first frequency, each of the direction-finding channel consists of series-connected antenna, amplifier high frequency mixer, a second input connected to the output of the first local oscillator, amplifier first intermediate frequency, multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the amplifier of the second intermediate frequency, notch filter and phase meter, connected in series to the output of the amplifier high frequency of the first DF channel, the fifth multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the amplifier, the first intermediate frequency of the second direction-finding channel, the fifth user, a second input connected to the output of the first phase meter, computing unit, a second input connected to the output of the fifth phase meter, and a third input connected to the output of the first frequency, and the recording unit, second, third, fourth and fifth inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first, second, third and fourth phase meter, respectively, characterized in that it is equipped with the sixth and seventh multiplier products, sixth, seventh and eighth narrowband filters, second, third and fourth frequency, block frequency, the seventh and eighth mixers and the sixth amplifier first intermediate frequency, and to the amplifier output of the first intermediate frequency measuring channel connected in series to the sixth multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the amplifier, the first intermediate frequency of the second direction-finding channel, the sixth narrowband filter and the second frequency, the output of which is connected to the fourth input of the computing unit and the sixth input of the recording unit, to output the first intermediate frequency measuring channel connected in series seventh multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the first amplifier protectorado connected to the fifth input of the computing unit and the seventh output of the registration unit, to amplifier output high-frequency measuring channel connected in series seventh mixer, a second input connected to the first output of the reference frequency, the sixth power of the first intermediate frequency, the eighth mixer, a second input connected to the second output of the reference frequency, the eighth narrowband filter and the fourth frequency, the output of which is connected to the sixth input of the computing unit and to the eighth input of the recording unit. }

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