A method of obtaining a fluorocarbon (options) and installation for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method and device for producing fluorocarbon. The method includes the stage of creation of an electric arc in the high temperature zone and feeding at least one starting material in the high temperature zone to obtain a thermal plasma comprising fluorine and carbon-containing particles. The molecular ratio of C : F in the mass of heated gas is controlled at a given value of 0,4 - 2,0; specific enthalpy mass of the heated gas is controlled at a given value of ~ 1 - 10 kW h/kg for a period of time sufficient for the formation of reactive thermal gas mixture containing reactive fluorine-containing and carbon-containing intermediate substance. Then the reactive thermal mixture is cooled so fast and to such a temperature that lead to final product, including the desired ftoruglevodorodnye connection. The source material is usually a C1-C10- perfluorinated carbon compound of General formula CnFmwhere 0 < n < 10 and m = 2n, 2n + 2 or 2n - 2, where n > 1, for example gaseous perugiae 1727 - 2727oC. Use mainly prashadam electrodes. The installation includes a high temperature zone with a mass of heated gas, a pair of electrodes for creating an electric arc, means for feeding the source material and thermal plasma in the high temperature zone. This installation contains at least one plasma burner with a pair of arachodonic electrodes and a vortex generator performed as part of the at least one plasma torch. The result is a wide range of fluorocarbon with a high performance process and with minimum energy consumption. 3 C. and 29 C.p. f-crystals, 35 ill., 7 table.

The present invention relates to a method for ftoruglevodorodnyh compounds and to install and apparatus for ftoruglevodorodnyh compounds. In particular, the invention relates to a method and to install and apparatus for continuous selective achieve the desired ftoruglevodorodnyh connections with a minimum number of sinks.

According to one aspect of the invention proposes a method of obtaining the desired ftoruglevodorodnyh connection, which includes stages:

creating a high-temperature zone; a
regulation molar ratio of C:F in the environment of the heated gas in the selected value from about 0.4 to 2;

regulation size specific enthalpy of the heated gas in the range from 1 to 10 kWh/kg for a period of time sufficient to form a reaction thermal gaseous mixture containing reactive substance, including reactive fluorine-containing intermediate compounds and reactive carbon-containing intermediate compounds, and

cooling of the reactive thermal mixture with cooling rate until the temperature is chosen so as to obtain a final product comprising the desired ftoruglevodorodnye connection.

The ratio of C:F in the environment of hot gas may be chosen based on the optimal output named intermediate compounds at optimal energy consumption.

Unless approved otherwise, the specified specific enthalpy relates to a thermal gaseous mixture and expresses the magnitude of 1 kg of thermal gaseous mixture.

The original substance may include a gas flow and at least one ftoruglevodorodnye, selected according to the desired molar ratio of C:F in the hot gas environment to ensure the final ftoruglevodorodnyh connection.

Ftoruglevodorodnye connection can have a short carbon chain. Usually it's C-C-perftoruglerodnaya compound of General formula CnFmwhere 0 < n < 10, a m = 2n, 2n+2 or 2n-2. For example, gaseous ftoruglevodorodnye connection, such as defloration (C2F2), tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), freon (C2F6), hexaferrite (C3F6), OCTAFLUOROPROPANE (C3F8), terraformer (CF4), OCTAFLUOROBUT (C4F8or deceptibot (C4F10).

Desired ftoruglevodorodnye connections that get in the way according to this invention, are typically C1-C4- fluorocarbons, such as tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4, TPV), freon (C2F6), hexaferrite (C3F6), OCTAFLUOROPROPANE (C3F8and terraformer (CF4carbontetrachloride).

It should be emphasized that some ftoruglevodorodnye compounds specifically mentioned as ftoruglevodorodnye final products are the same provides an effective way of turning available but not target ftoruglevodorodnye to another target (desired) ftoruglevodorodnye connection, and a way of turning a mixture of fluorocarbons in one or more purified desired ftoruglevodorodnyh connections.

The method according to the invention may include other stages, namely the introduction of carbon compounds in the hot gas environment in terms of regulation of the magnitude of the enthalpy to obtain thermal reaction of a gaseous mixture of reactive intermediates derived from carbon compounds. If the injected substance contains ftoruglevodorodnye connection, the reactive intermediate compounds can be obtained from ftoruglevodorodnyh compounds and particles of carbon compounds. Accordingly, the method may include the steps:

creating a high-temperature zone;

the supply of the source gas stream containing at least one ftoruglevodorodnye connection, in the high temperature zone to generate a hot gas environment;

introduction in the conditions of the regulated value of the enthalpy of the particles of carbon compounds in the environment of hot gas to obtain a reactive thermal mixture with molg;

controlling the specified specific enthalpy for a period of time sufficient to induce the formation of reactive thermal mixture, and this mixture contains reactive particles, including the desired fluorine-containing and carbon-containing intermediate compounds derived from at least one of ftoruglevodorodnye and carbon-containing substances in the form of particles;

cooling thermal reaction mixtures thus, to obtain a mixed product containing at least one desired ftoruglevodorodnye connection.

Wednesday hot gas in the high temperature zone can be created by generating plasma in the original gaseous substance, for example, under the action of an electric arc in the said high temperature zone between at least one pair of electrodes. The electrodes can be substantially nesmachivaemost (indestructible) electrodes.

Kind of a reactive substance, formed in the environment of hot gas will depend on the composition of the input gas stream, the nature of the particles of carbon compounds and other factors. Moreover, some of the reactive compounds may be poluchenierazreshenija compounds can be obtained after the introduction of named carbon compounds. These reactive compounds will be described in more detail below. Reactive compounds include some of the desired intermediate compound, which further reaction in suitable conditions, rapid cooling to a predetermined reaction temperature will provide the desired ftoruglevodorodnyh connection (or ftoruglevodorodnyh connections).

As will be further shown below, how cool thermal reaction mixture containing additional reactive compounds desired intermediate products, determines the final ftoruglevodorodnye product (s). Accordingly, stage cooling preferably has cooling rate, cooling temperature and the period of time during which withstand cooled heat the mixture within the temperature cooling, each of which is chosen so as to determine the nature of at least one desired ftoruglevodorodnyh connection, which is the end product of the reaction.

Particles of carbon-containing compounds may be introduced into the hot gas environment, such as thermal plasma, in such manner and for such values of enthalpy to the intermediate products, and preferably having the value of the specific enthalpy of not less than 3 kWh/kg of Particles of carbon-containing substances can be pre-heated before introduction into the environment of hot gas. The rate of introduction of specific carbon and its temperature, thus, can be adjusted to obtain the reactive thermal mixture in which carbon particles reach a temperature in the range from 2000K to 3000K (1728 - 2728oC).

Particles of carbon-containing compounds can be entered directly into the environment of hot gas in the high temperature area or they can be introduced into the mixing zone for mixing with the hot gas environment, resulting from the high temperature zone.

Thus, the method may include the following stages:

creating a high-temperature zone under the action of an electric arc between substantially arachodonic electrodes and the mixing zone in the immediate vicinity of the high-temperature zone;

the introduction of the source gas stream containing at least one ftoruglevodorodnye connection, in the high temperature zone and generating a thermal plasma in the zone containing fluorinated connected to the lah selected values from 0.4 to 2;

control in these high-temperature zone of the values of specific enthalpy thermal plasma in the range of 1 kWh/kg to 10 kWh/kg;

the introduction of particles of carbon compounds in the mixing zone for mixing with thermal plasma under the above value of C:F, to obtain the reactive thermal mixture in which carbon particles reach a temperature of 2000K to 3000K (1728 - 2728oC), with specified thermal reaction mixture contains reactive compounds, including reactive fluorine-containing intermediate compounds (precursors) and reactive carbon compounds, and has the value of the specific enthalpy of not less than 3 kWh/kg;

the curing of the reactive thermal mixture under the above conditions within a specified period of time;

rapid cooling thermal reaction mixture containing intermediate compounds in the cooling zone so as to obtain a mixed product containing at least one desired ftoruglevodorodnye connection.

The mixing zone, which can be entered particles of carbon-containing compounds that may form part of comtemporary area may be the area, inside, around or in the immediate vicinity of the arc plasma torch, and the mixing zone may be located at the exit of the burner, i.e., the area of the tail flame of the burner.

The invention is based on the premise that the fluorocarbons, such as tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4, TPV), terraformer (CF4), freon (C2F6and hexaferrite (C3F6), can be obtained by heating ftoruglevodorodnyh connection, preferably in the presence of carbon, to create an environment of hot gas with adjustable ratio of C:F and the specific enthalpy in the range of 1 kWh/kg to 10 kWh/kg and rapid cooling of the reaction mixture to a temperature below ~800K (528oC).

The high value of the enthalpy required for the reaction can be mainly achieved in processes such as heat resistance due to using graphite resistors, inductive heating of the graphite by means of radio frequency, inductive or capacitive dual plasma generation, creating a plasma of a low-frequency AC or plasma DC by using different electrode systems, for example maloznachimo ladamic non-carbon-carbon electrodes.

Thus, the object of the invention is the creation of a high-temperature plasma containing reactive compounds, some of which form together with the carbon desired reactive intermediate compounds that in the presence of carbon during or after cooling will lead to the formation of the desired ftoruglevodorodnyh connections.

In that case, if the incoming gas, which generate high temperature plasma, includes ftoruglevodorodnye connection can be obtained following types of reactive chemicals: CF3, CF2, CF, F, C, and their ions.

When the plasma gas mixture with particles of carbon can be obtained from the following reactive substances: C (gas), C (solid), C+(ion), C2(gas), C2F2(gas), C2F4C2F6C3(gas), CF (gas), CF+(ion), CF2(gas), CF3(gas), CF4(gas), F (gas), F-(ion), e (electron).

Of these reactive ions of the desired intermediate compounds to obtain C2F4(TPV) are the following: C2F2, CF2, CF3, CF, and f, Respectively, the enthalpy of the hot gas environment, the ratio of C:F in the environment goreau mixture of these reactive intermediates.

Experimental procedures the process is carried out at a pressure in the range from 0.01 bar to 1.0 bar using as a source ftoruglevodorodnyh connection CF4and device for creating a plasma direct current (DC) with an uncooled carbon electrodes and a current density of from 40 to 120 A/see

It was found that such carbon electrodes they are sublimated with increasing magnitude of the current between the electrodes above a certain level, defined by certain values of temperature and pressure, for example, if the current density between the electrodes is greater than 100 A/cm at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of about 4000K (3728oC). (This will be illustrated and explained hereinafter with reference to Fig.35.)

In addition, it was found that the level of current at which occurs the sublimation of the carbon electrodes, decreases with decreasing pressure so that the measured amount of carbon sublimates at current densities above ~80 A/cm and a pressure of about 0.01 to 0.1 bar, and the temperature of sublimation of carbon similarly decreases with decreasing pressure so that the sublimation temperature falls to a value of ~3000K at a pressure of about 0.01 - 0.1 bar. (This will be illustrated and explained Jovani CF4as the source ftoruglevodorodnyh connection with plasma direct current between an uncooled carbon electrodes with sublimating carbon electrodes is a source receiving a sufficient amount of carbon required for tangible output of tetrafluoroethylene (about 80%), thus causing rapid wear of the carbon electrodes. Obviously, therefore, this procedure may not be a continuous operation.

The experiment thus showed that the use of plasma unit with an uncooled carbon electrodes was impractical due to wear of the electrodes, and so far, it was impossible to do for more than a few minutes.

The applicant has found that it is also possible to use a plasma installation with a substantially non-wearing electrodes for carrying out the process over a much longer period of time, i.e. up to several hours.

An important aspect arising from the work undertaken by the applicant work is to demonstrate the needs of the electrodes from a material with good resistance to chemical corrosion by the action of fluorine at elevated Talladega to a temperature below ~1300K (1000oC), and in the case of graphite - below ~800K (500oC).

Under arachodonic electrodes imply the electrodes, which can operate on more than a few minutes to a few hours without their wear, i.e. without significant damage and/or erosion. This is usually cooled or even intensively cooled metal electrodes, such as electrodes made of copper or copper alloys, which may contain inserts of suitable refractory substances, such as carbon and graphite insert. The inserts can be made of graphite with additives or high temperature metal alloy containing tungsten, thorium tungsten or tungsten alloys with additives, zirconium, hafnium, hafnium carbide, tantalum, tantalum carbide or other suitable heat-resistant materials.

The electrodes are described in more detail below. The electrodes may form part of a device for generating plasma, such as high-voltage plasma burner direct current (DC). In the following the method according to the invention will be described with the use of high-voltage DC plasma torch to generate a high-voltage plasma. More than one, preferably three, such a plasma torch can be ispolzovanie positioned what are the mixing chamber, forming part of the installation.

As noted above, the electrodes preferably are nesmachivaemost cooled metal electrodes, in some cases with an additive such as graphite. One of the reasons for the preferred use of such electrodes, in addition to their relatively greater durability, is the absence of erosion or only a small erosion, so either not formed products of erosion, or they formed a little and prevents blocking of the outlet of the burner.

In experimental work using the wear of the carbon electrodes was found that the carbon sublimates and is deposited in the colder regions of the outlet of the burner. Deposited carbon forms a solid mass, which causes blocking of the outlet of the burner, as well as pollution and blocking means for rapid cooling of the reaction mixture, as it will be shown in more detail below. Such deposition of solid carbon, thus, will prevent and/or disrupt the continuity of the process.

When using nejzachovalejsi electrodes, as proposed according to the invention, for example the OHL is arrivati process within a few hours, namely for more than ~8 hours and up to about three days. This creates the possibility of establishing a viable commercial method of obtaining ftoruglevodorodnyh compounds, especially tetrafluoroethylene, with recirculation of side reaction products with minimal formation of waste effluents.

In the case of multiple, for example three, plasma burners, they can be installed with the inlet in the mixing zone, for example, in the form of the mixing chamber so that when the tail flame spreads into the mixing chamber and thus is set to extended high temperature area, surrounded by a mixing zone with a temperature only slightly lower than that in the high temperature area.

Ftoruglevodorodnyh connection of the incoming gas stream can be CF4or C2F6or their mixture or it may contain or include solvent mixture of gaseous F2. In practice, the preferred level of enthalpy can be set depending on the composition of the incoming gas to ensure optimum efficiency of the process.

Particles of carbon-containing compounds may be introduced into the hot gas environment in the form of small particles, the te molar ratio of C:F in the reactive thermal mixture in the range from ~0.4 to 2, and so that carbon particles in a thermal mixture has reached a temperature from ~2000K to 3000K (1728-2728oC). The specific enthalpy of the reaction heat of the mixture is preferably maintained at not less than about 3 kWh/kg Obvious that the enthalpy (and hence temperature) of the reaction mixture will depend on the temperature and the amount of added carbon particles.

Particles of carbon-containing compounds can be fed to the mixing zone of the hopper and can be pre-heated in the tank or between the hopper and the mixing zone before it enters the mixing zone. Particles of carbon-containing compounds may be introduced into the mixing zone with a speed as low as 0.1 g/min for low-productivity processes, or the speed can be increased in case of an industrial process to maintain the desired molar ratio of C: f Connection may be carbon in the form of particles. Preferably it should be pure carbon, although it may contain a small amount of soot. Especially should be as low as possible a content of carbon, hydrogen, silicon and sulfur. Preferably, the carbon should be exempt from hydrogen, silicon, and sulfur.

Sonames by the interaction of carbon with reactive substances in plasma. Named heat the mixture contains the desired reactive fluorine and carbon-containing intermediate compounds. At fast cooling thermal mixture, for example, damping and during curing within a suitable period of time at a temperature of cooling the formed desired ftoruglevodorodnye end products. The rate of cooling, as the temperature after cooling and the reaction time at a temperature of cooling will be formed to determine the final product, as well as its output, as will be described in more detail below.

The carbon particles, instead or additionally, may be filed in the high temperature zone, for example in the region of the arc between the electrodes of the burner. When this is successfully addressing sublimation and subsequent condensation of contamination described above. The carbon is preferably injected into the tail flame of the plasma torch, which can be directed into the mixing zone. For optimal values of enthalpy in the mixing zone with minimal cooling of the plasma flame carbon particles as described above can be pre-heated.

Particles of carbon-containing compounds may be (or they can ugenia in the high temperature zone or in the zone of mixing polytetrafluoroethylene or a mixture of it with carbon. When used as an additional carbon compounds PTFE him, mainly injected into the mixing zone. It is obvious that waste containing PTFE, can be disposed of by recycling them and returning them to the production cycle. Furthermore, the method may include one additional step of introducing fluorine-containing gas in the high temperature zone or in the mixing zone. Thus, the incoming gas stream may include gaseous fluorine, for example, in the range from ~5 to 30 mol.%.

The value of the enthalpy of the reaction heat of the mixture is usually maintained above ~1 kW/kg, and preferably not less than ~3 kWh/kg

As noted above, the carbon particles interact with reactive substances formed in the high temperature zone, while thermal energy is transferred to the carbon particles in the reactive thermal mixture are formed between other desired compounds reactive fluorine-containing and carbon-containing intermediate compounds such as CF2C2F2, CF3, CF and F, which are in the process of cooling and further interaction form a fluorocarbon compounds such as TPV, C2F temperature damping and a period of time, during which maintain the reaction mixture at a specific temperature after quenching, it is possible to increase the output of one or other of the above products. For example, to achieve the maximum output TPV preferably cooled reactive intermediate products to a temperature below ~800K in less than ~0,05 C. it is Also possible to allocate reactive compound C2F2rapid cooling of the reactive intermediate products to a temperature below ~ 1000K (728oC).

Typically, the cooling of the reactive thermal mixture occurs during the selected period of time, cooling to a selected temperature interval cooling, and heat the mixture will stand in the selected temperature range cooling during the selected period of time, and all these parameters are selected to provide the desired ftoruglevodorodnyh connection(s) in the final product.

To enhance the yield of C2F6you can increase the time of cooling to ~0.05 to 3 seconds. on the other hand, when the cooling temperature above 800K (728oC), for example from ~to 1000K 1200K (728 - 928oC), we can obtain the maximum yield of C3F6. what is CF4. Getting CF4in large quantities can be achieved by introduction of fluorine into the mixing zone in the receiving process.

Cooling is carried out by conventional methods, for example via a heat exchanger with the cold plane, or one or mnogotranshevogo heat exchanger or by mixing with cold liquid or combination thereof or any other appropriate means.

For cooling preferably you should use a heat exchanger of this type, which allows for cooling of the reactive intermediate products from ~ 2500K (2228oC) to below ~800K (528oC) in a very short time, usually less than 0.1 C. if the cooling or quenching reach the mixing of the cold gas, using gaseous ftoruglevodorodnye or suitable inert gas as cold gas.

Thus, the method includes a stage of rapid cooling of the reactive intermediates in the cooling zone to a predetermined temperature in the range from ~ 100K and up to ~1200K speeds ranging from ~500 to 10 K/s and the interaction of intermediate compounds at a given temperature and for a suitable period of time depending on the desired final product.

It is also proposed a method of obtaining a C2F6cooling of the reactive intermediate compounds to a temperature below ~800K within ~0.05 to 3 s and shutter speed for reaction within the right time or way to obtain C3F6cooling of the reactive intermediate compounds to a temperature in the range from ~800K to ~1000K within ~0.05 to 3 s and shutter speed for reaction within a suitable time.

The invention, furthermore, relates to a method of obtaining C2F2rapid cooling of the reactive intermediate compounds to a temperature below ~ 100K with exposure to reaction within a reasonable time or way to obtain CF4the interaction of intermediate compounds without cooling.

For example, when using a tubular heat exchanger with cold plane to achieve the optimum output TPV correct choice of the parameters of the heat exchanger, such as the diameter and length of the pipe, coolant temperature, mass flow, etc. Usually is the time of rapid cooling and these cooling temperature can be set by a variable is bennik fixed wall, that is, the heat exchanger, which works without mixing coolant with thermal compound and in which between the cooling fluid and thermal mixture is heat-conducting separating wall. This avoids subsequent stages of separation.

The method may include the extraction of at least one desired hydrocarbon compounds from the reaction mixture. Other components in the mixed product can be separated and recycled.

The method can be carried out at an absolute pressure of about 0.01 -1,0 bar.

As indicated above, the rate of introduction of carbon particles, and/or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and/or fluorine-containing compounds in the plasma should preferably be such as to regulate the ratio of C:F in the plasma level of about 0.4 to 2.0, preferably 1.

Like carbon polytetrafluoroethylene can be introduced in the form of powder with particle size of ~10-3mm to 0.3 mm, preferably of ~10-3mm

Carbon and/or PTFE can be introduced into the mixing zone through a gravity feed mechanism or gas-carrier mainly with the use of a portion of the incoming gas stream as tra is below the selected optimal value, for example up to about 10 bar (absolute), and then the pressure may be raised and maintained at the optimum level by supplying a fluorocarbon gas. As already mentioned, the temperature of the carbon and/or PTFE particles can be achieved before introducing them into the mixing zone, which contributes to the achievement and adjustment of the desired value of the specific enthalpy and the optimal process flow.

Due to the high ekzotermicheskie reaction of fluorine with carbon can reduce the required power consumption due to a regulated supply of fluorine in the mixing zone.

You can also use other methods to optimize power consumption.

Thus, the method may include the stage of introduction of fluorine into the mixing zone. Fluorine can be introduced in the form of a mixture with a fluorocarbon gas. The amount of fluoride in the mixture may range from 5 to 30 mol.%.

It is important when introducing fluorine into the system to regulate the relationship between fluorine and carbon, and the gas introduced into the system, so as to maintain the ratio of C:F in the range of ~of 0.4 to 2.0, preferably about 1, and the value of the specific enthalpy of the mixture from ~ 1 to 10 kWh/kg, preferably ~3 kWh/kg, in case of using a fluorocarbon gas supply. Fluorine may be, maprik carbon-containing particles. Thus, the method may include the stage of removal of solid particles from the mixed product, for example, by filtration. For example, the mixed product can be filtered through a heat-resistant filter, such as filter, PTFE, silicon carbide SiC, or metal filter. Of course, there may be used any other method of separation of the solid matter from the gas stream, such as the selection using a cyclone.

The method may include the stage of the recycling of carbon-containing particles from the stage of selection back to the bunker.

In practice, the method is preferably carried out in such a way as to minimize the formation of N2or O2or water vapor, as this would lead to the formation of undesirable and/or unstable products.

Components such as HF and F2can be removed from the mixed product before or after, but preferably after, the stage of separation of gas and solids. Thus, the method may include the additional step of passing the product through one or more chemical or cooling sinks to remove impurities such as HF or F2. For example, the product may be passed through the carbon POG is Alenia HF. Instead, HF can be removed by cooling the product to condensation of liquid HF. Instead, fluorine-containing impurities can be removed by wet scrubbing gas diluted with an alkaline solution, preferably a solution of KOH to remove reactive fluoride from the gaseous product.

The method may include the additional step of compression of industrial gases to pressures below ~20 bar, preferably ~10 bar, which is quite high for distillation or membrane separation of components production of gases in a safe environment. Pressure, of course, must be maintained sufficiently low to inhibit or prevent spontaneous polymerization of the unsaturated components of industrial gases or exothermic conversion of tetrafluoroethylene in the carbon and CF4. To ensure the safety of the process according to the invention provides for the introduction of an inhibitor in the process of compression processing at the stage of separation.

Can be used instead, or additionally, other methods of purification, such as gas centrifugation.

The resulting gas is usually stored in limited amounts in containers under pressure with gobeirne, such as polymerization, to obtain a polytetrafluoroethylene. Unwanted fluorocarbon gas can be recycled in the original gas stream for reuse.

According to another aspect of the invention it is also proposed a device for producing fluorocarbon compounds that include;

high-temperature zone for the mass of hot gas;

means generating heat for generating a high temperature in the high temperature zone in order to turn supplied to the area of the gas flow in the said mass of hot gas comprising fluorine-containing particles and the carbon-containing particle;

means for introducing feed material into the high temperature zone to convert this material into a mass of heated gas;

reaction zone, in which the mass of heated gas forms a reactive thermal mixture at controlled values of enthalpy and controlled ratio of C:F, and the reactive mixture contains particles, including reactive fluorine-containing intermediate compounds and reactive carbon-containing intermediate;

means for monitoring values of specific enthalpy and against the ow of the mixture under controlled conditions to obtain the final product, containing at least one desired ftoruglevodorodnye connection.

The installation may further include a mixing zone to effect the mixing of the mass of the heated gas with the particles of the material with the formation of the reactive thermal mixture, and means for introducing the controlled value of the enthalpy of the particles of carbonaceous matter in the mass of the heated gas in the mixing zone for the formation of this reactive thermal mixture containing reactive fluorine-containing intermediate compounds and reactive carbon-containing intermediate compounds.

Means generating heat preferably is capable of creating a plasma in the feed gas stream. Heat generating means may include at least one pair of substantially not spent electrodes placed in the high temperature zone to generate an electric arc.

The electric arc may be such as to heat the gas stream and to create a plasma with a specific enthalpy from ~1 to ~10 kWh/kg, preferably not less than ~3 kWh/kg

As already mentioned, the electrodes are preferably arachodonic (not consumed in the process) electrodes. s camerasmadonna (self-destruction) within a few hours or without showing significant signs of damage and/or erosion.

A means for generating heat, thus, may include at least one plasma torch having a pair of substantially not spent electrodes selected from the group consisting of copper, Nickel and Nickel-copper electrodes, with optional insertion of graphite or graphite with an additive, which includes cooling means for cooling the electrodes to a temperature below ~1300K (~1028oC) and holding them at this temperature.

The mixing zone may form part of the high-temperature zone or directly adjacent to it.

Preferably, the installation may include at least one plasma burner, provided with substantially not spent electrodes.

High-temperature zone can be a zone within and around the electric arc generated between the electrodes of a plasma torch, and in close proximity to it. The mixing zone may be located at the exit of the burner, i.e. in the area of the tail flame of the burner.

The installation may include multiple, preferably three, plasma torch, and the mixing zone may represent a mixing chamber and a burner installed in the entrance of the ERU, so what can be created, extended high-temperature area, surrounded by a mixing zone with a temperature only slightly lower than that in the high temperature area.

Means for supplying a gas stream can be a vortex generator forming part of the plasma torch, and the incoming gas stream can be introduced into the high temperature zone through the vortex generator.

In addition, the installation may include a magnetic coil to create a magnetic field in the high temperature zone to cause rotation of the plasma.

Specific means for the introduction of specific carbon-containing substances in the high temperature zone can serve as a hopper, which may be designed to present the material with a particle size of ~ 10-3mm to ~ 0.3 mm with a small rate of about 0.1 g/mm and with great speed, which is required in the process and to maintain the appropriate attitude C:F.

The hopper can be adapted for the introduction of a specific material in the mixing chamber, for example, in the tail flame of the plasma torch. Or it can be adapted for the introduction of a specific material in the arc lamp, although the SS, leading to fouling and clogging.

Next, the installation may include a means, located between the hopper and the mixing zone, for heating the carbon material before it enters the mixing zone.

The unit may also be equipped with a vacuum pump to create a vacuum of ~0.01 to 1.0 bar.

The installation may include a heat exchanger, for example trotrobby or Novotrubny, or a system for mixing cold liquids, or a combination of the various heat exchanger systems.

The goal is rapid cooling of the reaction heat of the mixture and curing the mixture at a lower temperature for a suitable period of time to obtain a product containing one or more desired fluorocarbons. The heat exchanger shall be of a type that is able to cool the reactive thermal mixture from ~2500K (~2228oC) to a temperature below ~800K (528oC) in a very short time, usually less than 0.1 s, and to maintain the product at this low temperature for a suitable period of time.

If desired, the installation may include a means for introducing fluorine into the tail flame of the plasma burner or in the mixing zone. Due vishakam controlled introduction of fluorine into the mixing zone.

The apparatus can further include means for removing solid particles from the mixture. For example, this tool can serve as a high temperature filter, for example, PTFE, SiCl or metal filter. Or this tool can serve as a cyclone separator.

Next, the installation may include a means for recycling to return carbon removed at the stage of separation, back into the funnel. The installation may also contain one or more chemical or cooled traps to remove impurities such as HF or F2.

Next, the installation may include a compressor for compressing gaseous products and the capacity to store the resulting product.

The invention also extends to the plasma torch, which can be used as part of the installation according to the invention for receiving the heated gas in the form of high-temperature plasma, which is part of the method of producing fluorocarbons. Plasma must be received from an incoming gas stream, comprising ftoruglevodorodnye, and the resulting plasma, respectively, will contain reactive substances, including CF3C2F2, CF2, CF, F, C, and their ions.

Due to corrosion due to the importance of maintaining certain preferred operating parameters when receiving the plasma, as described here in detail, the invention is directed to the creation of a plasma torch (also referred to here as the plasma torch), suitable for use in these conditions.

According to this invention a plasma burner contains:

a couple prachodayat electrodes - the anode and cathode, each of which has a working end;

the anode is made of resistant metal and having a hollow configuration, covering the inner cavity of the anode with an open end, creating a tubular working surface extending from the working end to the output end;

the cathode of resistant metal containing graphite insert, creating a working surface type button on the desktop end;

the cathode and anode are located in "end to end" of the working ends, creating a gap between them, which together with the cavity of the anode creates a place for the arc that appears when the application of the potential difference;

electrodes, providing channels for the coolant flowing through them or over them;

the electrodes are mounted in the housing, containing several orbital elements of such size and shape that allow their installation with the inclusion of a suitable vehicle, electrical insulation, and with that the s corps, having passages for the introduction and removal of the coolant;

at least one of the elements of the body having passages for introducing the gas stream in such a way as to create turbulence at the location of the arc;

this arrangement of elements that the application of the burner can be generated arc by applying to the electrodes a potential difference and can generate high temperature plasma by means of the incoming gas in the high temperature zone, located inside the arc, and reactive plasma exits from the output end of the anode plane.

According to a further aspect of the invention may include a means for introducing material to enter specific carbon-containing substances in the controlled conditions of enthalpy in reactive plasma emerging from the output end of the anode plane.

Further characteristics of the device will become apparent from the description with reference to the figures.

In Fig.1 shows a side view in section of a plasma igniter burner used to create a reactive mixture according to the invention.

In Fig. 2 shows the end part of the plasma igniter shown in Fig.1 in the direction of the arrow A.

On onawa part of the cathode, it is shown in Fig.3 in the direction of the arrow B

In Fig. 5 shows a side view in section of the anode plasma igniter shown in Fig.1.

In Fig.6 shows the end part of the anode shown in Fig.5 in the direction of the arrow C.

In Fig. 7 shows a side view in section of the first case element plasma igniter shown in Fig.1.

In Fig. 8 shows the end part of the housing element, shown in Fig.7 in the direction of the arrow D.

In Fig.9 shows a side view in section of the second case element plasma torch shown in Fig.1.

In Fig. 10 shows the end part of the housing element, shown in Fig.9 in the direction of arrow E.

In Fig. 11 shows the end part of the component housing shown in Fig.9, with the opposite end.

In Fig. 12 shows a side view in section of the housing element of a plasma torch shown in Fig. 1, and this element made of an insulating material.

Fig 13 shows the end of the case element shown in Fig. 12 in the direction of the arrow F.

In Fig. 14 shows a side view in section of the fourth element in the case of a plasma torch shown in Fig. 1.

In Fig. 16 shows a side view in section of a vortex generator plasma torch shown in Fig. 1, along the line XVI - XVI in Fig.17.

In Fig.17 shows a view of the end portion of the end of the generator depicted in Fig. 16 in the direction of the arrow H.

In Fig.18 shows a side view in section of the flange of the plasma torch shown in Fig. 1.

In Fig.19 shows a view of the end portion of the flange shown in Fig.18.

In Fig. 20 shows a side view in section of nutrient plasma burner according to Fig. 1.

In Fig. 21 shows a view of the end portion of the flange shown in Fig.20 in the direction of arrow 1.

In Fig.22 shows a side view in section of the insulating strip.

In Fig. 23 shows the end part of the insulating strip according to Fig.22 in the direction of arrow J.

In Fig.24 and 25 shows a side view in cross section of various configurations of the anode and cathode used in the heat of a plasma torch according to the invention.

In Fig. 26 given schematic illustration of the installation for implementing the method of obtaining ftoruglevodorodnye according to this invention.

In Fig.27 - 30 given the set of four graphs showing the equilibrium data for the observed effect relationship C: F and temperature on the yield of the starting material at a pressure of 1 ATM.

In Fig. 33 and 34 is given a set of two triaxial diagrams, describing the effect of pressure and temperature on the yield of the starting material at the ratio of C: F, equal to 1.0.

In Fig. 35 shows a graph of consumption of carbon and 15 mm graphite rod in g/min as a function of the current in amperes.

In Fig. 1 item 10 generally designates the plasma torch, which is used to obtain fluorocarbons according to the invention. The burner 10 includes a cathode 12 of the copper alloy and the anode 14 of a copper alloy, mounted in the housing.

The frame includes first, second and fourth annular conductive elements 18, 20 and 24 and the third annular insulating element or the insulator 22, and all of the elements adjacent to each other, as seen in Fig.1. The cathode 12 and the anode 14 are mounted coaxially in the housing. The cathode 12, described in detail below, has an internal working end 12.1, which is adjacent to the anode 14 and the opposite outer end 12.2. The anode 14, which is also described in detail below, is hollow and has an internal end of 14.1, which is adjacent to the cathode, the opposite outer end of 14.2 and cavity 14.3 providing a tubular surface. The working end 12.1 of the cathode 12 is placed in the end portion 14.1 of the anode 14, as also seen nkiye body 30, 32, which is open at both ends and defines passages 31, 33, respectively. Each element 18, 20 has a disc-shaped flange 40, 42 located on one of its ends. The elements 18, 20 are made of stainless steel. The body 32 has a smaller diameter than the body 30 and is placed inside the body 30, as can be seen in Fig. 1.

As can be seen in Fig. 7 and 8, the body 30 of the first element 18 has an inner surface 30.1 with stepped cross-sectional profile. The annular rim 30.2 at the end of the body 30 remote from the flange 40, is inside and is provided with an annular groove 30.3 to accommodate strip 30.6. In the heat of the moment 10 plasma burner gasket 30.6 adjacent part of the end portion 14.2 of the anode 14, which is slightly indented, as is clear from Fig. 1. The coil 37 to create a magnetic field surrounds the body 30 (Fig. 1). The coil creates a magnetic field 0,01-0,30 T.

Outlet 30.4 passes through the flange 40 of the channel 31. The body 30 has directed outside part of 30.5 with a screw threaded near the flange 40 to accommodate the mounting flange, as described below.

As shown in Fig.1 and 9-11, the body 32 of the second element 20 of the housing has an inner surface 32.13 and the outer surface 32.1, and this outer surface together with NR the 32 has a leading end and 32.2

internal ledge 32.3, distant from the leading end of 32.2, which is adjacent to the anode 14 in the plasma torch (Fig. 1). Vodovod 32.2 passes inward through the flange 42 in the channel 33 and gatwood 32.6 near vodovodom 32.14 also penetrates into the flange 42 in the channel 33. The flange 42 is directed to the rear of the outer annular protrusion 32.7 (i.e., directed away from the body 32) and two annular grooves 32.8 adjacent to the body 32 on each side of the flange 42 for receiving the sealing rings. Part of the channel 33, bounded by the flange 42 has an inner surface with 32.4 annular groove 32.5 for receiving a sealing ring and an annular groove 32.9 to enter the gas next to her. Copper connector 32.10 with a hole 32.11 for attaching an electrical cable (not shown) protrudes from the flange 42 for connection of the cable with the flange 42.

As shown in Fig. 1, 5 and 6, the anode has, as indicated above, the outer end portion of 14.2 and the inner end part 14.1 Cup-shaped form, forming a cylindrical hole 14.4. The part about 14.1 holes 14.4 equipped with four holes 14.13 for input gas gasovoda 32.6 and the groove 32.9. Hole 14.4 separated by a ledge 14.10 from the more narrow axially oriented channel 14.5, which is the anode cavity and connects from the cut ledge 14.8. Machined part 14.6 anode 14 and a portion of the inner surface 32.4 second component 20 of the body together to form a plasma burner ring cavity 55 (Fig. 1).

The outer end portion 14.2 of the anode 14, as described above, turned so that the Central part of 14.3 is a little elevated. The inner surface 32.13 component 20 of the housing between its leading end and 32.2 ledge 32.3 in the plasma torch 10, adjacent to the protruding part 14.3 anode 14 (Fig. 1). The anode has a length of about 67 mm and has the widest diameter of about 32 mm, As shown in Fig.5 and 6, a raised portion 14.2 of the anode 14 and slotted ledge 14.8 with longitudinal protrusions 14.11 defining longitudinal grooves 14.12.

Cavity 50, 55, entry and release and 32.2 30.4 and grooves 14.12, as shown in Fig. 1, form a channel for the cooling water of the anode. The anode is made of copper alloy and may be provided with a hollow cylindrical carbon insert in the channel 14.5 extending along the axially oriented channel 14.5.

As shown in Fig. 12 and 13, the insulator 22 consists of a disc-shaped body 23 of polytetrafluoroethylene having a centrally located channel 22.2. The body 23 is adjacent the flange 42 of the element 20. External annular ledge 32.7 flange is placed on the opposite side of the body 23.

As shown in Fig. 14 and 15, the third element 24 of the chassis also includes a hollow body 24.1, forming a channel 35, and the flange 44 on one end of the body 24.1. The flange element 24 is made of stainless steel. The outer edge of the flange 44 has an annular ledge 24.2, which acts in the direction to the body 24.1 and flare burner 10 is placed in the additional recess 22.4 insulator 22 (Fig. 1 and 12). Annular groove 24.3 for receiving the sealing ring is located in the flange 44. The inner profile of the channel 35 is stepped and includes successively more narrow part of 24.4, wider part of 24.5 having an annular groove 24.6 for receiving a sealing ring, and an even larger part of 24.7 having threaded 24.11.

In the plasma torch 10 in the rear end part 12.2 of the cathode 12 is located in two parts of the channel 24.5, 24.7 and adjacent to the ledge 24.8, separating the narrower and wider parts 24.4, 24.5 (Fig.1 and 14). Screw-thread 24.11 engages with additional screw threaded 12.9 cathode (Fig.3), as described below. Outlet 24.9 passes radially through the flange 44 of the channel 35. Swagelock 24.10 (trademark) is welded over the hole in the cylindrical channel 35, remote from the body 24.1. Stainless steel tube (not shown) projoe hole at 24.15 for an electric cable (not shown) protrudes from the flange 44 for connection of the cable with the flange element 24.

As shown in Fig.3, the cathode 12 typically has a cylindrical shape and consists of a closed inner or working end portion 12.1, an open outer end portion 12.2 with a hole 12.8 and the internal cavity of 12.3. Closed end part 12.1 has an annular ledge 12.4. The cathode 12 is made of copper alloy. A cylindrical hole 12.5 with a screw thread, into which is screwed a graphite insert (not shown), passes into the closed end part 12.1. According to different forms of execution of the present invention the insert is made of graphite with an additive or high temperature alloy containing tungsten, tonirovany tungsten, other tungsten alloys with additives, zirconium, hafnium, hafnium carbide, tantalum, tantalum carbide or any other suitable high temperature material. This cathode is usually called the cathode button type. Located in the Central part of 12.9 with an external screw thread is engaged with a part 24.11, also having a threaded element of the housing 24.

The wall of the internal cavity 12.3, remote from the rear vents 12.8, has a curved profile 12.7. As can be seen from Fig. 1, in the plasma torch 10 vodovod 24.9 fourth element housing 24 opens into the channel 35 e is the maturity 42.3 cathode 12 through a stainless steel tube, which passes through Swagelock 24.10 to the wall of 12.7 and exits through outlet 24.9 element 24, and the curved profile 12.7 wall improves the distribution of water in the stream. The cathode 12 has a length of about 40 mm and a diameter of about 20 mm at the widest point.

As shown in Fig.2, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15, the flange 40 has six holes 80 with a screw threaded, and the flanges 42, 44 and the insulator 22 each provided with six additional Artibonite holes 80, which in the assembled state of the burner 10 shown in Fig. 1, coincide. The holes 80 of the insulator 22 (Fig. 13) and flange 44 (Fig. 15) have a larger diameter than the holes of the flanges 40, 42 (Fig.8 and 10), so that the tabs 84 are formed where the flange 42 adjacent to the insulator 22 (Fig. 1).

As shown in Fig. 1, 22 and 23, an insulating washer 60 from Tufnol'a (trademark) each consists of a hollow cylindrical body 60.1 open end and ring directed outward head 60.2 included in the hole 80 of the elements 24, 22 of the flanges adjacent heads to the back surfaces of the flanges 44, i.e., the surface remote from the insulator 22. Insulating washers have a length of 37 mm

As shown in Fig. 18 and 19, the mounting flange 100 (Fig.1 not shown) consists of a disk 100.1 stainless steel with threaded Oversteegen six holes 100.4, arranged symmetrically along its outer edge for mounting the burner 10 in the reaction chamber (not shown).

As shown in Fig.20 and 21, the supply flange 110 (Fig.1 not shown) having a leading side 110.2 and broken side 110.3, consists of a hollow cylindrical body 110.4 with a wider hole 110.5 on the outside side of 110.3 and more narrow tapering inside hole 110.6 at the leading side of 110.2. Hole 110.4 provided with a groove 110.8 o-ring and has such a size to fit the end of the element 18 in the burner 10. The input for the source of carbon 110.10 passes through the body 110.2 to the conical hole 110.6 and provided with a tube 110.12. The leading side 110.2 provided on the periphery of the annular protrusion at 110.13. The protrusion has an annular groove 110.15 o-ring and body 110.2 has a peripheral channel 110.16 between the tube 110.12 and ledge at 110.13, which is supplied Voditsa 110.17 and discharge 110.18 for the cooling water supply flange 110.

The bolts 81 are used for Assembly of components 18, 20, 22, 24.

In the plasma torch 10, the anode 14 and the cathode 12 are separated from each other by a small gap 97 (Fig.1).

As shown in Fig. 1, 16 and 17, the vortex generator 90 separates the end 12.1 of the cathode 12 is Griego end 12.1 of the cathode 12, how, in particular, can be seen in Fig.16.

Vortex generator 90 includes generally cylindrical body 90.15, which is hollow and open at one end, and the rear hole and 90.6 front opening 90.4 cylindrical channel passing through it. It has a length of about 20 mm and a diameter of about 26 mm Ring pyrophyllite insert with 90.8 located in the center hole 90.16 placed in the hole of 90.7 and extends slightly from the cylindrical body 90.15 so that the tab 90.1 is formed around the periphery of the hole 90.7. Insert 90.8 and cylindrical body 90.15 together have an internal profile complementary to the profile of the inner end portion 12.1 of the cathode 12 (Fig. 1). The pyrophyllite insert has an interior recessed surface 90.17. Body 90.15 made of polytetrafluoroethylene.

In a plasma torch of the vortex generator includes a cylindrical hole 14.4 anode 14 so that the protrusion 90.1 joined the ledge 14.10 anode 14.

Vortex generator 90 has a rear flange 90.3 and the outer cylindrical surface 90.4, which borders with the inner surface of the hole 14.4 anode 14 (Fig. 1). Annular groove 90.5 for receiving a sealing ring located on the inner surface of the cylindrical channel is PU 90.1 diverge four longitudinal grooves 90.9 in the form of a cut-away part of the outer surface 90.4 (Fig.17). The protruding portion pyrophyllite insert is equipped with four tangentially directed channels 90.12 coming from inside grooves 90.9 four tangentially directed grooves 90.10 on a deep inner surface 90.17 insert 90.8 and leading to the hole 90.16 box 90.8 (Fig.17) to create a tangential flow of gas.

In the plasma torch 10, the groove of gazivoda 32.9 element 20 of the housing coincides with holes 14.3 in the anode 14 and groove 90.7 vortex generator 90 and allows you to pump gas through the inlet 32.6, groove 32.9, holes 14.3, grooves 90.7, 90.9, channels 90.12 and grooves 90.10 in the gap 97 between the anode 14 and cathode 12, where the tangentially directed gas causes turbulence in the gap 97.

The inner diameter and length of the anode 14 play a critical role in the stabilization of the arc and characteristics of the voltage in the plasma torch 10. According to various embodiments of the invention use different output diameters, in order to regulate the pressure in the burner. In the process, crucial to the cooling of the anode 14 and especially other sealing surfaces for cooling the anode 14 and cathode 12 apply water under pressure of about 4 bar and at a flow rate greater than 100 litres shall opusc 32.6 element 42 and a vortex generator 90, the gas stream, containing ftoruglevodorodnye connection, serves in an arc, which produce a plasma containing reactive particles of compounds derived from ftoruglevodorodnyh connection. The plasma exits the plasma torch 10 through the channel 14.5 in the anode 14 (Fig.5). Reactions occurring in the plasma and, after cooling, are described below with reference to Fig.26 -35.

In Fig.26 shows a diagram of the process of obtaining ftoruglevodorodnyh compounds in accordance with this invention (item 150).

Set 150 includes a pair of plasma torches, described above, which are connected to power sources 154 by means of electrical connectors 155. The piping 158 are from two collections 160 for ftoruglevodorodnyh connections to the plasma torches 10. From the collection of 162 pipeline 166 water serves to cool the anodes 14 and cathodes 12.

Plasma torch 10 is installed so as to apply a reactive thermal plasma in the mixing chamber 170. Pipelines 176, 178 are used to supply carbon and fluorine, respectively, into the mixing chamber 170. The funnel 180 for carbon leaves the pipe 176. Line 177 passes to the funnel 180. The pipeline 182 connects the mixing chamber 170 from the reactor is adenia 186, the reactor 187 and the mixing chamber 170. Lines 190, 192, 193 - double, as described above. The pipeline 196 connects the reactor 187 phase separator 200, where the line 204 goes to the funnel for carbon 180 to return the carbon is separated in the phase separator 200, the mixing chamber 170. From the phase separator 200 line 206 goes through the trap 208, the vacuum pump 210 and the compressor 212 to 218 installation for phase separation and purification. From installation 218 lines 220, 224, 226 are respectively to the tank 160 for storing ftoruglevodorodnye, capacity 230 for storing ftoruglevodorodnye and capacity 232 for storing tetrafluoroethylene.

Shown schematically analytical device 240 connected by line 234 to the exhaust lines 220, 224, 226, going from 218 installation for gas separation and purification, line 236, lines 174, 177, 178, line 238 line 206 between the phase separator trap 208 and line 239 line 206 between the trap 208 and vacuum pump 210. The analytical device is provided with a device for gas analysis using chromatography, IR and UV spectroscopy.

In the process, every source of energy 154 provides a constant current (>50 a at a voltage of >100). At low energy (<100 kW) can be variations on the th, it is preferable to filter. The output power is regulated by the current, and the voltage used is determined by the type of gas, pressure and flow of gas passing through the arc. When the output power of about 50 kW voltage is 50 to 300 C. Each power source 154 is protected by a circuit from short circuits.

Gaseous ftoruglevodorodnye, for example, CF4, is introduced into the arc plasma torches 10 from one of the collections of 160 on line 158. The arc and the speed adjusted so as to maintain plasma specific enthalpy between 1 and 10 kWh/kg of Gas is introduced tangentially through the vortex generator 90, as described above, and the geometric shape of the vortex generator leads to rotation of the gas at high speed between the electrodes. Gas for start-up, for example argon, is not required, but can be entered before submitting ftoruglevodorodnye or together with him. You can use the magnetic coil 37 to create a magnetic field causing rotation of the arc in the direction of rotation of the vortex.

Plasma, resulting in an arc and containing a mixture of reactive particles, including reactive intermediate substance, such as CF2C2F2, CF3, CF, C, F (mentioned above), then goes in with musicalnow chamber 170 through line 176 from the hopper 180, moreover, the plasma temperature decreases due to heat transfer to the carbon and the walls of the mixing chamber. The optimal number of source CF2and C2F2to get the desired fluorocarbons is formed at a temperature of 2300 - 2700K (2026 - 2427oC) and a pressure of 0.1 - 1 bar, preferably about 0.1 bar, as seen in Fig.33 and 34. Kinetic, heat transfer properties, and reaction time of the plasma with particles of carbon affect the concentration of the starting materials. The optimum amount of these substances is obtained when the ratio of C:F, equal to 0.4 to 2.0 (as seen in Fig. 31 and 32), and the value of enthalpy of the system in the range of 1-10 kWh/kg of gas.

The original substance is cooled in the cooling chamber 186, and then they react as in the chamber 186, and the reactor 187 with the formation of a mixture of products containing C2F4(TPV), C2F6C3F8C3F6, CF4. Under controlled conditions at this stage, as described above, it is possible to obtain the optimal outputs of the selected compounds. In particular, the cooling source of the substance below 300K (~26,8oC) less than 0.05 s, we can obtain the optimal solution of the TPV.

The carbon particles are removed from the resulting mixture of products, passing the mixture through a ceramic f is on so, the carbon can be fed into the mixing chamber 170 with a speed in the range from 0.1 g/min to the desired value.

After the filter the mixture of products is passed through a chemical trap 208 containing coal, at 700K (427oC) removal of fluoride and then the vacuum pump 210 and the compressor 212. The vacuum pump creates vacuum system less than 0.01 bar and upload large volumes of gas (more than 1 l/min). And the pump 210 and the compressor 212 resistant to impurities such as HF and F2.

After compression in the compressor 212 compressed mixture is separated by distillation in the separation and purification 218 and stored in containers 230, 232. Unwanted fluorocarbons return to the cycle in the collections of 160.

The resulting gases are continuously analyzed. All the gases pass through the infrared camera, where is controlled by the intensity of the bands of the IR spectra of specific products. Gas samples are subjected to gas chromatography using a column made of stainless steel with Porapak Q. For detection of unreacted fluorine using a UV-visible spectrophotometry. These same methods are used for analysis of the final products. According to another variant of the invention in the mixing chamber from the hopper 170 180 serves secondary PT is eat cathode 312 and the anode 314, both can be made of copper or a copper alloy. The cathode has the insert 316 graphite or graphite additive. The anode 314 has an inner channel 318 stepped shape having a narrow portion 318.1 diameter d1and length l1and wider part 318.2 diameter d2and length l2. Part 318.1 and 318.2 divided stepped ledge 318.3. Position 320 denotes a vortex generator or a centrifuge.

Configuration 400 of Fig.25 consists of a cathode 412 and the anode 414 of copper or a copper alloy, similar to the electrodes shown in Fig. 24, and the cathode 412 has a box 416 of graphite or graphite with an additive. The anode 414 also has an internal channel 418 stepped form with a stepped ledge 418.3 separating the narrow part 418.1 and wider part 418.2. In Fig.25 insert is located between two vortex generators or centrifuges 420, 424.

The following are examples illustrating the invention and its practical implementation.

Examples 1 to 6. A General method.

In examples 1 to 6 is used, the following General method. Use only plasma installation with tubular anode copper alloy water-cooled cathode from copper alloy with graphite inserts (usually of the type shown in Fig. is AET 8 mm

Plasma installation is connected to the feeder carbon having three input 1 mm, is pumped through the carbon from the hopper, a pneumatic method. As a carrier gas for supplying carbon perpendicular to the tail of the flame directly under the anode used chetyrehhloristy carbon (CF4Camera reactor directly under the feeder is water-cooled, graphite has an inner lining and an inner diameter equal to 50 mm

Inside the reactor in place, located on 60 mm below the anode, has a water-cooled heat exchanger (cooling obornik). In the heat exchanger dramatically cooled the initial mixture from the enthalpies above 2 kWh/kg to enthalpies ~ 0,001 kWh/kg

The mass flow moves through the heat exchanger at a rate of ~0.4 g/(BSD2). Then a gaseous product passes through another heat exchanger. Excess carbon particles is removed using a PTFE filter or porous filter made of stainless steel. Clean gas is continuously analyzed for the presence of tetrafluoroethylene using infrared spectrophotometry at 1330 cm-1. During the experiment samples for analysis by gas chromatography.

The flow rate g is 100 a, 130 In) up to 25 kW (219 A, 106 B). The plasma gas enthalpy changes from 3,02 to 6.7 kWh/kg efficiency of the plasma torch varies from 50 to 75%, while the efficiency of the entire system varies between 39 and 62%.

Example 1. Getting tetrafluoroethylene (TPV) of cetarehhloristam carbon (CF4).

Using a common methodology, using CF4as plasma gas. The feed rate of CF4in the fuse burner is 2.36 kg/h of the Plasma-forming gas is fed through a four input diameter of 1.57 mm below the cathode. Three slit size of 1 mm2pneumatically served in the tail flame of the carbon particles with a size of 18 mm, the feed Rate of the carrier gas of CF4equal to 0.72 kg/h feed Rate of carbon average of 4 g/min Supplied to the plasma source power 21.7 kW. The results are shown in table.1.

The pressure inside the plasma reactor is maintained at 0.1 bar. The ratio of C: F equal to 0.4. As calculated enthalpy flame CF4-plasma is 6 kWh/kg Plasma-forming mixture is abruptly cooled from the enthalpy of 4.2 kWh/kg calculated As the mass passes through the sampler with the speed and 0.46 g/(BSD2). The output of C2F426,5 mol.% sootblower through 21 minutes

Example 2. Getting tetrafluoroethylene (TPV) of cetarehhloristam carbon CF4.

Example 1 is repeated, using as the carrier gas of CF4the feed rate which is 0.64 - 0.68 kg/h Into the tail flame of the burner at a rate of 25 g/min serves the carbon particle size 3 mm, Capacity ranges from 19 kW to 21 kW. The results are shown in table.2 and 3.

The pressure is 0.1 bar (abs). The ratio of C:F is 1.2. The process is stopped after 15 minutes

Examples 3 to 5. Getting tetrafluoroethylene (TPV) of freon-C2F6.

The method is carried out according to the General method, used as a plasma gas C2F6supplied with a speed of 2.3 kg/h C2F6fed to the burner through the holes square to 1.77 mm2under the cathode. Input power is equal to 13 - 23 kW. The results are shown in table. 4. More detailed information is given in tab. 5 and 6.

The pressure in the plasma reactor is 0.1 bar (abs). The ratio of C:F is 0.3. When the enthalpy flame, equal 6,41 kWh/kg is achieved, the gas mixture temperature 4000K and graphite lining begins to evaporate. The mass flow through the cooling sampler is 0.46 g/(BSD2). Experiments on 6.

Repeat 3-5, except that the carbon serves in the tail flame of the plasma. Three slit size of 1 mm2with the speed 46,9 g/min pneumatic served in the tail flame C2F6-plasma carbon with an average particle size of 42 mm as a carrier gas is also used C2F6with a speed of 1.8 kg/h of the Experience carried out when the power supplied to the plasma source, equal to 19 kW (161 A, 119). The results are shown in table. 7.

Enthalpy flame C2F6-plasma as calculated, is 5,61 kWh/kg Gas plasma mixture is abruptly cooled by enthalpy 2,52 kWh/kg the Rate of mass flow through the cooling sampler equal to 0.6 g/(BSD2). The ratio of C:F is 1.6. The output of the TPV of 27.9 mol.% corresponds to the specific enthalpy of the 16 kWh/kg and the speed of receiving TPV 1.2 kg/h In the reactor is maintained at a pressure of 0.1 bar (abs). The experience was stopped after 4.5 minutes

Working on this invention, the applicant has paid special attention to the development of a plasma torch capable of operating in the presence of corrosive plasma-forming gases, such as fluorine and fluorocarbons at elevated temperatures (i.e., high values of enthalpy) required for the several hours of continuous operation.

While conducting experiments with fluorine-containing plasma, when the plasma-forming gas is, for example, CF4and when using graphite electrodes, nointention water cooled, it was found that the anode begins to be expended, if the current density exceeds the value of 50 A/cm2.

Further, in the majority of plasma processes, it is desirable to reduce the amount of plasma gas on economic consideration. The use of only one plasma-forming gas can simplify the process and reduce costs. When receiving TPV of fluoride and carbon using the optional plasma-forming gases, such as Ar or He, will increase the degree of separation. Obtaining plasma using only the fluorine-containing gas and conventional plasma torches is usually not effective, as the gases are decomposed at high temperature to produce a highly reactive and corrosive F-ions. These ions react with most refractory metals such as tungsten, hafnium and tantalum, with the formation of gases such as WF6, HfFx, TaF6and this leads to high rates of erosion of the electrodes. The applicant has found that graphite is very strong in relation to F-cha is anovel, what if from graphite to produce the anode, it is subject to erosion to a much greater extent. The reason is that the arc can heat the carbon to very high temperatures, which will lead to the formation of C+-ions.

It was also established that chemical resistance to F-corrosion at temperatures below 1300K (1000oC) find the copper, Nickel and alloys of copper-Nickel.

The invention provides for the creation of a plasma torch, using only the fluorine-containing plasma gases and allows to apply high voltage to apply the available electrodes, providing a low speed erosion, stable operation at different pressure, high enthalpy and a relatively low flow rates of gas.

The following examples 8 to 11 illustrate the operation of the electrodes of different configurations, made of different materials under different conditions, when the plasma gas in the plasma torch used ftoruglevodorodnye gases. All examples are based on experimental work of the applicant.

A plasma torch comprising a cathode with graphite inserts, intensively cooled by water, and speed water-cooled copper anode, shown yield; d1/d2= 4/8 and l1/l2= 33/15.

Plasma gas: CF4.

Gas flow rate: 2.36 kg/h

Voltage: 127 Century.

Current: 160 A.

Power: 20,3 kW.

The rate of erosion

cathode: 0.07 mg/

anode: 0.6 mg/s

Time: 1 h

Enthalpy: 5,54 kWh/kg CF4.

Efficiency: 64%.

Input speed: 26 m/s

Pressure: 0.1 bar (abs).

This plasma burner was tested with CF4in different conditions - at a voltage of from 100 to 150, amperage of 100 to 250 a and the enthalpy of from 3 to 8 kWh/kg, erosion rate below 1.5 mg/s and efficiency of 60 to 70%. The input speed is 10 to 80 m/s

Example 9.

For this experience using a plasma burner construction shown in Fig.24.

Cathode: graphite, water-cooled.

Anode: speed, copper, water-cooled; d1/d2= 4/8 and l1/l2= 33/15 mm

Plasma gas: C2F6.

Gas flow rate: 2.3 kg/h

Voltage: 124 Century.

Current: 160 A.

Power: 19,8 kW.

The rate of erosion

cathode: - 0.18 mg/

and Yunosti: 60%.

Input speed: 16 m/s

Pressure: 0.1 bar (abs).

This plasma burner was tested in various conditions - voltage from 117 to 133 and amperage from 100 to 200 And the enthalpies 3 - 6.5 kWh/kg, the erosion rates below 1.5 mg/s and the efficiency of 55 - 70%.

Example 10.

Used plasma burner with an insert between the anode and cathode, as shown in Fig. 25. The gas serves two flows between the cathode and insert (speed G1and between the insert and the anode (G2)

Cathode: coal, water cooled.

Material inserts: copper, water-cooled, thickness 10 mm, inner diameter 5 mm

The material of the anode: speed, copper, water cooled, d1/d2=8/16 and l1/l2= 60/55.

Plasma gas: CF4.

Gas flow rate: G1= 2.7 kg/h; G2= 7.4 kg/h

Voltage: 230 Century.

Current: 300 A.

Power: 69 kW.

The rate of erosion

cathode: 0.05 mg/

anode: 1 mg/s

Test time: 20 minutes

Enthalpy: a 2.9 kWh/kg

Efficiency: 60%.

Input speed G1: 60 m/s

Input speed G2: 100 m/sec.

Press the erosion below 1.5 mg/s, efficiency 50 - 80%.

Example 11.

Used plasma burner construction shown in Fig.25, at a pressure of 100 kPa (abs), CF4.

Cathode: coal, water cooled.

Material insert: copper, water cooling, thickness 10 mm, inner diameter 5 mm

Anode: speed, copper, water cooled, d1/d2= 8/16 and l1/l2= 60/55.

Plasma gas: CF4.

Gas flow rate: G1= 2.7 kg/h, G2= 7.4 kg/h

Voltage: 190 Century.

Current: 300 A.

Power: 57 kW.

The rate of erosion

cathode: 0.1 mg/s

anode: 1 mg/s

Test time: 20 minutes

Enthalpy: 3,2 kWh/kg

Efficiency: 50%.

Input speed: G1= 30 m/s, G2= 80 m/s

Pressure: 1 bar (abs).

The burner used in various conditions: voltage 180 - 280 V, amperage of 150 to 400 a, the enthalpy of 1.5-4 kWh/kg, the rate of erosion below 1.5 mg/s, the efficiency is 50 - 80%.

The applicant has found that the method using the installation according to the invention can be continuous when using CF4and be carried out within three days. The method according to izopet is.

The advantage of this invention is the possibility of using secondary PTFE along with other ftoruglevodorodnye compounds in the implementation of the method described in the installation. This, in turn, enables operation of the installation according to the invention with a small amount of waste or no waste.

It is established that the operation of the installation according to the invention can be controlled by adjusting the addition of carbon.

1. A method of obtaining a fluorocarbon compounds, which includes generating in the high temperature zone of the electric arc between at least one pair of electrodes; the flow in the high temperature zone of at least one starting material to obtain thermal plasma containing fluorine-containing particles and carbon particles; creating in the high temperature zone of thermal plasma containing fluorine-containing particles and carbon particles, characterized in that use is mainly prashadam electrodes, the controlled value of the enthalpy in thermal plasma is injected particles of carbon-containing substances with the formation of the reactive thermal mixture having a molar ratio of C : F in the range is nnow specific enthalpy for a period of time, sufficient for the formation of reactive thermal gas mixture containing reactive particles, including fluorinated intermediate substance and carbon-containing intermediate substance derived from fluorine-containing particles and carbon particles, and particles of carbon-containing substances; perform cooling of the reactive thermal gas mixture at a given cooling time and at a given temperature, which is chosen in such a way as to ensure the availability of the resulting fluorocarbon compounds in the final product.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the source material is a source gas includes at least one fluorocarbon compound, representing short-chained perfluorinated carbon compound of General formula

CnFm,

where 0 < n < 10;

m is selected from the group 2n, 2n + 2 and 2n - 2 if n > 1.

3. The method according to p. 2, wherein the source material includes at least one gaseous fluorocarbon compound selected from the group comprising defloration (C2H2F2), tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), hexaferrite (CF4), OCTAFLUOROBUT (C4F8and deceptibot (C4F10).

4. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that the particles of the carbonaceous substance is heated before mixing with thermal plasma, and the feed rate and the temperature of the carbon-containing substances control to obtain the reactive thermal mixture, in which the temperature of the carbonaceous particles reaches approximately 2000 - C (1727 - 2727oC).

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the particles of carbon-containing substances are carbon particles size of about 10-3- 0.3 mm, and they do not contain hydrogen, silicon and sulfur.

6. The method according to p. 4 or 5, characterized in that the particles of carbon-containing substance comprises polytetrafluoroethylene.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs.4 to 6, characterized in that the mixture is formed near the high-temperature zone, and particles of carbonaceous substances injected into the mixing zone and the pressure in the mixing zone support is approximately equal to 0.01 - 1.0 bar.

8. The method according to any of paragraphs.2 to 7, characterized in that it includes additional operations: Department of the remaining solid carbonaceous h is P CLASS="ptx2">

9. The method according to any of paragraphs.2 to 8, characterized in that the source gas stream comprises gaseous fluorine in the amount of ~5 to 30 mol.% in the calculation of the original gas.

10. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 9, characterized in that the cooling of the reactive thermal gas mixture is performed for the given parameters, namely, at a given time cooling to a specified temperature range and cooling at a speed of chilled heat the mixture in a predetermined temperature range cooling within a specified period of time, each of the specified parameters is chosen in such a way as to ensure the availability of the resulting fluorocarbon compounds in the final product.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the reactive thermal mixture is cooled to a predetermined temperature, cooling in the temperature range from approximately 100 to C (approximately from -173 to +927oC), with a cooling rate of 500 - 10K/s, while the intermediate cooled heat the mixture to react at a given temperature cooling within a suitable period of time, with the formation in the final product of at least one fluorocarbon compound selected from the gene (C3F6), OCTAFLUOROPROPANE (C3F8and TETRAFLUOROMETHANE (CF4carbontetrachloride).

12. The method according to p. 10 or 11, characterized in that the reactive thermal mixture of States with a specific enthalpy of ~2 - 3 kWh/kg is cooled to a cooling temperature below ~800K (~527oC) less than 0.05 s and the cooled heat the mixture was kept at the same temperature cooling over a period of time equal to at least ~0.01 for education as tetrafluoroethylene fluorocarbon compounds.

13. The method according to one of paragraphs.10 to 12, characterized in that the reactive thermal mixture of States with a specific enthalpy of ~2 - 3 kWh/kg is cooled to refrigeration temperature approximately ~800 - C (~527 - 827oC) less than ~0.5 to 3 and the cooled heat the mixture was kept at the same temperature cooling over a period of time equal to at least ~0.01 for education hexaferrite as fluorocarbon compounds.

14. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 13, characterized in that the high temperature in the high temperature zone created by at least one plasma torch containing prashadam electrodes, Obrajuelo box of graphite or graphite with an additive, and the method includes the operation of the cooling of the electrodes to a temperature below ~K (~1027oC) and maintain this temperature electrodes.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that use an anode made of copper or a copper alloy, which is cooled to a temperature below ~K (~ 1027oC) and support at the same temperature, and the cathode is made of copper or a copper alloy with an insert made of graphite or graphite with an additive, which is intensively cooled to a temperature below ~800K (~527oC) and support at the same temperature.

16. The method according to p. 14 or 15, characterized in that the mass of heated gas to create the vortex.

17. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the high temperature in the high temperature zone created by at least one plasma torch, containing mainly prashadam electrodes forming an anode and a cathode selected from the group consisting of copper, Nickel, and copper-Nickel electrodes with optional insertion of graphite or graphite with an additive, and the method includes the operations of: creating a mass of heated gas by obtaining plasma from the gas supplied to each plasma torch, by maintaining electricaccelerator below ~K (~927oC) and maintain this temperature electrodes, and high-temperature zone is located in each arc plasma torch and around it, and the zone of displacement is in the tail flame of the burner.

18. A method of obtaining a fluorocarbon compounds, comprising: generating in the high temperature zone of the electric arc between at least one pair of electrodes; the flow in the high temperature zone of the source gas stream containing at least one fluoride-containing substance, to obtain in a specified zone of thermal plasma containing fluorine-containing particles and carbon particles, characterized in that use is mainly prashadam electrodes, the molar ratio of C : F in thermal plasma is chosen in the range from ~0.4 to 2 support the specific enthalpy of thermal plasma in the high temperature zone in the range of approximately from 1 to 10 kW h/kg, introducing particles of carbonaceous matter in the mixing zone, located near the high-temperature zone for mixing with thermal plasma, while maintaining a specified molar ratio of C : F, with the formation of the reactive thermal mixture, in which the temperature of the carbon-containing cha the impact of the reactive fluorine-containing intermediate compounds and carbon-containing intermediate compounds and has a specific enthalpy of approximately not less than 3 kWh/kg, moreover, the reactive thermal mixture is maintained at these conditions for a given time interval, and reactive thermal mixture, which contains intermediate compounds, rapidly cooled in the cooling zone with the formation in the final product of at least one fluorocarbon compound.

19. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the cooling of the reactive thermal gas mixture is performed for the given parameters, namely, at a given time cooling to a specified temperature range and cooling at a speed of chilled heat the mixture in a predetermined temperature range cooling within a specified period of time, each of the specified parameters is chosen in such a way as to ensure that the required fluorocarbon compounds in the final product.

20. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that the reactive thermal mixture is cooled to a predetermined temperature, cooling in the range of ~100 - K (approximately from -173 to +927oC), with a cooling rate of 500 to 108K/s, while the intermediate cooled heat the mixture to react at a given temperature cooling in the underwater connection, selected from the group consisting of tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4, TPV), freon (C2F6), hexaferrite (C3F6), OCTAFLUOROPROPANE (C3F8and TETRAFLUOROMETHANE (CF4carbontetrachloride).

21. The method according to p. 19 or 20, characterized in that the reactive thermal mixture of States with a specific enthalpy of ~2 - 3 kWh/kg is cooled to a cooling temperature below ~800K (~527oC) less than 0.05 s and the cooled heat the mixture was kept at the same temperature cooling over a period of time equal to at least ~0.01 for education as tetrafluoroethylene fluorocarbon compounds.

22. The method according to any of paragraphs.19 to 21, characterized in that the reactive thermal mixture of States with a specific enthalpy of ~2 - 3 kWh/kg is cooled to a cooling temperature below ~800K (~527oC) less than 0.05 s and the cooled heat the mixture was kept at the same temperature cooling over a period of time equal to at least ~0.01 for education hexaferrite as fluorocarbon compounds.

23. The method according to any of paragraphs.18 to 22, characterized in that the high temperature in vysokotemperaturnogo, forming an anode and a cathode selected from the group consisting of copper, Nickel, and copper-Nickel electrodes with optional insertion of graphite or graphite with an additive, and the method includes the operation of the cooling of the electrodes to a temperature below ~K (1027oC) and maintain this temperature electrodes.

24. The method according to p. 23, characterized in that use an anode made of copper or a copper alloy, which is cooled to a temperature below ~K (~ 1027oC) and support at the same temperature, and the cathode is made of copper or a copper alloy with an insert made of graphite or graphite with an additive, which is intensively cooled to a temperature below ~800K (~527oC) and support at the same temperature.

25. The method according to p. 23 or 24, characterized in that the mass of heated gas to create the vortex.

26. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the high temperature in the high temperature zone created by at least one plasma torch, containing mainly prashadam electrodes forming an anode and a cathode selected from the group consisting of copper, Nickel, and copper-Nickel electrodes with optional insertion of graphite or graphite with pridemage in each plasma torch, by maintaining an electric arc between the electrodes and the formation of the tail of the flame at the outlet of the burner, and cooling of the electrodes to a temperature below ~K (~927oC) and maintain this temperature electrodes, and high-temperature zone is located in each arc plasma torch and around it, and the mixing zone is located in the region of the tail flame of the burner.

27. Device for producing fluorocarbon compounds, including high-temperature zone containing a mass of heated gas, a pair of electrodes for creating an electric arc in the high temperature zone for the conversion of the source material supplied to the zone in thermal plasma, which comprises a fluorine-containing particles and carbon particles; means for supplying the source material in the high temperature zone to transform the source material into thermal plasma, characterized in that it contains mainly prashadam electrodes, a mixing zone for mixing thermal plasma with particles of the material with the formation of the reactive thermal mixture, means for introducing at a controlled value of the enthalpy of these particles are carbon-containing substances in the cat is chionophobia particles, including reactive fluorine-containing intermediate substances and reactive carbon-containing intermediate substance; a reaction zone that is suitable for the formation of the reactive thermal mixture of reactive thermal gaseous mixture under conditions controlled enthalpy and controlled relations C : F, and the reactive mixture contains particles, including reactive fluorine-containing intermediate substances and reactive carbon-containing intermediate substance; means for monitoring specific enthalpy and relations C : F in the reactive thermal mixture, and means for cooling the reactive thermal mixture under controlled conditions, ensuring the final product, containing at least one fluorocarbon compound.

28. Installation according to p. 27, characterized in that it contains at least one plasma burner containing a pair arachodonic electrodes selected from the group consisting of copper, Nickel, and copper-Nickel electrodes, with optional insertion of graphite and graphite with an additive, and the means for cooling is intended for cooling. the situation on p. 28, characterized in that it comprises an anode made of copper or a copper alloy, cooled in the process to a temperature below ~K (~1027oC) and maintained at this temperature, and the cathode is made of copper or a copper alloy with an insert made of graphite or graphite additive, intensively cooled during operation to a temperature below ~800K (~527oC) and maintained at this temperature.

30. Installation under item 28 or 29, characterized in that it contains a vortex generator performed as part of the at least one plasma torch and designed to create a vortex in the mass of hot gas in the high temperature area.

31. Installation according to any one of paragraphs.28 to 30, characterized in that it includes three plasma torch with the outlets, where during operation forms a tail flame, and the outlet of the plasma burners directed into the mixing chamber, so that the tail flame of the burner extends into the mixing chamber with the formation of the mixing zone in the mixing chamber.

32. Installation according to p. 27, characterized in that it contains means for introducing particles of material, which is wargrave located between the hopper and the mixing zone and serves to heat the particles of the carbonaceous substance prior to its introduction into the mixing zone.

 

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