Automatic trailer hitch

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to automatic traction devices for vehicle engineering. Automatic trailer hitch is fitted with guide vanes casing consisting of upper and lower catching, between which executed the release, and fastened by bolts to pulling the plug of the trailer, the front stabilizer having a face surface of the shroud with the radial grooves in the form dihedral angles, interacting with the ball protrusions flat lock plug housing, a traction rod tractor, ending with detachable fist connected with bolts and containing two axis, which movement is limited to retaining rings, hydraulic locking system with two Electromechanical locks. An object of the invention is to automate the coupling and uncoupling of connected parts with high reliability clutch and design of the docking station and backlash-free coupling. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 12 ill.

The invention relates to automatic traction devices for vehicle engineering.

Known hitch trailer containing installed on the same link AB is using a longitudinal shank with another link of a combination of upper and lower clamping elements, the lower clamping element is rigidly connected with the shank, and the upper clamping element pivotally connected to the bottom can be rotated in the longitudinal direction and provided with a lock rotation, bearing hitch ball pivotally mounted on the link trains can be rotated in a horizontal plane and is spring-loaded in relation to him and the two springs (see USSR author's certificate N 1785917, MKI B 60 D 1/06. Bull. N 1, publ. 07.01.93).

The disadvantage of this device is the lack of automation of the coupling-rascepa, the possibility of its destruction, causing spontaneous rescap, because of the relatively small angle to the horizontal flexibility and lack of reliability, as expressed in the possible breakdowns in hazardous sections of the upper movable clamping element with persistent device from bending moments, and low damping properties.

The closest known technical solutions is a coupling device containing equipped with stabilizer rotation of the traction fork pivotally connected with the last rod with a transverse hole, a buffer consisting of a body and placed inside the elastic element covering the said rod, and ftpuse buffer grooves are available under the said pins, pulling the plug is provided with a flat stop, the stabilizer of rotation of the fork is made in the form of a clip placed on the rod with the opportunity to interact one end of the elastic element of the buffer and the other with a specified focus fork, the holder has holes for the pins of the lock, and she has a flange for grasping the edge of the buffer (see USSR author's certificate N 872319, MKI B 60 D 1/00. Bull. N 38, publ. 15.10.81).

However, this device does not provide automatic coupling and uncoupling of connected links, does not have sufficient reliability in a circular motion, forces in the coupling device are transmitted with a backlash.

The technical task of the invention is to automate the coupling and uncoupling of connected parts with high reliability clutch and design of the docking station and backlash-free coupling.

This object is achieved in an automatic trailer coupling device, which contains provided with a stabilizer of rotation of the traction fork pivotally connected with the last buffer rod with a transverse hole, a buffer consisting of a body and placed inside the elastic elements covering the said rod, and a latch vypolnennye grooves under the said pins, pulling the plug is provided with a flat stop, the stabilizer of rotation of the traction of the plug is made in the form of a clip placed on the buffer rod interoperable with one end of the elastic element of the buffer and the other with a specified focus pulling the plug, and the housing has a flange for embracing the edge of the buffer, there are holes for the pins of the lock, where according to the invention the device has a guiding casing consisting of upper and lower catching, between which executed the release, and fastened by bolts to pulling the plug of the trailer, the front stabilizer having a face surface of the shroud with the radial grooves in the form dihedral angles, interacting with the ball protrusions flat lock plug housing, a traction rod tractor, ending with detachable fist connected with bolts and containing two axis, which movement is limited to retaining rings, hydraulic locking system with two Electromechanical locks, each of which is provided with a stud with a nut, adjusting screw spring seal, cable lock and ball lock comprising a spring-loaded ball and adjusting screw seal, and an electrical sensor in the pressure roller, button with gasket and spring tension, ball retainer with seal; in addition, pulling the plug with a buffer rod is connected by a spherical joint, containing the plug housing and the coupling ball, indoor mudguard cover; cervical axes split knuckle traction rod is made conical.

Comparative analysis of the prototype allowed us to conclude that the claimed technical solution has novelty, as opposed to prototype this design has a guide casing consisting of upper and lower catching, between which the executed release to rotation of the traction rod, and fastened by bolts to pulling the plug of the trailer; front stabilizer having a face surface of the shroud, bogatoi elastic element buffer, with the radial grooves in the form dihedral angles, interacting with the ball protrusions split casing, enabling them to rotate pulling the plug at any desired angle independence of moves (circular motion) and return it with angular corners from bending moments in the original position is aligned with the buffer rod; drawbar of the tractor, ending with detachable fist connected with bolts and with two on the technical locks, Windows that regardless of hydraulics and thereby providing high reliability clutch coupling site in case of emergency pressure relief between the half-shafts and locking in the end positions of the axes when the coupling and rescape automatically hydraulically, each of which is provided with a stud with a nut, adjusting screw spring seal, cable lock and ball lock comprising a spring-loaded ball and adjusting screw seal, and an electrical sensor that is used to automate the process of coupling-rascepa and control light displays in the cab for operation of the coupling device containing the cover gasket, electrical switch, steel diaphragm seal and pressure roller, the button with the seal and spring tension, ball retainer with seal; in addition, pulling the plug with a buffer rod is connected by a spherical joint, through which the coupling and decoupling can be performed on uneven roads and on roads with a slope that increases the reliability of the design of the docking station in a circular motion pulling the plug relative to the buffer rod; cervical axes split knuckle traction bar is conice the forks nd when the coupling and the final orientation of the traction fork to split the fist of the traction rod, providing between them the required period, increasing shelf life and eliminate gaps in the hitch.

The technical solution of the problem is illustrated by drawings:

in Fig. 1 - automatic trailer hitch;

in Fig. 2 is a top view, with rotated towing fork;

in Fig. 3 - connecting node;

in Fig. 4 is a diagram of the hydraulic drive in my fist traction stud;

in Fig. 5 - cut fist traction stud;

in Fig. 6 - section a-a in Fig. 5;

in Fig. 7 - section b-B in Fig. 5;

in Fig. 8 - section And in Fig. 6;

in Fig. 9 - section b In Fig. 5;

in Fig. 10 - section d-D in Fig. 5;

in Fig. 11 is a view of G on Fig. 5;

in Fig. 12 - section e-E in Fig. 11.

Automatic trailer hitch includes drawbar 1 tractor, ending with detachable fist, the guide casing 2, consisting of upper and lower catching, between which executed the release, and fastened by bolts to pulling the plug 3 of the trailer associated with the buffer rod 4 spherical joint, containing the split housing 5 and hitch ball 6, an indoor mudguard cover 7, the buffer having a housing 8, the elastic elements 9 and 10, the elastic washer 11, covering the buffer rod 4, thrust washers 12, and in this article the basics 15 in the form dihedral angles, interacting with the ball protrusions 16 flat rims 17 detachable casing 5, and the stabilizer of the rotation.

The stabilizer turn contains installed in the buffer rod 4 and spring-loaded by a spring 18 and pins 19 and 20 included in grooves 21 and 22, is made in the case 8 of the buffer. Elastic elements 9 and 10 pre-compressed. Ferrule 14 assasino installed on the buffer rod 4 between the elastic buffer element 9 and the flat rims 17 detachable to the housing 5. The yoke 14 has grooves 23 and 24 under the pins 19 and 20 of the stabilizer of rotation, which is installed in said grooves of the holder 14 with the side gaps. The yoke 14 has a flange 25 that covers the end of the housing 8 buffer and forming a pocket 26 for lubrication.

Split housing 5 with a hole in the form of a truncated cone, consisting of two hemispheres, covering the hitch ball 6 and connected by bolts, attached to pulling the plug 3. In the cheeks pulling the plug 3 mounted bearings 27, naprashivayuschiesya on the steel sleeve 28 with the inner cone.

Detachable fist traction rod 1 which is connected by bolts, contains two shafts 29 and limited movement of the retaining rings 30; two Electromechanical lock 31 axes 29, each of which sososososo of spring ball and adjusting screw seal; electric sensor 38, containing the cover 39 with gasket, electric microswitch 40, steel diaphragm 41 with gasket and pressure roller, the button 42 with gasket and spring tension, the ball retainer 43 to seal the channel 44 under the electric wire; a hydraulic shut-off system, including canals of the coupling 45 and rascepa 46, ball waterway 47, canals 48 Electromechanical locks 31 and streaming channel 49 electric sensor 38, and canals 50 pins 32.

Offer automatic trailer hitch provides automatic engagement and disengagement of connected links, high reliability of their clutch and design of the docking station, the transmission of forces between the joined parts without gaps, mitigation of dynamic loads arising in the hitch.

The proposed design automatic traction device works in the following way. When the automatic coupling of the tractor reversing submits to the trailer, detachable fist traction rod 1 is included in the guide casing 2 and, turning pulling the plug 3 by means of the spherical hinge, hinges on its cylindrical sector. Is the touch and the entrance to split the fist of Tagalog the roller goes down and through the steel membrane 41 presses on the engine electrical microswitch 40, which sends the command to the electromagnetic actuator Electromechanical locks 31 and switching the backlight on the display in the cab. The button 42 of the electrical sensor 38 is held within a split knuckle traction rod 1 to operate in coupling spring tension and the ball retainer 43. Electromechanical locks 31, the locking axis 29 in rescape, by the electromagnetic actuator and the cable 36 is released axis 29. The working fluid in the canals of the coupling 45 at the command of the driver (or automatically) is blown into the cavity between the axes 29. Conical cervical axes 29 are tapered bore bearings 27 traction of the plug 3, finally directing her to split the fist of the traction rod 1, providing between them the required amount. In the end position of the axes 29 of the retaining rings 30 working fluid from the cavity between the axes 29 through the waterway 48 Electromechanical locks 31 and the ball waterway 47 presses the balls of ball retainers 37, freeing up the aisles to the pins 32, and simultaneously flows through the waterway 50 pins 32 in the cavity with the spring pins 32 Electromechanical locks 31 to equalize the pressure and facilitate the work of these springs, then padprinting housing 5 presses the ferrule 14. The end of the clip 14, covering the buffer rod 4 through the thrust washer 12 and other elements located in the housing 8 of the buffer, compresses the elastic elements 9 and 10. In the case of bending moment on pulling the plug 3 plug housing 5 is rotated around the hitch ball 6. This flat rims 17 detachable body 5 slides on the end surface 13 of the shroud 14 and presses it to the side of the elastic element 9 of the buffer from which the plug housing 5 and is rigidly connected with him pulling the plug 3 are more tucked and strive to return to its original position. When returning pulling the plug 3 in this position it is fixed on the end surface 13 of the casing 14 under the action of the elastic element 9. When you need a circular motion front stabilizer gives you the ability to rotate the traction fork 3 at any desired angle. On a level road traction fork 3 is returned to its original position under the action of the tractor and trailer. The stabilizer of turn provides axial movement of the shroud 14 and prevents its rotation relative to the housing 8 of the buffer.

When automatic rescape the driver engages the electromagnetic mechanism of Electromechanical locks 31 axes 29, which tromechanical locks 31 driver with remote control pumps the working fluid in the canals 46 rascepa in the cavity between the walls of the fist of the traction rod 1 and the stepped surfaces axes 29 in the position of rascepa. At the same time from the streaming channel 46 rascepa through streaming channel 49 electric sensor 38, the liquid is pumped to the rear end surface of the button 42 of the electrical sensor 38 and against the force of a tension spring button 42, the ball retainer 43 and steel diaphragm 41 with pressure roller, the button 42 of the electrical sensor 38 begins to be pushed out of the split knuckle traction rod 1 and the departure of the truck from the trailer is set to the stop of the cover 39 in position for coupling. When the deviation from alignment of pulling the plug 3 and the buffer rod 4 position pulling the plug 3 is adjusted and fixed to the coupling end surface 13 of the casing 14, bogatoi elastic buffer element 9. In the end position of the axes 29 of the retaining rings 30 working fluid (as in the coupling from the cavity between the axes 29 through the waterway 48 Electromechanical locks 31 and the ball waterway 47 presses the balls of ball retainers 37, freeing up the aisles to the pins 32, and simultaneously flows through the waterway 50 pins 32 into the cavity with the spring pins 32 Electromechanical locks 31 to equalize the pressure and facilitate the work of the mentioned spring, then the spring-loaded pins 32 close axis 29 in the position of rascepa. Automatic is split knuckle traction rod 1, unlocking and locking of the mechanism 29, the condition of the hydraulic system is controlled by the driver at the lights on the scoreboard in the cabin.

Offer automatic trailer hitch provides automatic engagement and disengagement of connected links, high reliability of their clutch and design of the docking station, the angle of horizontal flexibility 140othe angle of the vertical flexibility of the 30oand any required angle independence of moves (circular motion), as well as a backlash-free transmission of forces between the joined parts and mitigate shock loads, which reduces the braking distance, reduce fuel consumption, increase productivity, transport trains and to improve the working conditions of the driver.

1. Automatic trailer hitch, containing equipped with stabilizer rotation of the traction fork pivotally connected with the last buffer rod with a transverse hole, a buffer consisting of a body and placed inside the elastic elements covering the said rod, and a retainer made in the form of spring-loaded pins are placed in the specified transverse hole of the stem, in the case of buffer grooves are available under the said pins, taroom rod interoperable with one end of the elastic element of the buffer and the other with the specified stop plug, and the housing has a flange for embracing the edge of the buffer, there are holes for the pins of the lock, characterized in that the device has a guiding casing consisting of upper and lower catching, between which executed the release, and fastened by bolts to pulling the plug of the trailer front stabilizer formed end surface of the holder with radial grooves in the form dihedral angles, interacting with the ball protrusions flat lock plug housing, a traction rod tractor, ending with detachable fist connected with bolts and containing two axis, which movement is limited to retaining rings, hydraulic shut-off system with two Electromechanical locks, each of which is provided with a stud with a nut, adjusting screw spring seal, cable lock and ball lock comprising a spring-loaded ball and adjusting screw seal, and an electric sensor with the included lid with a gasket, an electric switch, a steel diaphragm seal and pressure roller, a button with a seal and a spring stretching, ball retainer with uplotneniem hinge, containing the plug housing and the coupling ball, indoor mudguard cover.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the cervical axes split knuckle traction rod is made conical.

 

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