A method of manufacturing a wheel for vehicles

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the manufacture of a wide range of wheels for vehicles, including automotive, aviation, and rollers for transport on tracks. A method of manufacturing a wheel for a vehicle includes a manufacturer of billet wheels with a Central part and pre-decorated rim, subsequent extraction of the rim rolling until you get a profile similar to the profile of the finished wheel, and final processing of the wheels, the rolling part or all of the rim is performed with the external or internal side of the blanks with any microstructure, temperature and high-speed modes, the corresponding structure for this purpose in the manufacture of the workpiece shape and size of the rim takes into account formed the structures form a lip, mainly for billets with coarse, for example, a molded structure with a thickness greater than the thickness of the finished wheel rim by an amount sufficient to convert this structure to a greater part of the rim in the hood or in conjunction with a subsequent heat treatment recrystallized in the Oh to the thickness of the finished wheel rim, mainly for billets with fine-grained structure, including forms combined or intermediate between the said flange and the ledge, for the mixed structure of the material in the rim, including partially recrystallized, Polynesians and cast with a thickness lying in the range between these, with the diametrical dimensions of the surface facing the mandrel, perform different from the diameter of the working surface of the mandrel for a rim with a coarse structure on the value, providing the sliding on the mandrel of the workpiece in the areas before roll out, with a rolling carry out at least one transition. How will expand technological capabilities at higher proizvoditelite, quality and efficiency. 18 C.p. f-crystals, 12 ill.

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used in the manufacture of a wide range of wheels for vehicles, including automotive, aviation, and rollers for transport on tracks.

A known method of manufacturing a wheel molding. This method has high productivity and efficiency and Behnisch properties of alloys with cast structure is insufficient in the operation of such wheels on roads with poor pavement, when used on sports cars and heavy vehicles. In addition, the alloys with the cast structure have a lower specific strength as compared with the alloys deformed structure, therefore, the alloy wheels have more weight than stamped.

Higher mechanical properties have wheels, made with plastic deformation, in particular rolling.

A known method of manufacturing a wheel for vehicles, comprising manufacturing billet wheel with a Central part and pre-decorated rim, subsequent hood rolling of the rim on the pot until you get a profile similar to the profile of the finished wheel, at least one transition and the finish wheel (inventor's certificate SU 1016001 A, 07.05.1983).

However, this method does not have a sufficiently wide possibilities of its implementation, due to the fact that as the original piece used stamping a particular design, and the rolling is carried out at optimum conditions, without taking into account the structure and mechanical properties of the original piece. This limits the efficiency of the process, leads to the involuntary loss of metal. So, as rusk part of the rim in each moment of time is being offset, and the contact with the mandrel surface - effect of friction forces. As a consequence, for rolling by this method requires increased effort. It is necessary to reduce the speed of rolling and to increase the allowance in rolled parts in order to avoid utain zones of thinning the thickness, rolled or Central parts of the wheel. It should also be noted that the introduction of the calibration operation in combination with other techniques in the known method does not allow to solve these problems. This operation extends the time of manufacture of the wheels, which increases the complexity and, as a rule, leads to increased consumption of metal. The latter is due to the fact that it is almost impossible to calibrate the wheel only at the expense of local redistribution of metal, such as thinning some places and increase the other, the metal part is certainly displaced beyond the formed profile wheel like a Burr at an open punching.

The objective of the invention is the expansion of technological possibilities of production of wheels while increasing productivity, quality, and efficiency of the method. The problem is solved in that in the method of manufacturing a wheel for a vehicle, including the hood rim rolling to obtain a profile similar to the profile of the finished wheel,at least one transition, and the final processing of the wheels, the rolling part or all of the rim is performed with the external or internal side of the blanks with any microstructure, temperature and high-speed modes, the corresponding structure for this purpose in the manufacture of the workpiece shape and size of the rim takes into account formed the structures form a lip mainly for billets with coarse, for example cast, structure with a thickness greater than the thickness of the finished wheel rim by the amount sufficient to convert this structure to a greater part of the rim in the hood or in conjunction with a subsequent heat treatment in recrystallized or / and Polynesian structure to form a flange or the same ledge, with a thickness equal or close to the thickness of the finished wheel rim, mainly for billets with fine-grained structure, including forms combined or intermediate between the said flange and the ledge, for the mixed structure of the material in the rim, including partially recrystallized, Polynesians and cast with a thickness lying in the range between these, while the diametrical dimensions of the surface facing the mandrel, perform otlichayuschuyusya slide on the mandrel billet parts, located in front of the roll out.

Appropriate during the implementation of the method are techniques, namely, that:

in the manufacture of billet wheels wheels rim are in the form of a cylindrical projection with a thickness of 2-5 times the thickness of the rim of the finished wheel, and the diametrical dimensions of the surface facing the mandrel perform not more than 2% different from the diameter of the working surface of the mandrel, the rollers of the rim is produced in the temperature range (from 0.6 to 0.88)Tpl.and strain rates of 10-3-101with-1,

billet wheels are made by stamping at a temperature of deformation (from 0.6 to 0.88)Tpl.with deformation rate of not less than 60%, while rim are in the form of a flange with a thickness of 1.1 - 1.5 times the thickness of the rim of the finished wheel, and the rolling of the rim is carried out at a temperature not higher than the temperature of stamping with a speed of warp 10-1- 102with-1a projecting rim on the mandrel,

billet wheels are made by stamping at a temperature of deformation (from 0.6 to 0.88)Tpl.with deformation rate of 40-50%, while rim is carried out in a conical flange (plates) with an angle of inclination to the axis 30-45othickness 1.6-2 times higher than the strain rates of 10-1-101with-1,

for wheels with double-sided rim rollers pre-decorated rim make for one transition in each direction on two coaxially spaced mandrels,

billet wheels are made by stamping at a temperature of deformation (from 0.6 to 0.88)Tpl.with deformation rate of 40-50%, while rim is carried out in a combination flange with a protrusion, and the protrusion is made facing in the direction of the short side of the rim relative to the Central part, and the rolling produce two coaxially spaced mandrels for one transition in each direction at a temperature not higher than the temperature of forming and strain rates of 10-1- 101with-1and the rolling of the flange is produced by projecting,

billet wheels are made by casting, while the rim is carried out in a conical flange with an angle of inclination to the axis 20 of 25othickness of 2 to 2.5 times greater than the thickness of the finished wheel, and the rolling of the rim are made for two transitions, and the first move on a smooth mandrel to a thickness of 1.1 to 1.5 at a temperature of 0.6 - 0,88)Tpl.with the speed of warp 10-2- 10-1with-1and the second transition at a temperature not higher than the temperature of the first transition, at a speed not lower than, the average grain size of not more than 15 μm, occupying at least not less than 50% of the volume of prezygotic, in isothermal conditions with strain rates of 10-1- 10-4with-1,

in final processing to produce heat wheels for hardening, and heat combined with the heating of billets under the expansion,

heating of the billet wheels under rollers combined with the heat of prezygotic for stamping,

in final processing to produce heat wheels for hardening, and heat combined with heat prezygotic for stamping,

the stamping is carried out in the range of strain rates of 101- 10-4with-1providing the greatest degree course dynamic or spontaneous recrystallization,

rollers carried out on a mandrel, in which the working area is heated to a temperature of deformation, the workpiece is heated to a temperature below the temperature of deformation,

rollers carried out on a mandrel, in which the working area is heated to a temperature below the temperature of deformation.

The proposed techniques enable to expand the technological capabilities of production wheels through the use of preparations with different structures, obtained by casting, hot deformation or powder met nirvanam thermo-mechanical modes in accordance with the structure of the workpiece, the selection of forms and sizes.

In the material obtained by molding, the shape and thickness of the rim is chosen such that after rolling could be formed structure, providing a high level of mechanical properties. This is achieved by the shape of the rim in the form of a protrusion and a considerable thickness of 2-5 times the thickness of the finished wheel rim. In addition, the fit of the workpiece, the mandrel is made with minimal gaps or with a slight interference fit. This leads to increased friction when moving the roller material of the workpiece on the mandrel and, consequently, to a large shear strain after deformation and/or subsequent heating for hardening forms in the wheel Polynesian or fine-grained recrystallized structure. For the best process of transformation of the structure of the temperature and strain-rate, it is recommended to choose (from 0.6 to 0.88)Tpl.and 10-3-101with-1.

The thickness of the protrusion is 2-5 times greater than the end provides for drawing the necessary degree of deformation study of the structure and, consequently, higher mechanical properties. The result is a wheel whose rim is affected to a greater extent shock nabraska with minimal gap or even with tension and slows down the process of rolling, but for the cast structure, these frictional forces between the workpiece and the mandrel is justified by the improvement scheme of the stress state, allowing to increase the deformability of the workpiece. In this case, the efficiency is ensured by the fact that the workpiece receives a simple and productive way - casting, and the most loaded part of the wheel - rim has a fairly high level of mechanical properties.

In the piece, get hot by die forging, the existing structure already provides a high level of mechanical properties. The shape of the workpiece in the form of a flange, its a smaller thickness than the thickness of the finished wheel rim only 1.1 - 1.5 times, landing blanks on the mandrel with a large clearance between the rollers, in particular by the method of projection of the flange on the mandrel, when the roller gradually presses the flange of the mandrel, provides minimum contact friction. The presence of strain patterns in the workpiece allows you to increase the speed of rolling due to the voltage reduction of the flow of material and much of its plasticity. Thus, as the wheel is ensured by the operations of punching and rolling. The cost reduction is due to the operation rolling.

The shape of the workpiece in the form of uslovno reduces the effectiveness of the process. Ultimately, the prototype of the stamped blank is more expensive compared to cast due to the expensive process of rolling. In the proposed scenario, the combination of a relatively expensive process rolling with cheap casting or relatively expensive punch burrs with cheaper rolling. Thus the set of features of the invention allows to make the process economical when using the procurement of any structure. The regulation of the deformation modes in accordance with the structure of the workpiece, provides quality items.

It is recommended that:

For a material with a coarse-grained structure is chosen strain rate less 10-3- 101with-1for rolling deformed more fine-grained - 10-1-102with-1.

When made wheels with double-sided rim, and it is necessary to provide high mechanical properties on both sides of the rim, rolling produce for one transition on two coaxially spaced mandrels.

If a material with a crystalline structure is so low technological plasticity that during rolling of the workpiece defects occur in the form of trash the t in two stages. At the first stage tapered flange pre-roll on a tapered mandrel, the second thermoabrasion a projecting conical rim, the mandrel having a final shape. Such treatment allows to reduce the degree of deformation at the first stage, when the alloy has a crystalline structure, and to avoid marriage because of defects or damage.

The presence of small grains in prezygotic for stamping, occupying not less than 50% of the volume of the workpiece, allows deformation in superplastic conditions. These terms are provided with temperature (from 0.6 to 0.88)Tpl.and strain rates of 10-1- 10-4with-1. The use of deformation in superplastic conditions can reduce the energy consumption during the stamping associated with the formative power equipment, more closer to the finished wheel form the part of the rim, which is formed during the subsequent rolling, which reduces the quantity of the metal roller and, in General, to reduce labor costs.

The operations of forming and hardening for one heating reduces the duty cycle of manufacture of the wheel. Temperature range the most technologically advanced, and what they temperatures, allowing deformation without fracture at the same temperature as the heating for hardening.

The implementation of the forging in the temperature range (0,7-0,88) Tpl.with strain rates (10-4- 10-1c-1provides a course of dynamic recrystallization. The latter allows to form in the alloy fine-grained recrystallized structure. The presence of fine-grained recrystallized structure in the workpiece allows for the rollers to increase the speed of deformation, to reduce the required effort. The presence of fine-grained structure in the material ensures a higher level of mechanical properties.

The most common material for the manufacture of wheels are aluminum alloys, but these techniques can be used in the manufacture of wheels from alloys based on titanium and magnesium.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the rolling of the workpiece with coarse-crystalline structure with a ledge on the outside.

In Fig. 2 shows a diagram of the rolling of the workpiece with fine-grained structure with a flange on the outer side.

In Fig. 3 shows a diagram of the rolling of the workpiece with coarse-crystalline structure with Ructural long ledge on the inside.

In Fig. 5 shows a diagram of the rolling of the workpiece with coarse-crystalline structure with a protrusion on the first transition from the outside to the smooth conical mandrel.

In Fig. 6 shows a diagram of the rolling of the workpiece with coarse-crystalline structure with a protrusion on the first transition from the inner side on a smooth cylindrical mandrel.

In Fig. 7 shows a diagram of the rolling of the workpiece with a coarse structure on both sides from the outside.

In Fig.8 presents a view of the blank with a coarse structure with the tab under the rollers on the outer side in one direction.

In Fig.9 presents a view of the workpiece with fine-grained structure with flange rollers with the outer side of one side.

In Fig. 10 shows a view of the workpiece with a mixed structure with flange rollers with the outer side of one side.

In Fig.11 presents a view of the blank with a coarse structure with the tab under the rollers on the outer side in both directions.

In Fig.12 presents a view of the blank with a coarse structure with the tab under the rollers on the first transition from the outside to the smooth conical mandrel in one with the Oia 4 - raskatnoe roller, the position of the 5 - second mandrel by rolling in two directions. On the blanks shown in Fig.8, stamping and casting gradients are not shown.

Examples of specific performance.

1. Procurement under the rolling of alloy AB, produced by molding in a metal mold having a crystalline structure with grain size 5000-10000 μm, made by rim in the form of a cylindrical protrusion (Fig.8A) of a thickness of 25 mm, and the diametrical dimensions of the rim was performed such that when mounting the workpiece on a mandrel with a diameter of 283 mm gap between the rim and the mandrel was 0.1 to 0.2 mm Rollers carried on the outer side, one side, one transition at temperatures 440-460oC, strain rates (10-2- 10-1with-1and with deformation rate of 60-70% according to the scheme shown in Fig.1. Time rolling was 7 minutes. After rolling heat treatment was performed, which included the hardening and subsequent artificial ageing. Rolled the wheels were subjected to mechanical processing. Made in such a way that the wheel had deformed defect-free structure.

2. Procurement under the rolling of alloy AB got hot stamping under superplastic conditions at a temperature of 510-520o-1- 102with-1with an average deformation rate of 20% according to the scheme shown in Fig. 2. Time rolling amounted to 1.5 minutes. Upon completion of forming the item received is subjected to quenching cooling, subsequent artificial aging and mechanical processing.

3. Procurement under the rolling of alloy AB, produced by molding in a metal mold having a crystalline structure with grain size 5000-10000 μm, made by rim in the form of a cylindrical protrusion 25 mm thick (procurement type shown in Fig.8), and diametral dimensions of the rim was performed such that when mounting the workpiece on a mandrel with a diameter of 283 mm gap between the rim and the mandrel was 0.1 to 0.2 mm Rollers carried on the inner side, in one way, for one transition at temperatures 440-460oC, strain rates (10-2- 10-1with-1and with deformation rate of 60-70% according to the scheme shown in Fig. 3. the existing artificial ageing. Rolled the wheels were subjected to mechanical processing. Made in such a way that the wheel had deformed defect-free structure.

4. Procurement under the rolling of alloy AMg6 rim with a lip (Fig.4 by the dotted line) with thickness of 12 mm, was obtained by hot forging at a temperature of 420-450oC with an average speed of warp 10-2with-1. In the alloy as the result of dynamic recrystallization was formed fine-grained structure with an average size of 10 to 15 μm. Rollers carried on the inner side of one transition in one direction by the projecting rim blanks on the mandrel with the speed of deformation (10-1- 102with-1according to the scheme shown in Fig.4. Time rolling was 1 minute. Rolled wheels mechanically processed.

5. Procurement under the rolling of alloy AB with a rim in the form of a conical flange thickness 25 mm, with an angle of inclination to the axis of 20-25o(Fig.12) obtained by casting in the mold, rode around for two transitions. On the first transfer rollers carried on the outer side, in one direction on the smooth mandrel (Fig.5) at a temperature of 450oC with strain rates of 10-2with-1to a thickness of 12 mm At the second transition of the rim unrolled from the outer side in aperature 440oC with strain rates of 10-1c-1. Rolled the wheels were subjected to heat treatment including quenching and artificial aging, and mechanical processing.

6. Procurement under the rolling of alloy AB, produced by molding in a metal mold having a crystalline structure with grain size 5000-10000 μm, made by rim in the form of a cylindrical protrusion (Fig.8A) of a thickness of 25 mm, and the diametrical dimensions of the rim was performed such that when mounting the workpiece on a mandrel with a diameter of 283 mm gap between the rim and the mandrel was 0.1 to 0.2 mm Rollers carried on the inner side for the two transitions. On the first transition billet was rolled on a smooth mandrel at temperatures 440-460oC, strain rates (10-2- 10-1with-1and with deformation rate of 60-70% according to the scheme shown in Fig.6. Time rolling was 6 minutes. On the second transfer rollers carried by the projection according to the scheme shown in Fig. 4, the speed of deformation (10-2- 10-1with-1. Total time rolling was 7 minutes. After rolling heat treatment was performed, which included the hardening and subsequent artificial ageing. Rolled the wheels were subjected to mechanical processing.

7. ultraline sizes performed such when installing the blanks on the mandrel with a diameter of 283 mm gap between the rim and the mandrel was 0.1 to 0.2 mm Rollers carried on the outer side in the two sides of the coaxially located on the mandrel according to the scheme in Fig.7, alternately forming both the rim. The temperature and speed of the rolling conditions were chosen as in example 2. Rolled the wheels were subjected to mechanical processing.

8. The workpiece under the rolling of alloy 1420 with a rim in the form of a conical flange (plates) (Fig.10) was obtained by hot forging at a temperature of 420oC with an average speed of warp 10-3with-1. The billet was formed a mixed structure consisting of 40-60% of the small grain size of not more than 15 μm. Rollers carried out from the outside, for one transition in one direction by the projecting rim blanks on the mandrel with the speed of deformation (10-1-102with-1with an average deformation rate of 20% according to the scheme shown in Fig. 2. Time rolling amounted to 1.5 minutes. Rolled wheels mechanically processed.

1. A method of manufacturing a wheel for vehicles, comprising manufacturing billet wheel with a Central part and pre-decorated rim, then the hood rolling on oprosrabota wheel, characterized in that in the manufacture of billet wheels are the shape and dimensions of the rim takes into account formed therein microstructure, hood rolling rim or part thereof is performed with the external or internal side of the blanks with any microstructure temperature-high-speed modes corresponding to the formed microstructure.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the quality billet wheels use a piece of coarse-crystalline structure, the rim of which is formed a lip with a cylindrical or conical surfaces, a thickness exceeding the thickness of the finished wheel rim by an amount sufficient to convert this structure to a greater part of the rim in the recrystallized and/or Polynesian in the hood or hoods together with a subsequent heat treatment, and diametral dimensions of the surface facing the mandrel, which differs from the diameter of the working surface of the mandrel by an amount providing the sliding of the workpiece on the mandrel in the areas before roll out.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that as a billet wheel with a coarse structure using cast billet.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the quality billet wheels make billet with a mixed structure, the rim of which is formed in the flange or conical flange thickness within the above-mentioned thicknesses for billets with coarse or fine-grained structures.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the quality billet wheels with mixed structure using the blank is partially recrystallized and/or Polynesians structures or cast.

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cutting wheels are made by casting, rim made in the form of a cylindrical projection, of a thickness exceeding 2 to 5 times the thickness of the finished wheel rim, and the diametrical dimensions of the surface facing the mandrel, perform not more than 2% different from the diameter of the working surface of the mandrel, the hood rolling rim carried out in the temperature range (from 0.6 to 0.88) TPLand strain rates (10-3- 101c-1.

8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cutting wheels are made by stamping with tempi, in excess of 1.1 - 1.5 times the thickness of the finished wheel rim, and the hood rolling rim carried out on a mandrel at a temperature not exceeding the temperature of the punching speed of deformation (10-1- 102c-1.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cutting wheels are made by stamping at a temperature of deformation (from 0.6 to 0.88) TPLwith a deformation rate of 40 - 50%, rim issue in the form of a conical flange with an angle of inclination to the axis 30 to 45othickness exceeding 1.6 - 2 times the thickness of the finished wheel rim, and the hood rolling rim carried out at a temperature not exceeding the temperature of the punching speed of deformation (10-1- 101c-1.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the manufacture of wheels with double-sided rim hood rolling pre-decorated rim carried out for one transition in each direction on two coaxially spaced mandrels.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the cutting wheels are made by stamping at a temperature of deformation (from 0.6 to 0.88) TPL, with the degree of deformation of 40% to 50%, the rim is made in the form of a flange and facing the short side of the rim relative to the Central part of the ledge, the hood rascado is e, not exceeding the temperature of the stamping, and strain rates (10-1- 101c-1and the hood rolling flange carried out on the arbor.

12. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cutting wheels are made by casting, rim issue in the form of a conical flange with angle of 20 - 25othickness greater than 2 to 2.5 times the thickness of the finished wheel, hood rolling rim carried out for the two transitions, the first transition on the smooth mandrel to a thickness in excess of 1.1 - 1.5 times the thickness of the finished wheel, at a temperature of (0.6 to 0.8) TPLwith the speed of deformation (10-2- 10-1c-1on the second transition at a temperature not exceeding the temperature of the first transition, at a rate not lower than 10-1c-1.

13. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the stamping billet wheels is carried out on the workpiece, having a fine-grained structure with an average grain size of not more than 15 μm, occupying at least not less than 50% of its volume, in isothermal conditions with strain rates (10-1- 10-4c-1.

14. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when the final processing to produce heat wheels for hardening, which combined with the heat savitzky rolling combined with the heating of the blanks for stamping.

16. The method according to p. 13, wherein the final heat treatment of the wheel for quenching combined with the heating of the blanks for stamping.

17. The method according to p. 8 or 9, characterized in that the punching of the workpiece is carried out in the range of strain rates (101- 10-4c-1providing the greatest degree course dynamic or spontaneous recrystallization.

18. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hood rolling carry on the mandrel, a working zone which is heated to a temperature of deformation, and the workpiece is heated to a temperature not exceeding the temperature of deformation.

19. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the rolling carry on the mandrel, a working zone which is heated to a temperature not exceeding the temperature of deformation.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to plasma processing of railway wheels

The invention relates to metallurgy, namely the thermal processing of solid-rolled railway wheels

The invention relates to heat treatment of steel and can be used in the manufacture of solid-rolled railway wheels

The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular to the technology of solid-rolled railway wheels

The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular to the technology of solid-rolled railway wheels
The invention relates to heat treatment of ferrous metals and can be used in the manufacture of wheel rims made of carbon steel for tramway rolling stock

The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular to semi-automatic lines for plasma surface hardening of tires and wheel rims, and can be used in the design and manufacture of equipment for repair of railway transport enterprises, equipped with machine tools for machining wheel without removing the wheel pair
The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular to the technology of solid-rolled railway wheels

The invention relates to metallurgy, and in particular to methods of hardening steel castings and rolled wheels

The invention relates to metallurgy and mechanical engineering, in particular to methods of heat treatment of steel stamped-rolled railway and crane wheels

Rescata head // 2139162

Device for rolling // 2120345

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely, machines for cold face rolling parts like rings, thrust bearings

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular a hot stamping and rolling of railway wheels

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular to hot and cold working of the metal in the manufacture of rail solid-rolled wheels
The invention relates to rolling production, namely, to the designs of devices for the longitudinal separation of the roll and can be used on billet rolling mills, using the technology of rolling-separation

Device for rolling // 2031753

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, in particular to the manufacture of parts of the drive type for vehicles, aircraft etc

The invention relates to a cold sheet metal stamping and can be used for details disc type wheels, and other parts with holes, produced by the extraction or moulding
Up!