Device for contacting the solid material in the form of granular particles
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a device for contacting the solid material in the form of loose particles of liquid or solid material from liquids and gases in the reactor by bringing the reactants into contact with each other, comprising a housing and a fixed sieve element, which is communication, with the sieve element is designed as a rotating drum 5. During operation, the drum 5 is mounted for rotation within the tub 10, which includes interacting with the solid material in gaseous or liquid environment. Tub 10 is installed with the possibility of lowering to the fact that in the drum 10 particles of solid material and are in the tub 10 environment can be separated from each other to regulate the final extent of a chemical reaction or physical process or interrupt the given reaction or process. The technical result - increase in the efficiency and reliability of the device. 14 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il. The invention relates to a device for contacting the solid granular material with liquids and, if necessary, the gases in the reactor by bringing the reactants into contact containing the C patent DE N 3244972 C1-known method and apparatus for continuous receipt of aluminum alcoholate. According to the literary source in the reactor vessel has a similar basket sieve element, on which is placed a layer of aluminum in the form of very fine particles having, for example, the shape of the needles. Martincooney sieve element forms a reaction zone above the bath. To achieve a sufficiently high rate of reaction it is necessary to ensure a balanced provision of aluminum particles in the reaction zone. To do this, on the appropriate lines continuously serves a large amount of liquid (anion) in the bath and through located above the tub bottom karinaabramova sieve element in the reaction zone. A large proportion of the supplied fluid before reaching the reaction zone is moving through is made in the bottom of the hole bath back to the pump, and the liquid that reaches the reaction zone, flows out through the side walls of the basket. Intensive pumping and flowing away of the liquid through the openings of the bath back to the pump obviously lead to loss of energy. To reduce the amount of liquid supplied from below through the bottom of the sieve element, to an economically reasonable limits, it is necessary that the metal particles, which must be kept in suspended position, were very small. NLA was deposited and formed the lumps at the bottom of the sieve element. This would block a large part of the sieve element or to its full blocking, and the reactor was stopped.Another disadvantage of this reactor is that getting small needle-shaped metal particles is very expensive. Together with the need for pumping huge quantities of liquid and liquid distribution feed from top and bottom feed, which requires a lot of energy and investment, a well-known work of the reactor is sub-optimal.In case of violation of the works of well-known reactor, for example in the case of contamination of the sieve element, not quickly and completely separate the reactants from each other. Therefore it is not always fully guaranteed control over the exothermic reaction of aluminum with alcohol.From the application DE N 4026938 A1 is known a reactor in the form of a rotating column, provided with a perforated drum. This reactor is used to produce substances by adsorption. In the specified source is not described reaction, including the dissolution of solid material, in particular of aluminum particles, using alcohol and related specific problems.The basis of the invention is to create ustroystva.According to the invention the problem is solved in the proposed device for contacting the solid material in the form of loose particles of liquid or solid material from liquids and gases in the reactor by bringing the reactants into contact with each other, comprising a housing and a fixed sieve element, in the area which contacts due to the fact that the sieve element is designed as a rotating drum, which during operation is mounted for rotation in a bath containing interacting with the solid material in gaseous or liquid environment, with the bath with the possibility of lowering before located in the drum particulate material and who is in the bath environment can be separated from each other to regulate the final extent of a chemical reaction or physical process or interrupt the given reaction or process.Besides dissolving the solid material in such a device it is possible to carry out chemical reactions or physical processes, such as catalytic treatment, vaccinations, staining, disinfection, adsorption, heat treatment of cold or heat and/or mixing.Thanks C is dcoi reaction medium. Move solid material carried by the drum, ensuring solid contact material with a gas or liquid medium in the reactor, respectively tub. No longer is required to obtain the weighted position of the particles of solid material. You can take particles are considerably larger. It is possible to use particles of solid material in the form of granules, cubes, rectangular parallelepipeds, or particles of greater size, such as part of the existing trade ingots or whole ingots weighing up to 25 kg of Receipt of such particles of solid material is significantly cheaper, and the whole ingots can be used even without any additional costs. In addition to the advantage of lowering costs in connection with the fact that you do not need a strong pumping environment, and that use a particulate material having a larger size, and the implementation process itself becomes more economical. Installation of bathtubs with lowering allows you to quickly separate the reactants from each other in the reaction zone, with the Department on request between 0 and 100%. Also, it becomes possible to more responsive control reaction, and znachitelyonaja permeability of the reaction zone. In the lower zone of the body fluid can flow from the bath to the dryer and from the dryer into the tub. In the upper zone formed by the reaction gases and vapours can come from a drum in the housing, and from there they can apply for the cooling or condensation. In the case of using ethanol as a medium as the reaction product obtained hydrogen. As a medium for removal of heat from the highly exothermic reaction is alcohol in the form of steam. In all areas of their wall drum is permeable supplied to the reaction liquid.Free from the liquid zone of the upper half of the drum is advisable to choose a large enough to allow the release of very large amounts of gas and steam.A further advantage of the proposed device is that the volume of the reaction zone can be adjusted to the conversion rate, i.e. the rate of reaction of the particles of hard material, namely by simply lengthening of the drum, and by changing the position of the bath height.According to another variant of the invention provides introduced into the drum tube, allowing a fresh supply of environment or uniformly throughout the length of the drum or in certain areas. This causes the I the drum is made of two concentric, installed one in a different drums, external and internal, and the width of the gaps in sicovam the interior of the drum is greater than the width of the gaps in sicovam element of the outer drum. This allows pre-heating of the particles of hard material and erosion of their surfaces in the framework of the pre-decomposition in the inner drum before the particles fall through the gaps of the sieve element from the inner drum to the outer drum, where they are completely dissolved. In the case of large particle size of the inner drum simultaneously provides mechanical protection for fine sieve element of the outer drum.According to another form of execution of the invention the particulate material is injected into the cavity of the drum through the shaft. This provides the possibility of continuous trouble-free download.Further, in the cavity of the drum can be mounted blades for the direction and distribution of the particles of solid material. When you spin the blades horizontal and vertical direction and distribution of the particles to ensuring their uniform distribution.In addition, there may be a strap with nozzles, loadings zone of the drum pass by nozzles. Nabrasyvaniem at high pressure and optimal cleaning. When nabryzgivanii outer drum is cleaned continuously during operation, so it does not need suspension work or even to disassemble for cleaning. The tool can be nabryzgivanii on the drum in an amount necessary for additional content or additional feed for the implementation of the reaction, as well as for cooling. When cleaning or washing at the same time it is a reaction and the cooling fluid.In the cavity of the drum may be freely moving grinding media, made for example in the form of balls, cubes or cylinders of material that the environment is not destroyed. When the mechanical direction and distribution of solid material deposited in the cavity of the drum, rotating the drum, the particles of solid material are subjected to a specific grinding. This disintegration and dissolution rate contribute mentioned grinding media, as they contribute to the activation of the surface and, thus, increase the reaction speed during operation.For lowering the bath may be lifting with the sterile by means of a hydraulic unit. The process of lowering the bath has a great value for a quick stop operation in the event of an accident. Partial lowering can be controlled reaction. Regardless of whether the rise hydraulically or by using a rope, it is important that in an emergency it was possible to omit the tub without auxiliary means, namely, by leave, not shown in the drawing brakes, due to the rapid separation of the medium and particles of solid material, which leads to the cessation of the reaction.Tub can be installed with the possibility of lowering by turning around the shaft mounted parallel to the shaft of the drum. In this case, which is a special interest, it is necessary for lowering means can act only on one side of the bath.The case can be made in cross-section in the form of upper and lower semi-cylindrical cups, the edges of which are connected to each other by means of connecting walls. This means that the housing is elongated in the direction of lowering the bath. However, due to the existing casing pressure may be necessary to increase the rigidity of the housing. In this case, the housing can be made with a cylindrical forms of the performing multifaceted.The reagents, that is, the particles of solid material and a gaseous or liquid medium, can be fed into the drum through the hollow shaft, and they can file a counter-current, co-current or cross-current.Directed and distributed in the drum solid materials can interact with the existing gases.To obtain metal alcoholate in the drum can be brought into contact aluminium, magnesium or silicon in its pure form or in the form of a mixture or alloy, available in the form of loose particles, and alcohols with 1 to 12 carbon atoms in pure form or in the form of a mixture. In case of receipt of the alcoholate of aluminum in the aluminum drum in the form of granular particles can be brought into contact with an alcohol with 1 to 20 carbon atoms in pure form or in the form of a mixture.Next, to obtain alcoholate of aluminum in the aluminum drum in the form of granular particles can be brought into contact with an aliphatic alcohol with 2-10 carbon atoms, preferably with alcohol with 5-8 carbon atoms in pure form or as mixtures, in particular, with alcohol with 6 carbon atoms.The invention is explained in more detail below with reference to the drawings, which show:
Fig. 1 - a device for receiving Ala sobienie for lowering the bath in the housing, containing rope,
Fig. 3 - a device for lowering the bath in the housing containing the hydraulic cylinders
Fig. 4 and 5 are sections of the inner and outer jumpers drum with different width gaps,
Fig. 6-8 different forms of carrying devices for lowering the bath
Fig. 9 - diagram of the operation of the device according to Fig. 1 - 8.The device according to the invention serves to facilitate the interaction of solid material present in the form of particles with a gaseous or liquid medium, and the medium is capable of dissolving particles of solid material. The latter is a preferably aluminum, magnesium or silicon. Of course, you can take and other solid materials. As a gaseous or liquid environment all environments, suitable for dissolving a solid material. In particular, the liquid medium can be an unbranched or branched alcohols with 1 to 12 carbon atoms, polyvalent alcohols with 2 to 12 carbon atoms, and cyclic and aromatic monovalent or polyvalent alcohols. The following example implementation of the invention solely as an example, we are talking about getting alcoholate of aluminum from the aluminum particles is 3, the front wall 3A which is not shown in Fig. 1, so that was visible to the cavity of the housing 3 (the wall 3A shown in Fig. 2). In the housing 3 has a drum 5, a shaft 6 which is supported by bearings 7, supported on the housing 3 through bearings 8. Both the shaft 6, through the seal 9, deduced from the case 3 is made hollow.According Fig. 1 and 2 the lower half of the drum is installed in the host her bath 10. The last set with the possibility to lower from the raised position according to Fig. 1 before its alcohol, respectively, the aluminum alcoholate formed from alcohol and aluminium, on the one hand, and aluminum particles inside the drum 5, on the other hand, are separated from the alcohol.The housing 3 through the legs 11 rests on the floor 12. On the bottom side 3b of the housing 3 has an inlet 13 for release of liquid. In the left wall 3c of the housing 3 made a hole 14 for access person.For lowering and lifting the bath 10 can be cable-lifting device 15 shown in Fig. 2, or hydraulic lifting device 16 shown in Fig. 3. The cable lifting device 15 consists of a motor 15a, based outside of the housing 3. Motor-driven 15a installed in podlinyayeva node 15d extend ropes 15e, which, as seen in Fig. 2, attached to the upper edges 10b of the bath 10. In addition, there is not shown in the drawing, the braking device, which holds the tub 10 ropes 15e can be armirovat for fixing bath 10 in the raised position.In Fig. 3 shows a hydraulic lifting device 16, which serves for lifting the bath 10. It consists of several lifting cylinders 16a and installed them in piston 16b, through the rods 16c affecting edges 10b of the bath.The drum 5 is made or only from the outer drum 5a, or of two concentric drums, namely the outer drum 5a and the inner drum 5b. Drums 15a and 15b made of a detail not shown in the supporting structure of the longitudinal and transverse profile of the jumpers used for receiving plate-like sieve elements 5a1, 5b1 and blades 5c. Slab-on-grade screen elements 5a1 and 5b1 are connected to each other by means not shown in the drawing, the transverse ridges, resulting formed cytobrushes lattice, retention be processed aluminum particles in the drum 5. Both drum 15a, 15b are connected to each other by means of supporting rods 5c1. In Fig. 4 and 5 show longitudinal sections jumpers aqueous drum 5a, a in Fig. 5 - two longitudinal internal jumpers drum 5b. Between longitudinal ridges 5a1 outer drum is made gaps 5a2, the size of which lies in the range of 0.2 - 0.4 mm, preferably of 0.3 mm Between the longitudinal ridges 5b1 internal drum 5b is provided by the gaps 5b2 size 10 - 50 mm solvent is fed in the direction of the arrows 5k, so the gap 5a2 well cleared.In Fig. 6 shows a housing 3 with an elongated upward shape in cross section, and the housing 3 is made of two semi-cylindrical cups 3f, through the connecting wall 3A connected to each other. In this case according to Fig. 6 the tub 10 can be lowered down outside in the drum of aluminum particles also with a large diameter drum.At higher pressures more profitable is cylindrical casing 3h shown in Fig. 7 and 8.In Fig. 8 shows the form of the cylindrical casing 3h. However, according to this form of the tub 10 is not installed with possibility of vertical descent, as in the examples according to Fig. 6 and 7, and can be rotated around the shaft 10c extending parallel to the shaft 6 of the drum. This installation baths 10 the rise of POSELENIE 16, can be made more simple as a bath it is necessary to raise and lower only on one side 10b. To ensure uniform flow of liquid from the bath edge, which is omitted can be fitted with a toothed edge.During operation, the drum 5 is driven through the pulley 17. Aluminum particles in the size order of the granules, cubes or rectangular parallelepipeds, or even large particles such as, for example, sections of ingots or whole bars, through the hollow shaft 6 serves in the drum 5, and they first fall into the inner drum 5b, sieve element which has a gap larger. The reagents, that is, the particles of aluminum and alcohol, may also apply to the drum 5 by the counter-current through both the hollow shaft. Through the inlet pipe 19 into the body let the alcohol with 1 to 12 carbon atoms. Then in the bottom half of the drum, caught in a bathtub 10 is a mixture of particles of aluminum and alcohol. During the process, when the rotating drum 5, the aluminum particles gradually dissolve, while their size is not reduced so much that they fall from the inner drum 5b in the outer drum 5a, the gaps of the sieve element which are smaller. Due to the small width of the gaps 5a2 sietse strap 18, equipped with nozzles 18a, distributed along the length of the drum 5. Individual nozzles 18a alcohol with high blood pressure nabryzgivajut on the outer surface of the outer drum 5a, which is used for constant cleaning of the drum 5 during the operation.The circuit according to Fig. 9 shows the housing 3 with the drum 5 and a bathtub 10. For the controlled feed of particles of aluminum serves as a metering device 21 is equipped with a funnel a download site 22. From this download site 22 aluminum particles enter the gateway 23 with shut-off valves 23a mounted one behind the other with the distance between them and managed using the control gateway node 23c. Gateways are required, in particular, in the case if you work with high blood pressure or unhealthy or highly flammable gases and vapors. Gateway 23 may be washed, for example, nitrogen or other inert gas through the valve 23b. Aluminum particles for the gateway reaches the hollow shaft 6, and the screw conveyor 24 is fed into the drum 5. Fixed gateway 23 and the rotating shaft 6 are connected to each other through a suitable seal. For operation with a pump 25 fresh alcohol pumping served in the device. Line 26 is in communication with the other pump 27, feeding the sustained fashion input of fresh alcohol can last, of course, also apply to the drum 5 through the shaft 6 in the direction of arrow 28, and with the help of tube 51 is provided by a uniform distribution, indicated by the arrows 5m.The drum is driven by electric motor 29. Released during operation of steam to hydrogen and alcohol through pipe 19 are fed into the condenser with manifold fluid 31. Steam the alcohol is subjected to condensation, and then recycle it in the process, for example, in the direction of arrow 28. The output from the collector 31 is carried out depending on the height with the help of the sensor 32 and controlled exhaust valve 33. The aluminum alcoholate is derived on line 34 by a pump 35. Vapors and gases from the gateway 23 is sucked off through the blower 30, and serves on the use of, for example, is introduced into the hydrogen stream below the condenser.In the described exemplary embodiment originate from continuous operation. However, there are also periodic operation. This may be desirable in case of interruption of the reaction in order to carry out a part of the reaction with one liquid and the other part reaction with another liquid. In addition, some reactions may be carried out in the liquid phase, and the other part of the reaction in the gas phase. For uskoreniye cooling, for example, by passing a cooling medium through the heating pipes.The reaction temperature can be controlled by means not shown in the drawing, the measuring devices installed in the tub 10. 1. Device for contacting the solid material in the form of loose particles of liquid or solid material from liquids and gases in the reactor by bringing the reactants into contact with each other, comprising a housing and a fixed sieve element, which is the contacting, wherein the sieve element is designed as a rotating drum (5), which during operation is mounted for rotation in the tub (10), containing interacting with the solid material in gaseous or liquid environment tub (10) is installed with the possibility of lowering before located in the drum (5) particles of solid material and are in the tub (10) the environment can be separated from each other to regulate the final extent of a chemical reaction or physical process or interrupt the given reaction or process.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the drum (5) is made of two concentric installed one in the other is 5b) more than the width of the gaps in sicovam element of the outer drum (5A).3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that it contains introduced into the inner drum (5b) tube (5d), allowing a fresh supply of environment or uniformly throughout the length of the drum (5), or in certain areas.4. Device according to one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the particulate material is injected into the cavity of the drum through the shaft (6).5. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that in the cavity of the drum set blades (5C) for the direction and distribution of the particles of solid material.6. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that it comprises the bar with nozzles (18), for nabryzgivaniya cleaner on the outer surface (15th) of the drum.7. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that in the cavity of the drum placed freely moving grinding media.8. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that it comprises a lifting device in the form of a rope (15) designed for lowering the bath (10).9. Device according to one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that on the 10. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the tub (10) is installed with the possibility of lowering by turning around the shaft (10C) that is installed parallel to the shaft (6) of the drum.11. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the body (3) made in cross-section in the form of upper and lower semi-cylindrical cups (3f), the edges of which are connected to each other by means of connecting walls (3A).12. Device according to one of paragraphs.1 to 10, characterized in that the housing (3h) is cylindrical in cross section.13. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the drums (5A, 5b) is cylindrical or polyhedral.14. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the reagents, the particles of solid material and liquid, if necessary, together with the gases fed into the drum (5) reverse current through its hollow shaft (6).15. Device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the allocated and distributed in the drum (5) solid materials can interact with the gases.
FIELD: processes of fluoride technology in reworking titanium-containing raw material, for example, ilmenite concentrates in production of titanium dioxide.
SUBSTANCE: proposed reactor has housing made in form of body of revolution, reaction component mixing unit, heating unit located outside the reactor, solid reaction component loading unit, reaction product unloading unit, reagent supply unit and gas discharge branch pipe. Reaction component mixing unit is made in form of drive for rotation of reactor housing; it is made in form of truncated cone at inclination of generatrix to longitudinal axis of housing up to 10° which is mounted for rotation about longitudinal axis which forms lesser angle of inclination of generatrix to longitudinal axis of housing towards reaction product unloading unit; solid reaction component loading unit is made in end part of reactor housing with lesser transversal sizes and reaction product unloading unit is made in opposite end part of reactor housing. Reactor cavity is divided into two reaction zones which are heat-insulated relative to each other. Reaction zone adjoining solid reaction component loading unit is provided with coat made from material resistant to action of fluoride-containing materials which retains strength at temperature of not below 400°C, for example magnesium; reaction zone adjoining the reaction product unloading unit is provided with coat made from material retaining strength at temperature not below 900°C, preferably from silicon oxide; besides that, reactor is hermetic and is connected with vapor source. External envelope of reactor consists of two parts whose length is equal to length of respective reaction zones; they are made from heat-resistant structural materials which are resistant to action of fluoride-containing materials and are heat-conducting, for example metal alloys. Parts of reactor external envelope are rigidly and hermetically interconnected and are heat-insulated relative to each other. Proposed reactor has increased serviceability at pyrohydrolysis of ammonium oxofluorotitaniums at simultaneous obtaining titanium dioxide of high degree of whiteness.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and serviceability of reactor.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw. The method of treatment of fluocarbon raw provides for heating by means of high frequency induction of a heating zone of a reaction chamber up to the temperature of no more than 950°C, heating in the heating zone of fluocarbon raw, which contains at least one fluocarbon compound, so, that the fluocarbon compound dissociates with production of at least one predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds; and refrigerating of the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds, in the result of which from the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds forms at least one more desirable fluocarbon compound. The technical result is conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.
EFFECT: the invention ensures conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.
12 cl, 10 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: food industry; methods and devices of utilization of the wastes containing the animal proteins.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of utilization of the waste containing the animal proteins and the device for its realization. For utilization of the wastes containing animal proteins they mix the wastes, water and alkali in the ratio of 1 : (1.8-2.0) : (0.09-0.46), the prepared admixture is exposed to the water-thermal treatment at the temperature of 120-180°C during 25-90 minutes with production of the liquid hydrolyzate. Depending on the ratio of the parameters of the process produce the mixture of amino acids or their mixture with the low molecular proteins or the low molecular proteins. The invention offers the device for realization of the given method, which contains: the reactor (1) with the hermetically closing cover (6), which is coupled by two pipe ducts (8) and (9) with the expander-refrigerator (2) arranged above it; the decanter (15) with the filter (4); the utilization products collector (5) and the adsorber (17).
EFFECT: the invention ensures the effective utilization of the wastes containing the animal proteins and production of the liquid hydrolyzate.
12 cl, 3 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy equipment, particularly to equipment made of glass for high-temperature treatment and receiving of inorganic matter. Reactor contains glass pipe, which is installed under miter to horizon and external heater. Pipe is installed free on two couples of rotating bearings, located out of high-temperature area from both sides of heater. In top part of reactor pipe it is installed partition in the form of glass with spherical bottom. Bottom by dead end is directed to high-temperature area. Difference between internal diametre of pipe and external diametre of partition is 0.1-8 mm.
EFFECT: prolonged keeping of mechanical strength of glass reactor at operation in temperature mode up to 1200°C.
3 cl, 1 dwg