The method of obtaining water-soluble nonionic surfactants


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method for producing nonionic surfactants and can be used in petrochemical, chemical, chemical and other industries. Water-soluble nonionic surfactant is produced by interaction of ethylene oxide, tall oil pitch at 120 - 190oWith 2 - 5 ATM. The combination of components in a certain ratio allows to obtain a water-soluble nonionic surfactants which can be used as emulsifiers of the type oil-water emulsion in detergent compositions, etc. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table.

The invention relates to a method for producing nonionic surfactants and can be used in petrochemical, chemical, chemical and other industries.

Known methods for producing nonionic surfactants by oksietilirovannye compounds having an active hydrogen atom, as in intermittent and continuous, which are summarized in the work of N. The Schoenfeld "Surfactants based on ethylene oxide", second edition, translated from the German, edited by Professor N. N. Lebedev, - M.: Chemistry, 1982, S. 64-67.

They are to be treated with ethylene oxide mainly alcohols (acyclic, cyclic, program process, taken connection with the active hydrogen atom and the number of input hydroxyethyl groups receive both water-soluble and oil-soluble nonionic surfactant.

A disadvantage of the known methods of obtaining water-soluble surfactants is that they are based on the use of products obtained by chemical processing of oil or other irreplaceable fossil raw materials, mainly on the use of synthetic fatty alcohols and derivatives of phenols. This fact causes serious environmental problems associated with production of raw material for surfactants, and surfactants due to their poor Biodegradability.

To make possible the use in the synthesis of surfactant components derived from renewable vegetable raw materials, it is proposed a method of obtaining a nonionic water-soluble surfactant "Pectinex" involving communication connection with a mobile hydrogen atom, with ethylene oxide at a temperature of 120-190oC and a pressure of 2-5 atmospheres, characterized in that compounds having a mobile hydrogen atom, use tall oil pitch (a byproduct from the processing of wood sulphate method)th pitch 12-20% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (potassium) at a temperature of 95-120oC and remove moisture.

Tall peck on THE 81-05-84-80 receive in the production process of cellulose sulfate way of the wood through the collection, neutralization, and distillation of the liberated resin. It is fusible residue from distillation. Tall oil pitch is a dense, sedentary mass of dark color with a softening temperature of 30-40oC. Acid number of 30 to 40 mg KOH/g, saponification number 90-120 mg KOH/g Average molecular weight of 550. It contains up to 15% of the resin and fatty acids, up to 50% of esters, 10-15% of diterpene alcohols (beganovic, lignieresii, ceremony and others), 6-8% of sterols, oxidized substances.

Obtained according to the invention, surfactant "Pectinex" is a pasty mass from yellow to brown with the dropping temperature in the range 45-65oC. Completely soluble in water. The turbidity of an aqueous solution with a mass fraction of Pentaoxa 1% within 95-100oC; pH 6 to 8, a hydroxyl number of at least 25 mg KOH/g of Settlement products HLB - 15, the number of hydroxyethyl links within 25-30.

The following are examples to illustrate the proposed method (see table).

Example 1.

In the reactor gr is th NaOH solution. The mixture was heated with stirring to a temperature of 120oC and kept at this temperature for 30 minutes After it was created in the reactor vacuum and a stream of nitrogen was removed moisture at the same temperature. At the end of the drying heat of the reaction mass up to 180oC and gradually fed to 67.5 kg ethylene oxide, maintaining a pressure of 5 ATM. After the introduction of the total weight of ethylene oxide, reduce the temperature to 90oC, "dump" the excess pressure and the finished product is drained from the reactor into the container.

Received 88.9 kg of pectinata (exit - 98%) with the following quality indicators: appearance - a paste of brown; a dropping temperature of 60oC; the cloud point 1% solution in water of 96.5oC, pH 6.8; the hydroxyl number of 25.6 mg KOH/g is Completely soluble in water.

The results obtained in the examples are summarized in table.

As can be seen from the above data, the process conditions in the claimed limits provide a water-soluble nonionic surfactants "Pectinex" required quality. The essential value is the share of input in the process of ethylene oxide, as well as the proportion and concentration of alkali. The use of ethylene oxide in quantities n is ISE stated, it is impractical for economic reasons. Use in this process the alkali is necessary not only for the catalytic activity, but also for saponification (hydrolysis) present in the tall pitch esters and thereby increasing the proportion of compounds with a mobile hydrogen atom. The use of alkali concentration stated below leads to the excessive moisture of raw material and energy costs for drying. Higher from the claimed concentration of alkali causes complications when the saponification (hydrolysis) peck, associated with mass transfer processes. The claimed range of the temperature maintaining process of hydrolysis (saponification) spatial difficult esters optimal.

The advantage of the proposed method is that it enables the use of available renewable vegetable raw materials - tall peck, to obtain water-soluble nonionic surfactants "Pectinex", which can be used in various engineering industries as emulsifiers type "oil-water", demulsifying agents in detergent compositions, etc.

Implementation of the proposed method does not require the use of special equipment, and organized industrial product release on Tatva by reacting compounds, having an active hydrogen atom, with ethylene oxide at 120 - 190oC and 2 to 5 atmospheres, characterized in that compounds containing an active hydrogen atom, use tall oil pitch, and the process is conducted at a mass ratio of tall oil pitch : ethylene oxide 1 : (2.5 to 5).

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the tall oil pitch is pre-treated with an aqueous solution of caustic soda or sodium hydroxide at 95 - 120oC, and the moisture is removed.


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