The method of obtaining water-soluble nonionic surfactants
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a method for producing nonionic surfactants and can be used in petrochemical, chemical, chemical and other industries. Water-soluble nonionic surfactant is produced by interaction of ethylene oxide, tall oil pitch at 120 - 190oWith 2 - 5 ATM. The combination of components in a certain ratio allows to obtain a water-soluble nonionic surfactants which can be used as emulsifiers of the type oil-water emulsion in detergent compositions, etc. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table. The invention relates to a method for producing nonionic surfactants and can be used in petrochemical, chemical, chemical and other industries.Known methods for producing nonionic surfactants by oksietilirovannye compounds having an active hydrogen atom, as in intermittent and continuous, which are summarized in the work of N. The Schoenfeld "Surfactants based on ethylene oxide", second edition, translated from the German, edited by Professor N. N. Lebedev, - M.: Chemistry, 1982, S. 64-67.They are to be treated with ethylene oxide mainly alcohols (acyclic, cyclic, program process, taken connection with the active hydrogen atom and the number of input hydroxyethyl groups receive both water-soluble and oil-soluble nonionic surfactant.A disadvantage of the known methods of obtaining water-soluble surfactants is that they are based on the use of products obtained by chemical processing of oil or other irreplaceable fossil raw materials, mainly on the use of synthetic fatty alcohols and derivatives of phenols. This fact causes serious environmental problems associated with production of raw material for surfactants, and surfactants due to their poor Biodegradability.To make possible the use in the synthesis of surfactant components derived from renewable vegetable raw materials, it is proposed a method of obtaining a nonionic water-soluble surfactant "Pectinex" involving communication connection with a mobile hydrogen atom, with ethylene oxide at a temperature of 120-190oC and a pressure of 2-5 atmospheres, characterized in that compounds having a mobile hydrogen atom, use tall oil pitch (a byproduct from the processing of wood sulphate method)th pitch 12-20% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (potassium) at a temperature of 95-120oC and remove moisture.Tall peck on THE 81-05-84-80 receive in the production process of cellulose sulfate way of the wood through the collection, neutralization, and distillation of the liberated resin. It is fusible residue from distillation. Tall oil pitch is a dense, sedentary mass of dark color with a softening temperature of 30-40oC. Acid number of 30 to 40 mg KOH/g, saponification number 90-120 mg KOH/g Average molecular weight of 550. It contains up to 15% of the resin and fatty acids, up to 50% of esters, 10-15% of diterpene alcohols (beganovic, lignieresii, ceremony and others), 6-8% of sterols, oxidized substances.Obtained according to the invention, surfactant "Pectinex" is a pasty mass from yellow to brown with the dropping temperature in the range 45-65oC. Completely soluble in water. The turbidity of an aqueous solution with a mass fraction of Pentaoxa 1% within 95-100oC; pH 6 to 8, a hydroxyl number of at least 25 mg KOH/g of Settlement products HLB - 15, the number of hydroxyethyl links within 25-30.The following are examples to illustrate the proposed method (see table).Example 1.In the reactor gr is th NaOH solution. The mixture was heated with stirring to a temperature of 120oC and kept at this temperature for 30 minutes After it was created in the reactor vacuum and a stream of nitrogen was removed moisture at the same temperature. At the end of the drying heat of the reaction mass up to 180oC and gradually fed to 67.5 kg ethylene oxide, maintaining a pressure of 5 ATM. After the introduction of the total weight of ethylene oxide, reduce the temperature to 90oC, "dump" the excess pressure and the finished product is drained from the reactor into the container.Received 88.9 kg of pectinata (exit - 98%) with the following quality indicators: appearance - a paste of brown; a dropping temperature of 60oC; the cloud point 1% solution in water of 96.5oC, pH 6.8; the hydroxyl number of 25.6 mg KOH/g is Completely soluble in water.The results obtained in the examples are summarized in table.As can be seen from the above data, the process conditions in the claimed limits provide a water-soluble nonionic surfactants "Pectinex" required quality. The essential value is the share of input in the process of ethylene oxide, as well as the proportion and concentration of alkali. The use of ethylene oxide in quantities n is ISE stated, it is impractical for economic reasons. Use in this process the alkali is necessary not only for the catalytic activity, but also for saponification (hydrolysis) present in the tall pitch esters and thereby increasing the proportion of compounds with a mobile hydrogen atom. The use of alkali concentration stated below leads to the excessive moisture of raw material and energy costs for drying. Higher from the claimed concentration of alkali causes complications when the saponification (hydrolysis) peck, associated with mass transfer processes. The claimed range of the temperature maintaining process of hydrolysis (saponification) spatial difficult esters optimal.The advantage of the proposed method is that it enables the use of available renewable vegetable raw materials - tall peck, to obtain water-soluble nonionic surfactants "Pectinex", which can be used in various engineering industries as emulsifiers type "oil-water", demulsifying agents in detergent compositions, etc.Implementation of the proposed method does not require the use of special equipment, and organized industrial product release on Tatva by reacting compounds, having an active hydrogen atom, with ethylene oxide at 120 - 190oC and 2 to 5 atmospheres, characterized in that compounds containing an active hydrogen atom, use tall oil pitch, and the process is conducted at a mass ratio of tall oil pitch : ethylene oxide 1 : (2.5 to 5).2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the tall oil pitch is pre-treated with an aqueous solution of caustic soda or sodium hydroxide at 95 - 120oC, and the moisture is removed.
FIELD: floatation dressing of non-sulfide ores.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of a floatation dressing of non-sulfide ores and may be used in production of floatation reagent-collectors on the basis of fatty acids. The floatation reagent-collector for non-sulfide ores is produced on the basis of saponated fatty acid. Before a saponification of a fatty acid it is heated up to 70-75°С and at stirring action as a regulator of polymerizing inject a phenolic antioxidant Ahydol-1 in amount of 0.5-5 mass %. After the saponification process a produced collector may be added with sodium alkyl sulfate in amount of 4-5 mass %. The flotation collector possesses a high-efficient and high-selective floatation of the non-sulfide ores predominantly barite-containing ores.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of floatation reagent-collectors on the basis of fatty acids.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: resin industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of polyterpenes, which can be used as oiling agent in manufacture of pressure-sensitive glues, in production of solid and liquid oils, etc. Polyterpene are prepared via continuous polymerization of terpene hydrocarbons in presence of zeolite catalyst by feeding starting hydrocarbons into top section of reactor through perforated cartridge, after which monomer vapors move into catalyst-filled reaction zone at a velocity in full reactor cross-section 0.3-0.4 m/s accompanied by continuous dephlegmation of unconverted part of monomer and returning it into reaction zone. Process is carried out for 7-9 h at 160-170°C. Yield of polyterpenes is 72-80%.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of polyterpene composition (98% dimers).
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: natural compounds, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing substances from the natural resins, in particular, to colophony hydrogenation. Method for catalytic hydrogenation of colophony with gaseous hydrogen is carried out on solid catalysts comprising palladium as a metal under enhanced pressure and temperature in the presence of organic solvent. Hydrogenation reaction is carried out in circulating contour wherein hydrogen is dispersed firstly in colophony alcoholic solution and the prepared gaseous-liquid mixture is passed through the catalytic zone filled with the catalyst comprising the highly porous cellular carrier made of aluminum oxide and prepared by the doubling method of polyurethane foam matrix. Method provides the complete elimination of the catalyst grinding, prolonged exploitation working life of catalyst, elimination of loss in separation of the reaction mass from the catalyst and decreasing the pressure value in the process realization.
EFFECT: improved method for hydrogenation.
1 tbl, 1 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: organic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for modifying colophony contains, as carrier, high-porosity cellular α-alumina-based block material and, as active catalyst fraction, sulfated group IV metal oxide and metallic palladium.
EFFECT: increased modification rate due to developed catalyst surface and eliminated disintegration and carry-over of catalyst.
FIELD: chemistry, inorganic.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the catalytic liquid-phase processes, namely for the preparation of a catalyst to be used in the technology of obtaining products from the natural resins, for example rosin, in particular for the modification of gum rosin. Described is a highly porous catalyst for the modification of gum rosin, that consists of a carrier - a highly porous cellular block material on the basis of α-oxide of aluminium and the active part of the catalyst of the sulphated metallic oxide from the IV group and metallic palladium, thus the carrier is made to soak up soluble salts of palladium, is preliminarily processed in a constant magnetic field, and in the composition of the active part of the catalyst there is γ-Al2O3 in a quantity not less than 10% of the mass, from the quantity of α-Al2O3, sulphated zirconium dioxide in a quantity of not more than 8% of the mass, of metallic palladium in a quantity of not more than 0.2% of the mass. Technical result - reduction of the composition of metallic palladium in the active component by more than 10 times, with the retention of the load on the catalyst 5-7hr-1, and the residual content of abietic acids not more than 0.1% hydrogenated and about 3% disproportionated rosin.
EFFECT: reduction of the composition of metallic palladium in the active component.
1 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of catalytic hydration. Claimed is catalyst for liquid-phase hydration of organic substances of various classes i.e. nitro-compounds, aldehides, unsaturated and aromatic compounds, with molecular hydrogen, which includes unit-type carrier of low density and high porosity and metallic palladium. Carrier is made from aluminium oxide by method of doubling foam-polyurethane matrix by impregnating it with slip Al2O3 with further calcination. Layers of γ-Al2O3 are applied on carrier successively in such a way that weight of active layer from γ-Al2O3 is not less than 6% of total weight of catalyst, and of metallic palladium in amount of 0.16-3.7%. Alternatively, instead of γ-Al2O3 layer, layer of sulphated oxide of titanium or zirconium in amount of 8-9% is applied on carrier. Due to developed surface, the claimed catalyst is efficient when hydrating compounds of various classes, and has high mechanical strength, which eliminates its abrasion in the process of exploitation.
EFFECT: obtaining catalyst efficient when hydrating compounds of various classes, and having high mechanical strength, which eliminates its abrasion in the process of exploitation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition of the resin includes colophony, eutectic melt of ε-caprolactam with N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-n-phenylenediamine, polymeric petroleum resin and protective wax in defined proportions.
EFFECT: high adhesive power of rubber mixtures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of treating wood oil, particularly tall oil. The method of treating wood oil, which contains fatty acids, sterols and compounds with alcohol groups, in order to increase output of fatty acids and make easier further treatment of sterols, where said wood oil is formed during sulphate pulping of fibrous raw material, is characterised by that a low molecular weight carboxylic acid is added to the wood oil in amount of about 0.5-5.0% of the weight of the wood oil before a considerable number of alcohol groups are esterified by fatty acids initially contained in the wood oil, for esterification using said acid of at least some of the alcohol groups present in the wood oil, and for significant prevention of esterification of said alcohol groups by fatty acids initially contained in the wood oil.
EFFECT: invention increases output of fatty acids and makes easier further treatment of sterols.