The method of heating greenhouses and system for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to agriculture, namely, greenhouse agriculture. The technical result is to increase the efficiency and reduce operating costs. Convective heating of the air is realized by direct combustion of gas in micromachining burners, located in the volume of the greenhouse, and radiation heat by burning gas in radiation burners. At this stage of the thawing and heating of the soil, the ratio between the radiative and convective components referred to the total heat flow is set equal to (3 - 5) : 1. On stage from sowing to germination ratio is (4 - 6) : 1, and in the process of growing seedlings this ratio is monotonically reduced to (0,05 - 0,2) : 1 inversely proportional educationau the overlap factor of the projection of the green mass of plants area occupied soil with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.5 to 1, then the radiation heating is ceased. 2 S. and 3 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill. The invention relates to agriculture, namely, greenhouse agriculture.The known method of heating greenhouses, including the use of radiation is oductio (1). However, in this case, the method is extremely inefficient at the initial stage of preparing the greenhouse for operation at the stage defrosting and warming up the soil in them.Also known a method of heating greenhouses, including the use of convective heating of the air in the volume of the greenhouse due to micromachining gas burners (2). In this case there is also a low efficiency of the method, because the soil at the initial stage it is necessary to spend a considerable amount of fuel, which dramatically reduces its efficiency.Closest to the claimed method is the heating of greenhouses, including specifying valid parameters total heat flow into the greenhouse, as well as air temperature and soil in the greenhouse at every stage of the preparation of greenhouses and growing plants and their maintenance through convective air heating and radiation heating of the soil and plants (3).In this case, convective heating of the air carry out electrical and water systems, heating and radiation heating is by electric lamps, which is also inefficient and has a high energy consumption.This method is implemented using the system for alegretti temperature block registration (3), this system is most similar to the claimed.The known system also has a low efficiency and also has a high consumption and high operational costs.The present invention regarding the method and device is to increase the efficiency and reduce operating costs.On how this is achieved by convective heating of the air is realized by direct combustion of gas in micromachining burners, located in the volume of the greenhouse, and radiation heat by burning gas in radiation burners, and at the stage of defrosting and heating of the soil, the ratio between the radiative and convective components referred to the total heat flux is set to (3-5):1, on stage from sowing to emergence-(4-6):1, and in the process of growing seedlings this ratio is monotonically reduced to (0,05-0,2):1 obratnoproportsionalno educationau the overlap factor of the projection of the green mass of plants area occupied soil with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.5 to 1, then the radiation heating is ceased.And the fact that a given total heat flow into the greenhouse, the guidance system is the fact that it is fitted with Central gas pipeline and outlet gas pipelines, temperature sensors made in the form of temperature sensors, soil and air, blocks convective heating is made in the form micromachining burners, and blocks radiation of heat in the form of radiation gas burners all burners through the discharge piping is in communication with the Central pipe, in addition, microfamilies gas burners are installed around the perimeter of the greenhouse and along her inner span supports, and radiation gas burners are located on the data supports, all burners are made with adjustable feed gas.And the fact that radiation gas burners are installed to control their position on the span piers height.And also because it is equipped with a control unit, to the input of which is connected to the outputs of the temperature sensors, and outputs a control unit connected to the corresponding inputs of the control unit of gas supply in microfamilies and radiation gas burners.In Fig. 1 presents graphs of the convective and radiative components of the heat flow in the greenhouse of Fig. 2 - General toboggan burners in the amount of greenhouses on its blocks (sections).The method can be implemented using a system including a Central gas pipeline 1 and the discharge gas pipelines 2, temperature sensors, made in the form of temperature sensors 3 soil and air 4 with the corresponding blocks register (not shown), which may be structurally communicates with the sensors 3, 4, or can be separate units convective heating, made in the form of microfocusing gas burners 5, blocks radiation of heat in the form of radiation gas burners 6 and the burner 5 and 6 through the outlet pipes 2 is in communication with the Central pipe 1, in addition, microfamilies gas burner 5 is installed around the perimeter 7 of the greenhouse 8 and along her inner span of the supports 9, and radiation gas burners 6 are located on the data supports 9, while the burner 5, 6 (see implementation structures 5) is arranged to adjust the feed gas. Radiation gas burner 6 is installed with the ability to regulate their position to span the supports 9 in height. The system can be equipped with a control unit 10, to the input of which is connected to the outputs of the temperature sensors 3, 4, and outputs a control unit 10 connected to the corresponding inputs control themselves burners 5 and 6, and on the pipes 1 and 2 (see, for example, 4).The method of using this system is implemented as follows. The whole process of heating greenhouses is divided into three stages, the first stage defrosting and heating of the soil, which is an average of 5-14 days and during which the soil is thawed to a depth of 5-15 cm, the second stage - from sowing to emergence, which is an average of 10 -21 day, the soil when it is heated to a depth of 12 to 25 cm, the third stage of plant growth (e.g., seedlings), which averages 20-65 days and in which the depth of heating of the soil reaches more than 30-40 see the First stage usually begins in late winter (February). The soil in the greenhouse in this case, completely frozen. Gas through the Central pipe 1 serves in the outlet pipe 2 and into the burner 5 and 6. The total heat flux in a greenhouse set at 300-600 watts/sq m While the amount of solar radiation is so small that at this stage it can be neglected. Establish the relationship between radiative and convective components of the above values of the heat flux in the range (3-5):1, for example, 4:1, (e.g., 400: 100 W/sq m). This allows for convection and work Mixto heat flow of defrosting and heating of the soil, because radiation from the burners 6 heat flow with almost no loss is transferred to the soil. The soil temperature must be set to an average of 15 to 25 degrees Celsius, depending on the crop. In the second stage, at the expense of some increase in the proportion of stream radiative heating (with a ratio of the above components, as for example, 450: 80 watts/sq m), the soil is heated to a predetermined depth when the air temperature in the greenhouse 8 is not higher than 12-14 degrees. At the third stage - almost in March or early April, when the component stream from solar radiation is already large enough, it must be taken into account, reducing the overall size of the total heat flux on this share - on average it 15-50 percent (see 4). According to known techniques (4) according to the schedule in Fig.1 monotonically reduce the above ratio of the components to (0,05-0,2): 1 obratnoproportsionalno educationau the overlap factor of the projection of the green mass of plants area occupied soil with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.5 to 1, then the radiation heating is stopped and the burner 6 can be cut off using only microfamilies 5 burner until the end of the growing plants. It should noted assalaya to adjust the supply of gas to the burners 5 and 6, but the air temperature sensors 4 and soil 3, the readings are not only used in the above implementation of the method, but also for the operation of the control unit 4, receives signals from these sensors 3 and 4, the outputs of which are connected to the control inputs of the nodes 11 supply of gas to the burner 5 and 6. To increase the efficiency of the system the position of the radiation burner 6 can be adjusted in height on the supports 9, which allows more efficient radiative forcing on the ground.The application of the proposed method and system allows a high degree of efficiency at minimum cost for construction of this system and its operation to perform the heating of greenhouses.Sources of information
1. The patent of Russian Federation N 2053644, publ. 10.02.96.2. The patent of Russian Federation N 2048063, publ. 220.127.116.11. The patent of Russian Federation N 2048071, publ. 18.104.22.168. Garbuz C. M. and other Development and operation of heating and ventilating greenhouses, recommendations, Moscow, Rosagropromizdat, 1988, S. 3-40.5. Gulko So Century. and other Gasification and gas agriculture, Moscow, ERIC "Farmer", 1994, S. 20-36. 1. The method of heating Teply the ha and soil in the greenhouse at every stage of the preparation of greenhouses and growing plants and their maintenance through convective air heating and radiation heating of the soil and plants, characterized in that the convective heating of the air is realized by direct combustion of gas in micromachining burners, located in the volume of the greenhouse, and radiation heat by burning gas in radiation burners, and at the stage of defrosting and heating of the soil, the ratio between the radiative and convective components referred to the total heat flow is set equal to (3 - 5) : 1, on stage from sowing to emergence - (4 - 6) : 1, and in the process of growing seedlings this ratio is monotonically reduced to (0,05 - 0,2) : 1 is inversely proportional to educationau the overlap factor of the projection of the green mass of plants area occupied soil with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.5 to 1, then the radiation heating is ceased.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the specified total heat flow into the greenhouse to reduce the current value of the heat flux of solar radiation.3. System for heating greenhouses, including units of convective heating of the air and blocks the radiation of the heating plant and soil, temperature sensors with blocks registration, characterized in that it is equipped with Central gas pipeline and autodeskcompatible heating is made in the form micromachining burners, and blocks the radiation of heat in the form of radiation gas burners all burners through the discharge piping is in communication with the Central pipe, in addition, microfamilies gas burners are installed around the perimeter of the greenhouse and along her inner span supports, and radiation gas burners are located on the data supports, all burners are made with adjustable feed gas.4. The system under item 3, characterized in that the radiation gas burners are installed to control their position on the span piers height.5. The system under item 3, characterized in that it is provided with a control unit, to the input of which is connected to the outputs of the temperature sensors, and outputs a control unit connected to the corresponding inputs of the control nodes of gas supply in microfamilies and radiation gas burners.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of flowers, vegetables, decorative and tropical plants under home conditions.
SUBSTANCE: compact chamber is composed of at least two parts, that is, bath, extension rings-inserts, hood, and pan. Pan is placed into bath, ground is spilled, sown, watered and covered with hood. Said parts are secured to one another by adhesive tape. Compact chamber may have cylindrical or square volume of enclosure vessel subdivided into at least three main parts: lower part with bath for receiving of soil or other nutritive mixture, extension rings-inserts, and upper part with hood for creating closed space, wherein permanent humidity is maintained for creating advantageous conditions for plant growing. In case space is to be increased in vertical direction, ring-insert is positioned between bath and hood. For plant illumination, in case natural illumination is insufficient, lighting device is inserted into hood throat and switched to regulated pulse-duration power unit controlled from automatic program relay, which is turned-on and turned-off in accordance with set season, solar cycle, established at starting time by means of switches. Heating, air and moisture modes are regulated by means of vent windows defined by notches-depressions formed on vessel surface. Vent windows may be removed when necessary. Vent windows may be closed and opened by means of small windows set for predetermined threshold temperature values and automatically controlled by bimetal effect, and in case of necessity, heating system is switched on.
EFFECT: simplified and convenient maintenance, improved development of plants and reliable scientific results, when used in laboratory conditions.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of agricultural crops with the use of multiple-flow apparatuses arranged at different levels for exposing plants growing in containers to light.
SUBSTANCE: lighting apparatus is composed of individual modules, each including light channel, comprising guides, and mini-hotbeds movable along guides. Mini-hotbeds are mounted on wheels of different diameter for moving by gravity so as to provide their horizontal position by placing them onto inclined guides. Each mini-hotbed may be used as independent module, is furnished with light-transparent hood which simultaneously serves as water accumulator and spreader. Lighting apparatus may be mounted in special industrial, household, supplementary and other rooms provided that stabilized temperature of 15-20° is maintained and phyto-sanitary requirements are fulfilled. Apparatus of such construction is characterized in that rigid coupling between mini-hotbeds is avoided and in that gravity is used for movement of mini-hotbeds along inclined guides in light channel. Apparatus of such construction provides year-round growing of pre-basic sanitated seed potato, seedlings of potato and other vegetables and flowers, as well as products of said crops, tree, fungi, algae seedlings and other biological objects under regulated artificial conditions while eliminating conditions for contacting of seedlings with pathogens.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and reduced consumption of power.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; growing plants at lesser consumption of electrical and thermal energy due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed greenhouse complex includes base, transparent heat-insulating dome-shaped coat with round transparent heat-insulation aperture in center. Coat is secured on load-bearing supports mounted vertically on base; it is manufactured from roofing blocks made from light-tight material at low heat conductivity and provided with through holes in form of truncated cones or pyramids coated from the inside with beam-reflecting material with their vertices directed inside or outside the coat. Holes are closed with inserts from the outside and inside which are made from thin transparent material; surfaces of said blocks directed inside coat and not occupied by through holes and technological holes are coated with beam-reflecting material. Areas with plants being cultivated, main and auxiliary technological equipment and plant life support systems are located inside coat and helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir consists of two vessels: one of them is filled with water and is mounted on base in center of coat and other is mounted coaxially inside first one and is insulated at sides and from beneath with low-conductivity material. Second vessel is closed at the top by its own transparent heat-insulating coat and is filled with common salt, for example. Two light reflectors which are cooled with water are made in form of truncated cones or truncated polyhedral pyramids. First of them with outer side light-reflecting surface is mounted with vertex downward above coat, coaxially with it. Second reflector is hollow; it is provided with light-reflecting surfaces; it is mounted coaxially relative to first reflector with vertex upward inside coat above helio-absorbing heat-insulating reservoir. Flat beam-reflecting panels located on area adjoining the coat concentrically relative to it are arranged in two rows. Each said panel is mounted on output link of its two-coordinated swivel mechanism provided with controllable drive. Base of drive is secured on bearing strut vertically mounted on ground surface. Provision is made for additional energy channel together with two said light reflectors which is made in form of flux of sun beams reflected by beam-reflecting panels of helio-absorbing heat-accumulating reservoir concentrated and directed downward. If necessary, it may be spread over entire surface. Controllable drives of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms are connected by their inputs to output of automatic control unit realized at base of computer center. Electrical inputs of center are connected with sensors of media contained in helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir and in space under coat, as well as with wind velocity and direction sensors and with coordinate position sensors of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements at intensified growth of plants due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
13 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protective complexes for plants, including greenhouses and hothouses equipped with electrotechnical and other equipment for care of plants and heat-loving bushes grown under home conditions or small-scale commercial plant growing conditions.
SUBSTANCE: protective complex has foundation pit with supporting carcass onto which transparent protective casing is put. Plastic walls of foundation pit are slightly extending beyond base of supporting carcass and are secured by means of drop screen. Foundation pit bed has ground provided with thermal layer and soil heating members. Foundation pit bed is connected through pipe to suspended closed reservoir hung under complex roof to define, in conjunction with foundation pit construction filled with ground and top layer of fertile soil, single reservoir with water influx-discharge regulated by means of electronic valves provided on branches as well as on pipe. Water is pumped through lower branch by means of water pump into suspension reservoir, and other branch equipped with electronic valve defines closed semicircle on pipe. Such construction provides water discharge by avoiding first branch from suspended reservoir into pipe equipped with corrugated insert provided at its lower end. Level of discharged water is controlled through bushing equipped with float having water level measuring ruler. Supporting carcass incorporates thermal sensors, humidity sensors, illumination sensors, air heating members, and illumination lamps. Valves are opened and closed by means of electronic device. All parts of protective complex are totally controlled by electronic instrument for maintaining optimal microclimate mode. On the basis of electronic instruments and with the use of communicating vessels principle, protective complex may be created, wherein, apart from setting optimal water level in ground soil and irrigation time, optimal heating and illumination mode may be maintained to thereby regulate plant development. Protective complex allows vegetable and other crops, as well as wild and exotic plants to be grown.
EFFECT: increased yield of vegetables and other crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, complex agricultural productions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves process and objects arranged in predetermined manner, and place planned according to relief, with geographic and other necessary factors being taken into consideration so that directions of natural air flows are corrected. Agricultural production includes complex greenhouses, heat accumulator, basin, garden, and wind shield. Air flow directed into garden is saturated with water vapors in gaseous state if increase in temperature is desirable when it is close to minimal admissible value, and in small droplet state when lower temperature is desirable. Processor functions as central controller. Objects of branches in agricultural production are selected so that objects of previous branches make raw material for objects of subsequent branches. Furthermore, joint mutually useful development of these objects at suitable conditions is possible. These conditions are created in complex greenhouse units intermediate with regard to said branches. General-purpose containers with raw material are conveyed through said complex greenhouse units. This results in multiple sequential-parallel utilization of raw materials in number of branches of industry. Method stipulates employment of useful relations between populations of organisms - objects of agricultural branches of industry: symbiosis and, according to kind of symbiosis, natural selection.
EFFECT: increased resource saving, reduced production costs of agricultural product and improved ecology of environment.
5 cl, 2 dwg