The way to achieve maximum heating rate of the heat pumps and installation for its implementation
(57) Abstract:Method and installation may be used for operation and development of heat pumps, refrigerators and heat transformers. In the process the whole mass of the working fluid is subjected to compression or expansion in a vessel adjacent to the vessel of the compressor cylinder, thus the supply of heat from the cooled medium to a working body during extension and retraction of heat from the working fluid in a heated environment at its compression produce alternately with the coolant circulating in two unrelated circulation loops, one of the heat exchangers are placed in a vessel with a working medium, and the second their heat exchangers are placed respectively in a cooled or heated environments. The invention provides the maximum value of the heating coefficient, increased reliability, and simplified conditions. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to a process of converting thermal energy and can be used in the development of heat pumps, refrigerators and heat transformers.Known way to achieve maximum heating factor and device for its implementation /1/. Not the Tu push, performed by the compressor must be converted into thermal or electrical energy. To convert this work required the expansion cylinder or expander. The introduction of these devices makes the heat pump is expensive and difficult operation.The drawback of the device carrying out the known method, is that a closed circulation loop is above the pressure of the working fluid in the 50-200 ATM. This circumstance requires special precautions during operation. In addition, in the cylinder device with a piston immersed in the working fluid. In this case, the delivery of grease to the friction surfaces is only possible by dissolving it in a working body, which limits the choice of the working fluid. Finally, the design is complicated because it requires the use of magnetic liquid seals, which can hold a limited amount of pressure in a vessel with a working body.The purpose of the invention is to achieve the maximum value of the heating factor of the device, as well as increasing reliability and simplifying its operation.This goal is achieved by the fact that the whole mass of the working fluid is placed in one from the La to the operating body when extending from the cooling medium and the heat from the working fluid in a heated environment during the compression produced alternately by using heat transfer fluids, when this thermal contact with the coolant working fluid is carried out directly in a vessel with a working body.The goal in the device is achieved that the device containing the compressor and heat exchangers, are two unrelated circulation circuit with liquid carriers, each of which consists of two heat exchangers and heat exchanger of the primary circuit is placed in a cooled environment, and one heat exchanger of the secondary circuit is placed in a heated environment, the second heat exchangers placed in a vessel with a working medium, the compressor is made so that the working volume of the cylinder is equal to half of the volume of the working fluid in the adjacent vessel.In Fig. 1 presents a diagram of a device implementing the method.In Fig. 2 shows the indicator diagram of thermodynamic cycle of operation of the device.The device comprises a first circulating circuit composed of the heat exchangers 11, 8 and pump 7, the second circulation loop consists of heat exchangers 6, 10, and pump 9, a compressor that includes a cylinder 1, a piston 2, an adjacent vessel 3, the oil pump 4 and the receptacle for oil 5. The heat exchanger 8 is placed in a cooled environment, and the heat exchanger 10 in nastoyaniy or at the beginning of the cycle, the piston 2 is in the upper extreme position. The working fluid fills the cylinder 2 and the vessel 3. The temperature, pressure and volume of the working fluid correspond to the critical parameters. In Fig. 2 this condition corresponds to the point K.When enabled, the oil pump 4, the oil flows out of the vessel 5 in the volume above the piston 2, resulting in the displacement of the piston and the compression of the working fluid. Simultaneously with the pump 4 is switched on, the pump 9, the heat from the working fluid by the second fluid circulation loop and heat exchangers 10, 6 is transferred into the heated room.When the piston reaches the extreme lower position of the pumps 4 and 9 are included. The temperature of the working fluid is equal to the temperature of the heated space, and the parameters of the state corresponds to the point G on the line VD.When enabled, the oil pump 4 in the opposite direction enables the pump 7 of the first circuit with the heat exchangers 11, 8 with the expansion of the working fluid and lowering its temperature, and the heat from the cooling medium supplied to the working body. When the piston reaches its extreme upper position, the actuating fluid parameters will correspond to a critical state. This completes thermodynamic cycle of the device.At the transition of the working fluid from point G to the point K, the work of the external forces is equal to zero. This process can be seen as an extension into the void with absorption of heat.Because in the loop defined by the amount of heat transferred from the working fluid in the heated room, and spent in this work, the heating factor of the cycle is equal to
< / BR>This value is the minimum is temporary equilibrium compression and heat from the working fluid. This process is described by a segment of a curve KG. It cannot be defined as neither isothermal nor adiabatic. This curve can be approximated curve describing the adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. In this case, the
Since in the described process, as in the cycle with adiabatic compression, the final state of the working fluid corresponds to the point G, and the amount of heat transferred to the working fluid in the heated room, is Q = 3R (TB- TG). In this case, the heating rate will be the maximum value of
< / BR>For the devices discussed in /1/, maximum value = 19,7.
If the temperature of the heated space will increase, the point G will move up the line BD. Square GKDG (tacarcuna in Fig. 2) will increase, and the heating coefficient to decrease. When this heating factor in the device /1/ is always greater than the heating factor of the device.If this device as a working body to use a monatomic ideal gas, the maximum value of the heating factor of the device is equal to or = 1.5. Chart cycle is identical to the cycle DBCD (see Fig. 2), but the offset is on the way and the device is always less than in the known /1/. However, in the new method and the device does not require operation of the push and transform it into electrical or thermal energy. Circulation paths, providing a heat exchange liquid-cooled low pressure. High pressure in the new device can only occur in a vessel with a working body. In the device solved the problem of lubrication of moving parts and no need to use magnetic seals. The device allows the use of environmentally safe gases as the working fluid.The cost of the device is significantly reduced, it is easy to use and reliable in operation.It should be noted that the application of known freons in the described device, it is impossible in principle, because of their physical properties do not allow to reach the maximum heating rate in any real terms.Sources of information
1. Konov A. F. Way to achieve maximum heating rate of the heat pump and the device for its implementation. RF patent N 2083932, CL F 25 B 30/00, publ. 10.07.97, 1. The way to achieve maximum heating coefficient of heat pumps, the choice of the working fluid and bring it to a critical state before compression, characterized in that the entire mass of the working fluid is placed in one vessel adjacent to the vessel of the compressor cylinder, which produce contraction and expansion, and application of heat to a working body from cooling medium during expansion and heat from the working fluid in a heated environment during the compression produced alternately by using a coolant, the heat contact heat transfer with the working fluid is carried out directly in a vessel with a working body.2. Installation for maximum heating rate of the heat pumps containing the compressor and the heat exchangers, characterized in that the installation introduces two unrelated circulation circuit with liquid carriers, each of which consists of two heat exchangers and heat exchanger of the primary circuit is placed in a cooled environment, and one heat exchanger of the secondary circuit is placed in a heated environment, the second heat exchangers placed in a vessel with a working medium, the compressor is made so that the working volume of the cylinder is equal to half of the volume of the working fluid in the adjacent vessel.
FIELD: combined cooling and refrigeration systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises expanding air in the turbine up to a low temperature, heating air in the first heat exchanger with utilized heat, compressing air to the initial pressure in the compressor, withdrawing heat in the second feeding heat exchanger, and supplying compressed dry air to the receiver where the air is heated.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.