Element with a honeycomb structure and a device for exhaust gas aftertreatment, having an element with a honeycomb structure

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to systems for purification of exhaust gases, in particular internal combustion engine. The second element has many channels for the passage of a fluid medium in which the first portion of the channels has a large flow resistance compared with the second part of the channels, the element has at least one area with a higher density or a large number of channels with increased flow resistance, which is not symmetric in cross-section and circumferentially covers only part of the cross-sectional area of the element with a honeycomb structure. In particular, these channels with increased resistance to the flow have a smaller hydraulic diameter than the other channels, or to their home station and/or at their target site, and/or within them have additional impeding the flow patterns. The second element used in the device for exhaust gas aftertreatment. Before the second element set to another element with a honeycomb structure and electric heating. The first element is divided in a transverse section of the air gap having the shape of a meander and/or spiral shape, and the second element is in the zone Nabih zones of the element. The invention allows to provide uniform current flow. 2 C. and 17 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The present invention relates to an element with a honeycomb structure, in particular to the case-carrier catalyst for catalytic conversion of exhaust gases in the EXHAUST system and to a device for exhaust gas aftertreatment, having an element with a honeycomb structure.

Typically the elements with a honeycomb structure used in trackless vehicles with diesel engines or internal combustion engines with spark ignition.

There are a large number of different designs of elements with a honeycomb structure. They can be made of ceramic material, in particular by extrusion. Another type elements with a honeycomb structure consists of rolled, scored in the package and/or the loop of the twisted layers of at least partially structured metal sheets. This resistance to flow in the channel in such element with a honeycomb structure depends on the shape and structure of the walls of this channel. Its shape and size determine the hydraulic diameter, while the structure and/or barriers at the ends and/or in voteme pipelines in General has approximately parabolic velocity profile, when the flow velocity in the center of the maximum, and the edges are equal to zero, it is already known such design element with a honeycomb structure in which the flow resistance in the Central zone is greater than the marginal zones. Such elements with a honeycomb structure described, for example, in European application EP-0336106 B1 and EP-0542805 B1. Known from the prior art solutions generally based on rotationally-symmetric flows, due to which the element with a honeycomb structure with different cross-sections of the channels is always approximately symmetrical, generally concentric arrangement of channels with different cross-section. In elements with an oval or elliptical cross-section seek to implement appropriate location with two mutually perpendicular axes of symmetry.

In addition, international applications WO 90/08249, WO 91/01178 and WO 91/01807 known such structures within the channel element with a honeycomb structure, which increase the flow resistance.

In European application EP-0542775 B1 also describes another element with a honeycomb structure, which provides an increase in flow direction number of channels per unit cross-sectional area, although this element and is made in the form of a single d is no symmetric flow conditions of the stream. Due to the design features of the leakage flow at the entrance to the elements with a honeycomb structure used in the catalyst, especially in the area near the engine, is eccentric and/or asymmetrically, so in certain locations are particularly high load on the end side of the element with a honeycomb structure, resulting in their damage and reduced service life.

When using elements with a honeycomb structure with electric heated leakage flow inlet element with a honeycomb structure also has been uneven, because the element with an electrical heating may be air gaps are provided for the electrical distribution system and with less resistance to flow compared to the rest of the channels element electrically heated.

From international application WO 92/13636 a device for catalytic conversion of exhaust gases in the exhaust system, which consists of at least two elements with a honeycomb structure, separated from each other by a certain distance and arranged in series in the flow direction of exhaust gas. Each semilente, with which elements of the cell structure are connected to each other and which provide their mutual fit. First in the direction of flow element with a honeycomb structure made with electric heating. This element is electrically heated by its cross-section is electrically divided ceramic insulating layers, resulting in an electric current passes through a given this separation path. Element electrically heated water is used to minimize the emission of harmful substances in the phase of the cold start of the heat engine.

Further known design, in which the electrically isolated conductive paths in the element with a honeycomb structure is heated from adjacent parts of the structure by using air gaps. Such a device is described in the article by P. F. Kuper and other "Ultra-Low Power Electrically-Heated Catalist System", SAE Technical Papers Series 940465. The air gap causes an uneven flow through the element with a honeycomb structure, because depending on the design of individual element portion exposed to neutralize the fluid passes through the air gap. This may be particularly apparent in cases where the size of the channels in the first cell element with bedstvie a portion of the fluid medium in the phase of the cold start has not been at all either been turning only slightly or some parts of the subsequent element with a honeycomb structure was subjected to more severe loads. In this article, P. F. Kuper and other known device with a large number of elongated supporting elements having at their end parts of different cross-sectional area located between the first and second element with a honeycomb structure and mechanically connecting but electrically isolated from each other. Each supporting element is its thicker end section at least partially in the first channel, and its thinner end section in the channel of the second element with a honeycomb structure, with the first electrically heated element with a honeycomb structure has a smaller number of channels related to the cross-sectional area than the second element with a honeycomb structure.

In contrast to this known structural form in accordance with the invention, the proposed device, in which the cross-sectional area end portion of each supporting element in the channel of the second element with a honeycomb structure, exceeds the cross-sectional area of the terminal segment, which is included in the channel of the first element with a honeycomb structure. In addition, the second element with a honeycomb structure has channels, the dimensions of which are designed stooge you can use for example, one or more corrugated metal sheets with greater height of the corrugation than the rest of the metal sheets of the second element with a honeycomb structure.

The closest technical solution known to the proposed element with a honeycomb structure is described in the application Germany N 4025434 element with a honeycomb structure having multiple channels for the passage of fluid, where some of the channels has a large flow resistance compared with the second part of the channels, and at least one area with a higher density or a large number of channels with increased resistance to flow.

Closer to the proposed technical merits of the device for exhaust gas aftertreatment, having an element with a honeycomb structure, it is disclosed in the international application WO 92/13636, which provides a second element with a honeycomb structure and set before him the first element with a honeycomb structure electrically heated, equipped with multiple channels for the passage of the fluid flowing sequentially through these elements.

The present invention is that an element with a honeycomb structure, corespective thereby the uniformity of current flow and uniform catalytic transformation in all areas of the stream.

This problem is solved by using an element with a honeycomb structure having multiple channels for the passage of fluid, where the first part of the channels has a large flow resistance compared with the second part of the channels, and at least one area with a higher density or a large number of channels with increased flow resistance. According to the invention, the zone is not symmetric in cross-section and circumferentially covers only part of the cross-sectional area of the element with a honeycomb structure.

It is advisable to channels with increased flow resistance had a smaller hydraulic diameter compared with other channels.

Preferably also, when the channels with increased flow resistance at their home site, and/or their target site, and/or within them have additional impeding the flow patterns.

In one preferred form of the element with a honeycomb structure composed of at least partially structured metal sheets, which form channels for the passage of fluid.

In another preferred form of execution of the specified element contains Kristi, from metal sheets.

When this part of the metal sheets has a different structure compared to the rest of the metal sheets, so that the channels formed by this part of sheet metal, have a greater resistance to flow compared with other channels.

In another preferred form of implementation of the element with a honeycomb structure can be made of alternating smooth and corrugated metal sheets, where corrugated metal sheets have at least two different heights of the bumps and the metal sheets with the lower height of the corrugation forming channels having increased resistance to flow.

It is also proposed a device for exhaust gas aftertreatment, with the second element with a honeycomb structure in accordance with the invention and set before him the first element with a honeycomb structure electrically heated, which also has many channels for the passage of the fluid so that it sequentially passes through the elements with a honeycomb structure. According to the invention the element with a honeycomb structure electrically heated electrically divided in its cross-section at meatboy structure has at least in the zone, located opposite the air gap, the greater the density of channels with a large flow resistance than in other zones of the element with a honeycomb structure.

Advisable when the number of channels per unit cross-sectional area in the zone of the second element with a honeycomb structure, opposite the air gap exceeds the number of channels in other areas of this element with a honeycomb structure.

The number of channels per unit cross-sectional area in the zone opposite the air gap may vary in the flow direction. The number of channels is changed in some areas.

Preferably, when the largest diameter of the channels in the first element with a honeycomb structure equal to or less than the average width of the air gap.

It is important that the first element with a honeycomb structure has a greater number of channels per unit cross-sectional area than the second element with a honeycomb structure.

In the device for exhaust gas aftertreatment in accordance with the invention between the first and second elements with a honeycomb structure and are mechanically connect them many elongated Maumere partially included in one first channel and one channel of the second element with a honeycomb structure, and the cross-sectional area of a thick end portion of each supporting element in the channel of the second element with a honeycomb structure, more cross-sectional area of the thin end portion, included in the channel of the first element with a honeycomb structure.

In a preferred embodiment of the second element with a honeycomb structure has spaced layers of at least partially structured metal sheets which form the channels, passing in the flow direction, with dimensions determined by the structure of the sheet, while the second element with a honeycomb structure includes at least two kinds of differently structured metal sheets.

Preferably, when the second element with a honeycomb structure has at least one first layer of corrugated metal sheets with a smaller height of the corrugation, located opposite the air gap, and at least one second layer of corrugated metal sheets with greater height of the corrugation, which includes supporting elements.

It should be noted that the layers of differently structured metal sheets in each case are located only in the anterior segment of the element with the cell STRs to the direction of flow of the plot(s) increases or decreases in the flow direction, in particular, increases with the layer of corrugated metal sheets of the large size of the corrugation and/or reduced by layer corrugated metal sheets with smaller bumps.

The most appropriate first and second elements with a honeycomb structure to perform from the twisted loop between the metal sheets, in particular of the S-shaped twisted packet of metal sheets, and oriented so that the direction of twisting of both elements with a honeycomb structure was almost identical to one another, in particular, on the orientation of the S-shaped curl and the height of the package.

The present invention allows to produce optimized for each application element with a honeycomb structure, the distribution of the flow resistance element with a honeycomb structure provided in accordance with the nature of the flow (which may be determined experimentally or by calculation). In areas with more intensive leakage resistance to flow at least part of the length in the axial direction of the element with a honeycomb structure increases due to the fact that in these zones provide for channels of smaller cross-section and/or channels with additional pavimento with a honeycomb structure, but most simply it can be implemented in metal elements with a cellular structure consisting of at least partially structured metal sheets. In particular, items with a honeycomb structure, which consist of at least one service loop twisted with each other metal sheets, using metal sheets with different heights of structures in certain areas it is very easy to modify so that they will have to meet certain conditions of the leakage flow. If this is possible using the appropriate structures changes to align the eccentric leakage flow both in single and in two or more zones.

In addition, the basic idea of the invention in the application of the so-called tandem structures with heated catalytic Converter arranged in front of the second element with a honeycomb structure, is that by directional control of the distribution of the flow resistance of the second element with a honeycomb structure can also be affected and the nature of the fluid flow in the first element with a honeycomb structure and thus increase the total katleman with a honeycomb structure, at least in the zone, located opposite the air gap has a greater resistance to flow compared with other zones. This ensures that the volume of the fluid flow through the air gap is reduced and fluid is supplied to the second element with a honeycomb structure more evenly. This increases the portion of the fluid which comes into contact with the catalytic action of the surface of the first element with a honeycomb structure, thereby improving the degree of transformation in the phase of cold start.

To increase the flow resistance of the second element with a honeycomb structure in the area, which is located opposite the air gap, it is proposed to perform a greater number of channels per unit cross-sectional area, taking into account the cross-sectional area of the air gap than in other zones of the element with a honeycomb structure. It is assumed that, in General, both element with a honeycomb structure have a similar design, which are described in more detail below, the exemplary embodiment of the invention.

The flow resistance can also be increased not by reducing the cross-section of the channels in certain areas, and using t be used separately or in combination. Additional patterns can have a positive impact in most situations on the diffusion process in the element with a honeycomb structure and thus result in higher catalytic activity.

Number of channels per unit cross-sectional area as in the area opposite the air gap, and in other zones of the cross-section may be constant along the length of the flow path through the second element with a honeycomb structure. The same applies to additional structures. This can lead, especially in case of long elements with a honeycomb structure, to undesirable high loss of total pressure in the device. Therefore, it is preferable to develop a device that requires the use of a second element with a honeycomb structure in which the number of channels assigned to the cross-sectional area varies in the flow direction. The number of channels in the zone opposite the air gap can also be reduced in the flow direction. Reducing the number of channels with constant cross-sectional area leads to an increase of the free cross section of flow in the channel. Due to this, you can adjust the treasure is of particular importance for the absorption of sound in the EXHAUST system.

Depending on the length of the second element with a honeycomb structure can be optimized cross-section of the channels so that in the zone opposite the air gap, the flow resistance is high enough to ensure an even distribution of the fluid, and on the other side the loss of total pressure in the device was not too high.

In a preferred embodiment of the device the number of channels increases from the beginning in the direction of flow, and then decreases. This way you can, for example, to produce a symmetrical element with a honeycomb structure whose orientation is at the installation may be any that eliminates errors during Assembly. In addition, such devices under certain circumstances allow the use of shock-absorbing properties of the element with a honeycomb structure.

Other embodiments of the invention are described in more detail below with reference to the drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 shows a view of the device from the front,

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the device of Fig. 1,

Fig. 3 is a schematic illustration of a front view of the second element with a honeycomb structure,

Fig. 4 is a longitudinal section of the element with a honeycomb structure,

Fig. 5 - part rematicheskoe the image of the cross-section of the element with a honeycomb structure, consisting of three twisted loop between a packet of metal sheets, one of which has channels with an increased flow resistance.

In Fig. 1 and 2 show the preferred embodiment of the invention. Device for neutralization of exhaust gases in the EXHAUST system, in particular for thermal engines, preferably for internal combustion engines with spark ignition, has a first element 1 with a honeycomb structure, which is located at some distance from the second element 2 with a honeycomb structure. The distance between the two elements is, for example, from 1 to 6 mm, while the end face of the second element may be convex. The second element 2 with a honeycomb structure serves as a support for the first of the shorter element with a honeycomb structure. Both elements 1 and 2 to the cellular structure of interconnected support elements 3, while the more volatile the first element 1 with a honeycomb structure based on the second element 2 with a honeycomb structure. The first element 1 is made electrically heated and has elektrosokirani gap. This gap can have, in particular, the shape of the meander and/or spiral shape.

the second element 2 to the cellular structure of the thick end section 17. The thin tail section 18 has a smaller cross sectional area than the thick end section 17.

For the electrical heating of the first element 1 with a cellular structure connected with elektroizolyatsionnymi passing through the casing 9 electrical podwodami 10 and 11. In this example, the first element 1 with a cellular structure is an element, which is made known by way of the S-shaped twisted packet of metal sheets. The first element 1 with a honeycomb structure in its cross section are electrically separated by air gaps 4, 5.

In Fig. 3 schematically depicts a second element 2 with a cellular structure consisting of S-shaped twisted packet of metal sheets, for the simple manufacture of the device according to the invention it is expedient that both element with a honeycomb structure (different than pictured) had a similar design (e.g., have the same height packets) and were oriented relative to each other so that they have the same direction and the position of the twisted packages. The package consists of a smooth metal sheet 6 and the structured metal sheets 7. The metal sheets 6 what's gaps 4, 5, the second element 2 with a honeycomb structure has a unit cross-sectional area greater number of channels 12 smaller cross-section than in other zones. The channels 12 are also limited 13 structured and smooth 14 metal plates. In that case, if the size of the channels 8 is insufficient for the occurrence in it of a thick end portion 17 of the support element 3, for this purpose can be provided by one or more corrugated metal sheets with greater height of the corrugation, which however does not necessarily have to extend along the entire length in the axial direction of the second element 2 with a honeycomb structure.

In Fig. 4 schematically depicts a second element 2 with a honeycomb structure, which is in the direction of flow is divided into two sections a and B. the Positions 15 and 16 identified two areas that have increased the number of flow channels per unit cross-sectional area. Zones 15 and 16 are located opposite the air gap and pass all around the property And element with a honeycomb structure. On a plot of cross-section of the separate flow channels everywhere the same, that it is possible and when in the anterior segment And the additional metal sheets with greater vystepleniya the flow in the channel 12 of the element 2 with a honeycomb structure. The flow resistance increases with additional structures 19 on at least one of forming the channel 12 of sheet metal, in particular on structured metal sheet 13. It also generally increases the catalytic activity in the element with a honeycomb structure coated with a layer of catalytically active substances, because the additional structure 19 affect shown in Fig. 5 the profile P of the flow speed and enhance the process of diffusion.

In Fig. 6 shows a cross section of the element with a honeycomb structure, which consists of three loop-like twisted with each other packets of sheet metal, is inserted in the tubular casing 20. One of the packages, at least in part, consists of sheet metal with a smaller structure than the rest of corrugated metal sheets 7, whereby the channels 12 in this package have a smaller hydraulic diameter and therefore have a greater resistance to flow. This is shown in the drawing as an example of constructive form, consisting of three or more packages, allows by varying the number and thickness of the packages in combination with differently structured metalocherepichnogo section.

The present invention compared with the prior art provides greater flexibility regarding the distribution of the flow resistance in the cross-sectional area of the element with a honeycomb structure, in particular by choosing different numbers of channels per unit cross-sectional area. Thus, the device comprising at least two elements with a honeycomb structure, the second element can be compensated unevenness caused by passing the fluid through the first element with a honeycomb structure.

1. Element (2) with a honeycomb structure, in particular case-carrier catalyst having multiple channels (8, 12) for passing a fluid medium, where the first part of the channel (12) has a large flow resistance compared with the second part of the channels (8), and at least one zone (15, 16) with a higher density or a large number of channels (12) with increased resistance to flow, characterized in that the area is symmetrical in cross-section and circumferentially covers only part of the cross-sectional area of the element with a honeycomb structure.

2. Item under item 1, characterized in that kanallari (8).

3. Item under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the channels (12) with increased resistance to flow at their home site, and/or their target site, and/or within them have additional impeding the flow patterns (19).

4. Element according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that it consists of at least partially structured metal sheets(6, 7, 13, 14), which form channels (8, 12) for the passage of fluid.

5. Item under item 4, characterized in that it contains at least one loop of the twisted package metal sheets(6, 7, 13, 14), preferably two or more packages, in particular from metal sheets.

6. Item under item 4 or 5, characterized in that the part of the metal sheet (13) has a different structure compared to the rest of the metal plate (7), resulting in the channel (12) formed this part of sheet metal, have a greater resistance to flow compared to the rest of the channels (8).

7. Element according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that it is made of alternating smooth (6, 14) and corrugated (7, 13) metal sheets, where corrugated metal sheets (7, 13) have at least two uvelichennym flow resistance.

8. Device for exhaust gas aftertreatment, with the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure according to one of the preceding paragraphs, before which has the first element (1) with a honeycomb structure electrically heated, which also has many channels for the passage of the fluid so that it sequentially passes through the elements (1, 2) with a honeycomb structure, characterized in that the element (1) with a honeycomb structure electrically heated electrically divided in its cross-section by at least one air gap (4, 5) having, in particular, the shape of the meander and/or spiral shape, and the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure has at least in the zone opposite the air gap (4, 5), greater packing density with a greater flow resistance than in other zones of the element (2) with a honeycomb structure.

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the number of channels (12) per unit cross-sectional area in the zone (15, 16) of the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure, opposite the air gap (4, 5), exceeds the number of channels in other areas of this element (2) with a honeycomb structure.

10. The device under item 8 or 9, Otley is Rotel air gap (4, 5), changes in flow direction.

11. The device according to p. 10, characterized in that the number of channels is changed in some areas.

12. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 11, characterized in that the largest diameter of the channels in the first element (1) with a honeycomb structure is approximately equal to or less than the average width of the air gap (4, 5).

13. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 11, characterized in that the first element (1) with a honeycomb structure has a greater number of channels per unit cross-sectional area than the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure.

14. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 13, characterized in that between the first (1) and second (2) elements with a honeycomb structure and are mechanically connects them many elongated having a different cross-section at its end parts (17, 18) of the support elements (3), each of which is at least partially included in one first channel and one channel of the second elements (1, 2) with a honeycomb structure, and the cross-sectional area of a thick end portion (17) of each support element (3) included in the channel of the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure, more cross-sectional area of the thin end portion (18), in which the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure has spaced layers of at least partially structured metal sheets (7, 13), which form the channels (6, 12), passing in the flow direction, with dimensions determined by the structure of the sheet, while the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure includes at least two kinds of differently structured metal sheets.

16. The device under item 14 or 15, characterized in that the second element (2) with a honeycomb structure has at least one first layer of corrugated metal sheets with a smaller height of the corrugation, located opposite the air gap (4, 5), and at least one second layer of corrugated metal sheets with greater height of the corrugation, which includes supporting elements.

17. The device under item 15 or 16, characterized in that the layers of differently structured metal sheets in each case are located only in the anterior segment (As) element (2) with a honeycomb structure.

18. The device under item 17, characterized in that the ratio of the number of channels to the cross-sectional area to the next) in the direction of flow of the plot(s) increases or decreases in the flow direction, in particular increased layer of corrugated metal sheets of the large size of the corrugation and/or reduced by layer corrugated IU is on the first (1st) and second (2) items with a honeycomb structure made of twisted loop between the metal sheets, in particular S-shaped twisted packages of sheet metal, and are oriented so that the direction of twisting of both elements with a honeycomb structure practically coincide with each other, in particular, on the orientation of the S-shaped curl and the height of the package.

 

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1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; catalytic converters.

SUBSTANCE: invention contains description of method of manufacture of cellular member with preset number (n) of metal sheet layers which are made from metal strip wound off at least one coil and least part of which is at least partially profiled metal sheets whose profile structure provides possibility of flow of liquid medium through cellular member which accommodates common free space of preset volume for sensor. According to proposed method, section of metal strip wound off coil is chosen to get metal sheet of corresponding dimensions, identificator is assigned to metal sheet according to which data are read off from memory concerning position of at least one of holes made in said metal sheet and on its outline. Before proceeding with manufacture of cellular member, at least one hole in preset position and with preset outline is made in metal sheet, and several such preliminarily made sections are coiled, assembled into pack and/or rolled to form cellular structure in which separate holes form free space for sensor. Device for making cellular member and catalytic converter carrier are also described in invention.

EFFECT: provision of free space corresponding to dimensions of sensor within the limits of existing production process, prevention of formation of free space of too large volume in cellular member at reduced cost.

19 cl, 4 dwg

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