The process control method of the vacuum separation of titanium sponge
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy, in particular to methods of cleaning sponge titanium vacuum separation. The technical result is to increase productivity and reduce energy consumption by improving the quality of regulation of the temperature in the heating zone of the apparatus during the time of conducting the separation process. The technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the process control method of the vacuum separation of titanium sponge in devices with multi-zone heating the reaction mass is heated the reaction mass, compare the signals of the sensors with the set for each heating zone values. Keep the temperature in each zone of the device controller by changing the input power on and off of the heater. Measure the current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers of these heating zones, control of the process steps on the current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers. Before beginning the process set tuning parameters of the temperature of each heating zone. In the course of the process according to the results of the comparison signals of the temperature sensors and the motion of each heating zone of the apparatus is proportional to the magnitude of the current values of the output signals of the respective temperature controllers. 1 Il. The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy, in particular, to methods of cleaning sponge titanium vacuum separatea and process control vacuum separatsii sponge titanium.A known method of controlling the separation process, based on the temperature in the heating zone of the apparatus multichannel rector of the machine centralized control (ICC) with simultaneous measurement of vacuum in the separation apparatus to control the duration and the end of the separation process (see Use of electronic machine centralized control in the production of titanium sponge.- Proceedings of Giredmet. - M.: metallurgy, 1966, volume 15, S. 104-112.). A way to centrally manage the separation process provides quality titanium sponge and reducing the cost of operation of automation systems.The disadvantage of this method is that the vacuum in the apparatus is a random variable that depends on the operation of vacuum equipment and the tightness of the separation apparatus, and does not characterize uniquely the state of the separation process. This leads to an unjustified increase in the duration of the separation, resulting in reduced productivity of the process is that titanium (RF patent N 1797288), including the measurement of the power consumed by each heating zone of the apparatus, and the temperature in these zones by changes within a given cycle duty cycle switch-on pulses to the heaters on the outputs of the temperature controllers inversely proportional to the average values for a given time interval values of the power consumption of the heating zones. The method allows to improve the quality of regulation of the temperature in the heating zone of the apparatus and to improve the performance of the device and to reduce energy consumption.The disadvantage of this method of control is that the measured process temperature control the power consumed by the heating zones, averaged over long time intervals that do not allows to control the duration and the end of the process, resulting in reduced performance of the device and increases energy consumption. In addition, to measure the power consumption required additional instrumentation, which complicates the control system.There is a method of process control vacuum separation of titanium sponge (Art. Principles duplex ACS processes the CE is th mass, comprising heating the reaction mixture, maintaining the temperature in each zone of the apparatus by changing the input power on and off of the heater, measuring current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers of these heating zones, the control stages of the separation process on the current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers.For carrying out the separation process carried out preliminary heating of the reaction mass to a predetermined temperature of the heating zone of the apparatus. Set temperature in the zones of the apparatus by evaporation of the reaction mixture of magnesium and magnesium chloride supports mnogokanalnyy encoder (machine centralized control center) by changing the applied heating power regulatory influences on and off the heaters of the respective zones of the device separation. However, if the temperature in the heating zone exceeds the specified value, the multi-channel controller disables the corresponding heater. If the temperature is below the setpoint controller includes corresponding heater heating zone. The outputs of the multichannel controller measure the current values of the time on and off nagrevatelej distillation from the reaction mass the main quantity of the magnesium and magnesium chloride, heating the reaction mass to the maximum temperature with evaporation of the remaining quantities of magnesium and magnesium chloride. The control process steps can improve process performance and reduce energy costs due to more accurate determination of the end of the separation.However, this management process in the heating zone of the apparatus leads to significant temperature fluctuations. Due to poor quality control is necessary to reduce the set temperature of the heating zone of the apparatus to prevent the formation of eutectic iron-titanium, which reduces the efficiency of the process and increases the energy consumption.The task of the invention is to improve process performance and reduce energy consumption by improving the quality of temperature control in the heating zone of the apparatus during the time of conducting the separation process.The problem is solved so that the process control method of the vacuum separation of titanium sponge in devices with multi-zone heating the reaction mass comprising heating the reaction mass, the comparison of the signals of the sensors with the set for each heating zone values, maintaining the temperature I measuring the current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers of these heating zones, the control process steps according to the current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers, the new is the fact that before the beginning of the process set tuning parameters of the temperature of each heating zone, in the course of the process according to the results of the comparison signals of the temperature sensors and the set values generate a continuous output signals of the temperature controllers and change the applied heating power of each of the zones of the apparatus is proportional to the magnitude of the current values of the output signals of the respective temperature controllers.When conducting the regulatory process by comparing a fly parameters with the signals of the temperature sensors forming a continuous output signals temperature control and change input heating power of each of the zones of the apparatus is proportional to the magnitude of the current values of the output signals of the respective temperature controllers, reduced fluctuation of temperature in the heating zone of the apparatus, which allows to increase the set temperature of the heating zone of the apparatus to 1030oC and thereby improve the efficiency of the process senices sources of information, and identification of sources containing information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not found the source, which is characterized by signs, identical all the essential features of the invention. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, as the most similar set of features analogue, has allowed to establish the essential towards perceived by the applicant technical result of the distinctive features in the proposed method, set forth in the claims.Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "novelty."To verify compliance of the claimed invention the term "inventive step", the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions to identify signs that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the characteristics of the claimed method. The search results showed that the claimed invention not apparent to the expert in the obvious way from the prior art because the prior art defined by the applicant, not the influence provided the essential features of the claimed invention transformations to achieve the level".This invention is illustrated in the diagram of the control apparatus of the vacuum separation of titanium sponge with a three-zone heating the reaction mass. The unit comprises of the retort 1 with the reaction mass, the retort-condenser 2, the electric furnace 3 with a chromel-alyuminevyemi thermocouples 4 and nichrome heaters 5 installed in the heating zones of the retort 1; a microprocessor controller 6, consisting of 7 blocks amplification of the signals of thermocouples, algoblock 8 - throttling "analog" with the given values 9 temperature (set point), algoblock 10"impulsora", algoblock 11 - track - remembering"; the personal computer 12, which consists of a system unit 13 and display 14; intermediate relay 15 with Executive contacts 16; power thyristors 17, in the chain of control electrodes which included Executive contacts 16, the devices 18 for measuring the applied heating power; source 19 power supply of the heating zones; 20 gauge vacuum; secondary device 21 vacuum control, vacuum pumps 22. As microprocessor-based controller used microprocessor controller REMIKONT P-130. Algoblock 8 contain the PID controllers, algoblock 10 - pulse - width modulator with a preset period and changing the output signals of algoblock 8 and signals of the temperature in the heating zones on the outputs of the blocks 7. (See technical details manufacturer "Prompribor" AA. 399.550.TO1, parts 1, 2 Controllers low-channel, multi-function, microprocessor RAMICONE P-130", Cheboksary, 1993. S. 66-73, S. 199-202, S. 213-215). As power thyristors 17 - thyristors T-series-143-500, as instruments 18 - three-phase active energy meter type SAZ-AND:87. The degassing apparatus separation was performed by two vacuum pumps 22: pre-pump vacuum BH-6 and booster pump bn-2000. As the sensor 20 of the control vacuum in the apparatus used thermocouple Converter PMT-2, as the device 21 - gauge thermocouple W-2A.Before beginning the process in algoblock 8 enter preset values 9 the temperature of the heating zones equal to 1030oC, and a fly parameters: integration time of 1 minute, the coefficient of proportionality 40. In algoblock 10 enter specified periods of pulses equal to 1 minute. The power of the heater in each zone of the apparatus is equal to 130 kW.An example of the method.The separation apparatus is installed in the electric furnace 3, serves the voltage on the heaters 5, include a microprocessor controller 6, the vacuum pump 22, the devices 18, 20 and 21 and begin the process JEPs is which condense in the retort-condenser 2. Measured by thermocouple 4, the temperature signals are amplified by respective blocks 7 are compared with preset values of 9, and the results of the comparisons are converted by Algologie 8 output signals in accordance with the PID algorithm. Algoblock 10 converts the current values of the output signals of algoblock 8 into a sequence of pulses, the repetition period of which is equal to 1 minute, and the duration of the pulses is proportional to the magnitude of the current values of the output signals of the respective algoblock 8. Impulses to the intermediate relay 15, which, including turning off the contacts 16 of the power thyristors 17, change the duty cycle of the switching on of the heater 5 to the source 19 of the power supply and, respectively, summing the current values of the output signals of the respective algoblock 8 controlled devices 18. Algoblock 11 perform tracking and storing the signals of the temperature in the heating zone of the apparatus and the current values of the output signals of algoblock 8. Unit 13 measures these signals and measurement results are displayed on the monitor 14, where the current values of the output signals of algoblock 8 control stage of the separation process. At the stage of heating temperature in zone heating power is maximum and equal to 130 kW. At the stage of intensive distillation, the main quantity of the magnesium and magnesium chloride, the temperature in the heating zones maintained at 1030oC, while the current values of the output signals of algoblock 8 gradually decrease and reach the end of the stage in the upper zone (located near the retort-condenser 2) 53%, in the middle and lower areas, respectively, 12% and 10%. Applied to the zones of the heating power is reduced in proportion to the values of the current values of the output signals of algoblock 8 and reaches the end stage of intensive distillation in the upper, middle and lower zones, respectively, 68,9, 15.6 and 14 kW. During the subsequent stage of prosea the reaction mass by evaporation of the remaining quantities of magnesium and magnesium chloride current values of the output signals of algoblock 8 remain almost constant at the levels 53,12 and 10% achieved at the end stage of intensive distillation. Respectively supplied to the heating zones power is also saved on the levels 68,9, 15.6 and 13 kW.Thus, the proposed method allows without compromising quality titanium sponge to increase the set temperature of the heating zone of the apparatus 1000oC to 1030oC, resulting in the performance of the process according to the ow in the heating zone of the apparatus of the separation. The process control method of the vacuum separation of titanium sponge in devices with multi-zone heating the reaction mass comprising heating the reaction mass, the comparison of the signals of the sensors with the set for each heating zone values, the temperature in each heating zone of the apparatus controller by changing the input power on and off of the heater, measuring current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers of these heating zones, the control process steps on the current values of the output signals of the temperature controllers, characterized in that before starting the process set tuning parameters of the temperature of each heating zone, in the course of the process according to the results of the comparison signals of the temperature sensors and the set values generate a continuous output signals of the temperature controllers and change the applied heating power of each of the zones of the apparatus is proportional to the magnitude of the current values of the output signals of the respective temperature controllers.
FIELD: metallurgy; reworking wastes of alumina production process.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of batch of charge containing red mud and carbon reductant, heating the charge in melting unit to solid-phase iron reduction temperature, three-phase reduction of ferric oxides in charge by carbon reductant and saturation of iron with carbon in charge thus prepared, melting the reduced charge for obtaining metal phase in form of cast iron and slag phase in form of primary slag, separation of cast iron from primary slag in melt heated to temperature of 40 C, reduction of silicon and titanium from oxides contained in primary slag by aluminum and removal of cast iron and primary slag from melting unit; during preparation of charge, concentrate of titanomagnetite ore containing titanium oxide in the amount from 1 to 15% is added to red mud; besides that, additional amount of carbon reductant and additives are introduced; after separation of primary slag from cast iron in melting unit, cast iron is heated to 1500-1550 C and product containing ferric oxide is added to it; iron is reduced by carbon of cast iron for converting the cast iron into steel at obtaining secondary slag; main portion of steel is removed from melting unit, secondary slag is added to primary slag and silicon and titanium are converted into steel residue in melting unit by reduction with aluminum, thus obtaining final slag-saturated slag and master alloy containing iron, titanium and silicon; main portion of master alloy is removed from melting unit; after removal of final slag for converting the master alloy residue to steel in melting unit, titanium and silicon are converted into slag phase by oxidation and next portion of charge is fed to slag phase formed after converting the master alloy residue to steel. Proposed method ensures high efficiency due to obtaining iron-titanium silicon master alloy in form of independent product and production of alumina from high-alumina final slag or high-alumina cement and concentrate of rare-earth metals.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency due to avoidance of intermediate remelting of steel.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy of rare-earth metals; method of processing difficultly-stripped leucoxene concentrates of Yareg deposits.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding crude concentrate and separating titanium- and silicon-containing fractions for obtaining rich titanium-containing concentrate. Ground initial concentrate is classified according to class 0.2 mm; product at size +0.2 mm is subjected to regrinding at additional separation of -0.2 mm fraction; -0.2 mm fractions are combined and are subjected to wet separation in field at magnetic induction of up to 0.1 T for separation of iron-containing fraction. Non-magnetic fraction thus obtained is subjected to dehydration and titanium- and silicon-containing fractions are separated by rough floatation obtaining froth product enriched with leucoxene and chamber product enriched with quartz; chamber product is dehydrated, ground and is subjected to check floatation for obtaining froth product enriched with leucoxene; froth product of check floatation is combined with froth product of rough floatation and is subjected to cleaner floatation for obtaining rich titanium-containing concentrate in froth product; chamber products of cleaner floatation at obtaining additional intermediate titanium-containing. Floatation at all stages is performed in acid medium with mixture of primary and secondary amines.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of separation of titanium- and silicon-containing concentrates; reduced power requirements; increased extraction of titanium-containing fractions.
4 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: inorganic compounds technologies.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of titanium-calcium mineral raw material, in particular to acid decomposition of sphene concentrate, and can be used to produce titanium dioxide and products based thereof. Prior to be treated with acid, concentrate is subjected to mechanical activation with energy supply intensity 10 kJ/s per 1 kg concentrate within 5 to 30 min. Mechanical activation in carbon dioxide medium is also possible at CO2 consumption 0.2-0,8 mole/mole CaO. For acid treatment of concentrate, 15-20% nitric acid is used at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, wherein additional titanium is transferred into solution. Resulting reaction mass is filtered to separate silica residue.
EFFECT: increased feasibility of process due to reduced acid treatment temperature and allowed atmospheric pressure.
2 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy; devices for purification of a spongy titanium.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of nonferrous metallurgy, in particular, to devices for purification of a spongy titanium. The technical result is an increase of productivity of the apparatus due to decrease of labor input for its servicing and acceleration of the process of a vacuum separation due to stabilization of a temperature mode in a retort-condenser. The apparatus contains a retort-reactor with a bottom branch-pipe and a false bottom closed by a cover with a central branch-pipe closed by a fusible stopper plug, a retort-condenser with a bottom branch-pipe with a stopper plug, a caisson with a distributor of water, a heated screen and with a fusible stopper plug. The apparatus in addition is supplied with a metallic nozzle mounted rigidly in the central branch-pipe of the cover under the fusible stopper plug and made in the form of a truncated cone with its smaller base facing a fusible stopper plug and with an inlet and outlet holes, a metallic shell mounted in the bottom branch-pipe of the retort-condenser and rigidly connected with the stopper plug, and with a sealed cover mounted rigidly in the upper part of the caisson. Under the sealed cover there are a bottom branch pipe of the retort-condenser and a water distributor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased productivity of the apparatus, decreased labor input for its servicing, acceleration of the vacuum separation process, stabilization of a temperature mode in the retort-condenser.
7 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of reprocessing of titanium-silicon raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to methods of reprocessing of titanium-silicon raw materials and may be used for production of high quality goods on the basis of titanium. As a starting raw material use titanium-silicon product nitrogenous- fluoride decomposition of sphene concentrate and treat it with 80-85 % sulfuric acid. Titanium-silicon product has a structure (in mass %): 48.80-50.90 TiO2; 36.50-38.10SiO2; 1.78-1.85 CaO; 0.64-0.66Fe2O3; 0.23-0.24Al2O3; 0.50-0.52(T2O5 + Nb2O5); 0.020-0.021Ln2O3; 2.20-2.30 F; 5.41-9.33H2O. Sulfuric acid and titanium-silicon product are taken in the quantity meeting to the mass ratio ofH2SO4:TiO2 = l.5-l.6 : 1. The reaction mass is formed by its briquetting, heat it up to 150-160°C and hold at the temperature of heating. The conglomerated fragile porous cakes are cooled and leached by water with production of a titanium sulfate solution. The technical effect is an increased degree of extraction of titanium in the solution at a simultaneous raise of technological effectiveness of the method due to a decreased consumption of the acid, a decreased power input in the process and prevention of sintering of the reaction mass into a monolithic fusion cake. In addition the method improves the quality the produced titanium sulfate solution due to a decrease of the acid factor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased extraction of titanium in the solution and improved the quality at a simultaneous raise of technological effectiveness of the method, decreased consumption of the acid and the power input, prevention of sintering of the reaction mass into a monolithic fusion cake.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: metallurgy of rare metals; methods of processing of titanium-silicon containing concentrates.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of metallurgy of rare metals, in particular, to the methods of processing of quartz- leucoxene concentrates of Yaregsky deposit containing high concentrations of the secondary rutile-quartz aggregate and may be used for production of artificial rutile - the raw for production of titanium by a chloric method and pigmental titanium dioxide. The method of the processing provides that the initial flotation quartz- leucoxene concentrate of 0.1 mm coarseness is treated with ammonium fluoride at its injection in a mass ratio to the concentrate of(0.6-1.25 : 1), and at the temperature of 195-205°C. Titanium and silicon compounds separation at the thermal treatment of the produced product is conducted at the temperature of 295-305°C with sublimation of ammonium silicofluoride and production in the bottom of the artificial rutile containing 90-95 % of titanium dioxide. Sublimates of ammonium silicofluoride are treated with handle an ammonia water gained at fluorination of the source concentrate with production of sediment of a silicon dioxide and the solution of ammonium fluoride after separation of silicon dioxide sediment is evaporated with production of ammonium fluoride, which is fed back for fluorination of a new batch of the initial concentrate. The technical result of the method is simplification of the process, reduction of power inputs and reduction of consumption of fluorine-containing reactant.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification of the process, reduction of power inputs and reduction of consumption of fluorine-containing reactant.
FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric furnace that receives the reducing apparatus which has reducing retort with the bottom branch pipe, false bottom, and lid with branch pipe for supplying magnesium, branch pipe for evacuating and supplying titanium tetrachloride and water-cooled flange with the openings for supplying, measuring, and discharging argon from the apparatus, drain device with seat, valving needle, and guiding pipe. The ratio of the inner diameter of the furnace to the diameter of the retort is (1.12-1.16):1 and the ratio of the height of the false bottom to the height of the retort is (0.07-0.08):1. The device is additionally provided with the shell axially aligned with respect to the bottom branch pipe and rigidly connected to the seat of the drain device. The opening for supplying, measuring, and discharging argon are provided with pulse connecting pipes. The diameter of the shell is equal to the diameter of the guiding pipe. In addition, one of the connecting pipes is connected with the line for supplying argon, and the other one to the instrument for measuring pressure.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises reducing apparatus provided with lid, drain device, and mounted in the furnace with electric heaters. The furnace has casing and lining provided with passages for supplying air to the furnace and discharging air from the furnace and bottom. The bottom of the furnace is provided with passages inclined at an angle of 20-30° and directed to the drain device of the apparatus. The passages receive pipes for supplying compressed air and connected with the system for supplying compressed air.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and safety.
FIELD: hydrometallurgy; ore concentrates processing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of hydrometallurgy, in particular, to processing of the loparite concentrate. The method includes a decomposing of the loparite concentrate at the temperatures of 103-105°C and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid of 38-42 mass % with production of the pulp containing fluorides of titanium, rare earth elements (REE), niobium, tantalum and sodium. The pulp is filtered at the temperature of 90-95°C with extraction into the fluorotitanium solution of fluorides of niobium and tantalum and no less than 58 % of sodium in terms ofNa2O and separation of the sediment containing fluorides of rare earth elements (REE) and a residual sodium. The produced solution is cooled down to 18-24°C with separation of the second sediment of sodium fluorotitanate. After that they extract niobium and a tantalum from the solution by octanol-1 extraction at a ratio of the organic and water phases as 1.1 : 1. The sediment of REE fluorides is washed from fluorotitanate by sodium water in a single phase at the temperature of 90-95°C and at the solid :liquid ratio = 1:2-2.5. The cleansing solution is separated and evaporated with extraction of the additional sediment of sodium fluorotitanate. After extraction of niobium and tantalum the fluorotitanium solution is evaporated and filtered with separation of the first sediment of sodium fluorotitanate from the concentrated solution of fluorotitanium acid, which is directed to extraction of titanium. The gained first, second and additional sediments of sodium fluorotitanate are combined and subjected to conversion with production of sodium fluorosilicate and the conversional fluorotitanium acid added to fluorotitanium solution before its evaporation. The technical result of the invention is a decrease in 2.0-2.5 times of the volume of the cleansing solutions at provision of a high degree of extraction of compounds of titanium and other target products. The produced sodium fluorotitanate contains the decreased amount of the impurity ingredients of calcium and strontium.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a decrease in two-two and a half times of the volume of the used cleansing solutions at provision of a high degree of extraction of compounds of titanium and other target products and a decreased amount of impurities of calcium and strontium in the sodium fluorotitanate.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: metallurgy; production of metals in liquid-phase continuous-action units.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in complex extraction of metals possessing affinity for oxygen lesser than aluminum from iron ore concentrates and powder-like metal-containing wastes increasing to 100% processing of solid iron-containing materials and removing molten cast iron from burden. Proposed method includes delivery of loose materials to reaction chamber, introduction of oxygen and reductant, complete conversion of metal and slag into foam emulsion, building-up increased pulsating pressure in reaction chamber within 0.4-3.0 Mpa at considerable deviation of system from thermo-dynamic equilibrium by organization of escape of two-phase medium from reaction chamber to refining settler at critical velocity, separation of metal and gas and discharge of gas through high layer of emulsion at definite velocity. For separation of iron-containing components and components enriched with alloying elements, accompanying flows of oxygen and reductant are fed to reaction chamber through lances located in opposite positions. Ratio of oxygen and reductants fed to reaction chamber and refining settler is calculated on the condition for obtaining content of iron oxide in upper layers of gas-and-slag emulsion within 5-8% of mass of slag. Iron-depleted slag in form of emulsion is fed to forehearth of slag receiver to which carbon-containing reductant at stoichiometric ratio ensuring complete reduction of iron from slag being fed; reduction of all oxides of metals remaining in slag but for silicon and aluminum is performed by alumino-thermal or by combined alumino-silicate-thermal method. In case titanium-containing or any other slag enriched with alloying elements is assigned as final product it is fed from slag receiver directly to granulator. Unit proposed for realization of this method includes spherical reaction chamber with loose material delivery device, device for delivery of accompanying flows of oxygen and gaseous or powder-like reductant, connecting passage, refining settler lance at opposite position relative to connecting passage, first forehearth with tap hole for removal of primary metal and device for delivery of carbon-containing and other loose materials. Mounted in series with refining settler is slag receiver connected with refining settler by means of two passages: lower inclined passage is used for discharge of upper layers of gas-and-slag emulsion to lower part of slag receiver and upper passage is used for discharge of gas through upper part of slag receiver to waste-heat boiler; connected to lower part of slag receiver (depending on kind of final product) are second forehearth with device for delivery of carbo- and metallo-thermal reductants with tap hole for metal and slag and roll-type granulator.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; reduction of power requirements.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex