The method of heating greenhouses and system for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, greenhouse agriculture. The purpose of the invention is the increased efficiency and reduced operating costs. For this convective heating of the air is realized by direct combustion of gas in micromachining burners, located in the volume of the greenhouse, and radiation heat by burning gas in radiation burners. However, record levels of solar radiation and a given graph photosynthetic activity of plants regulate the flow of gas to the burner. This system has, along with sensors for air temperature and soil level sensor solar radiation. 2 c. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, greenhouse agriculture.

The known method of heating greenhouses, including the use of radiation heating of the soil and plants in the process of forcing seedlings, and in the process produce a marketable plant products (1). However, in this case, the method is extremely inefficient at the initial stage of preparing the greenhouse for use on stage defrosting and warming up the soil in them.

TAA account micromachining gas burners (2). In this case there is also a low efficiency of the method, because the soil at the initial stage it is necessary to spend a considerable amount of fuel, which dramatically reduces its efficiency.

Closest to the claimed method is the heating of greenhouses, including specifying valid parameters total heat flow into the greenhouse, as well as air temperature and soil in the greenhouse at every stage of the preparation of greenhouses and growing plants and their maintenance through convective heating of the air and soil, respectively, and the radiation heating of the soil and plants (3).

In this case, convective heating of the air carry out electrical and water systems, heating and radiation heating by means of electric lamps, which is also inefficient and has a high energy consumption.

This method is implemented using a system for heating greenhouses, including units of convective heating of the air and blocks the radiation of the heating plant and soil, temperature sensors with blocks register (3), this system is closest to the stated. The known system also has a low efficiency and also has a high intensity and large akitsa the impossibility of accounting for the photosynthetic activity of plants, what is very significant, because only in conjunction with this information you can actually be within acceptable limits heat balance.

Therefore, the technical result of the present invention regarding the method and devices is increasing its efficiency and reducing operating costs.

On how this is achieved by convective heating of the air is realized by direct combustion of gas in micromachining burners, located in the volume of the greenhouse, and radiation heat by burning gas in radiation burners, additionally register the current level of solar radiation and for each phase or time of growing plants set corresponding graph photosynthetic activity of plants, depending on which level of solar activity and from the values mentioned set of valid settings are correct gas burners.

And the fact that a given total heat flow into the greenhouse to reduce the current value of the heat flux of solar radiation.

And this technical result concerning the system is achieved by the fact that the system, vkluchay with blocks registration also equipped with a level sensor solar radiation with the corresponding recording unit Central gas pipeline and outlet gas pipelines, temperature sensors made in the form of temperature sensors, soil and air, blocks convective heating is made in the form micromachining burners, and blocks radiation of heat in the form of radiation gas burners all burners through the discharge piping is in communication with the Central pipe, in addition, microfamilies gas burners are installed around the perimeter of the greenhouse and along her inner span supports, and radiation gas burners are located on the data supports, with all burners are made with the possibility of adjustment of the feed gas.

And the fact that radiation gas burners are installed to control their position on the span piers height.

And, furthermore, because it is equipped with a control unit, the input of which is connected to the outputs of the temperature sensors and level of solar radiation, and outputs a control unit connected to the corresponding inputs of the control unit of gas supply in microfamilies and radiation gas burners.

In Fig. 1 present the layout of nodes and units of the system for implementing the inventive method, in Fig.3 is a General view of the placement of these burners in the amount of greenhouses on its blocks (sections).

The method can be implemented using a system including a Central gas pipeline 1 and the discharge gas pipelines 2, temperature sensors, made in the form of temperature sensors 3 soil and air 4 with the corresponding blocks register (not shown), blocks convective heating, made in the form of microfocusing gas burners 5, blocks radiation of heat in the form of a radiation gas burners 6 and the burner 5 and 6 through the outlet pipes 2 is in communication with the Central pipe 1, in addition, microfamilies gas burner 5 is installed around the perimeter 7 of the greenhouse 8 and along her inner span of the supports 9, and radiation gas burners 6 are located on the data supports 9, while the burner 5, 6 (see implementation structures 5) is arranged to adjust the feed gas. Radiation gas burner 6 is installed with the ability to regulate their position to span the supports 9 in height. The system can be equipped with a control unit 10, the entrance of which is in this case connected to the outputs of the temperature sensors 3, 4, and outputs a control unit 10 connected with sotonye 6 gas burners. These nodes can be implemented as individual burners 5 and 6, and pipelines 1 and 2 (see, for example, 4). The system is also equipped with level sensor solar radiation 12 with the corresponding recording unit (all units registration or not shown or combined with appropriate sensors), which, in the particular case, can be connected to the input of the control unit 10, which can be implemented on the basis of a microcomputer with appropriate matching and control units that are now widely known from the prior art.

The method of using this system is implemented as follows. The whole process of heating greenhouses is divided into three stages, the first stage defrosting and heating of the soil, which is an average of 5-14 days and during which the soil is thawed to a depth of 5-15 cm, the second stage - from sowing to emergence, which averages 10-21 days, the soil when it is heated to a depth of 12-25 cm, the third stage of plant growth (e.g., seedlings), which averages 20-65 days and in which the depth of heating of the soil reaches more than 30-40 see

The first stage usually begins in late winter (February). The soil in the greenhouse in this case, the totally the total heat flux in a greenhouse set at 300-600 watts/square meters Thus the value of solar radiation is so small that at this stage it can be neglected (see , for example, 6). Establish the relationship between radiative and convective components of the above values of the heat flux in the range (3-5): 1, 4:1, (e.g., 400:100 W/sq m) This allows for convection and work micromachining burners 5 to maintain the temperature of the air in the greenhouse 8 a few degrees above zero, and the majority of the heat flow of defrosting and heating of the soil, because the radiation from the burners 6 heat flow with almost no loss is transferred to the soil. The soil temperature must be set to an average of 15 to 25 degrees Celsius, depending on the crop.

In the second stage, at the expense of some increase in the proportion of stream radiative heating (with a ratio of the above components, as, for example, 450:80 watts/sq m), the soil is heated to a predetermined depth when the air temperature in the greenhouse 8 is not higher than 12-14 degrees. In this case, only at the end of the stage there is the presence of seedlings and, therefore, the photosynthetic activity of plants to be considered early, i.e. during the first two stages it is almost equal to zero (see 6).

The application of the proposed method and system allows a high degree of efficiency at minimum cost for construction of this system and its operation to perform the heating of greenhouses and allows you to get extremely high productivity associated with a significantly increased uptake of carbon dioxide by plants, while the growth of the crop is up to 70-100% in comparison with the known methods of heating greenhouses for growing plants.

Sources of information:

1. Paten the>/P>3. The patent of Russian Federation N 2048071, publ. 20.11.95.

4. Garbuz C. M. and other Development and operation of heating and ventilating greenhouses, recommendations. Moscow, Rosagropromizdat, 1988, S. 3-40.

5. Gulko So Century. and other Gasification and gas supply to agriculture. Moscow, ERIC "Farmer", 1994, S. 20-36.

6. Klapwijk D. Climate greenhouse management and plant growth. Moscow, Kolos, 1976.

1. The method of heating of greenhouses, including specifying valid parameters total heat flow into the greenhouse, as well as air temperature and soil in the greenhouse at every stage of the preparation of greenhouses and growing plants and their maintenance through convective heating of the air and soil, respectively, and the radiation heating of the soil and plants, characterized in that the convective heating is carried out by direct combustion of gas in micromachining burners, located in the volume of the greenhouse, and radiation heat by burning gas in radiation burners, while additionally register the current level of solar radiation, and for each phase or time of growing plants set an appropriate schedule of photosynthetic activity of plants, depending on Klooga flow in the greenhouse adjust the gas flow microfamilies and radiation burner.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the specified total heat flow into the greenhouse to reduce the current value of the heat flux of solar radiation.

3. System for heating greenhouses, including units of convective heating of the air and blocks the radiation of the heating plant and soil, temperature sensors with blocks registration, characterized in that it is equipped with a level sensor solar radiation with the corresponding recording unit, Central gas pipeline and outlet gas pipelines, while the temperature sensors in the form of temperature sensors, soil and air, blocks convective heating in the form of microfocusing burners, and blocks radiation of heat in the form of radiation gas burners all burners through the discharge piping is in communication with the Central pipe, in addition, microfamilies gas burners are installed around the perimeter of the greenhouse and along her inner span supports, and radiation gas burners are located on the data supports, all burners are made with adjustable feed gas.

4. The system under item 3, characterized in that the radiation gas burners are installed with Forex is that it is equipped with a control unit, to the input of which is connected to the outputs of the temperature sensors and level of solar radiation, and outputs a control unit connected to the corresponding inputs of the control nodes of gas supply in microfamilies and radiation gas burners.

 

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