Method and device for the storage of hazardous waste
(57) Abstract:Device for storage of hazardous waste, including radioactive waste, includes a storage device (10) consisting of cylindrical concrete body (11) having a Central cavity for receiving the container (A) waste and channels for the flow of cooling substance, arranged around a Central cavity. The Central cavity formed by the vessel (13), preferably cylindrical and concentric with the concrete body (11), which is enclosed in a concrete and sealed before pouring concrete. The channels are formed by cooling system (14) pipes, which are also encased in concrete, and the openings which are open and connected with the inner space of the vessel (13). The Assembly of such concrete bodies are placed in the Central cavity of the concrete shaft and pour water for cooling. The technical result consists in increasing the reliability of the storage of hazardous waste by reducing the likelihood of their release into the environment. 3 S. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to a method and apparatus for storing hazardous wastes, including radioactive wastes, such as, for example, used fuel rods and the like, Cotai even century.Storage in accordance with the invention may be arranged as in the so-called final storage, and temporary storage, i.e. in those cases where it may be desirable to subject the waste processing or recycling after they were stored for a short or long time.In the publication WO 91/05351 described system intended for storage in the sea far from the shores of the above substances. This system includes a primary storage modules in the form of cylindrical concrete bodies having a Central cavity, designed for waste disposal and secondary storage in the form of a substantially larger concrete structure adapted for immersion in the burial place on the seabed and to the reception in the immersed position of a large number of primary modules storage. As the primary modules of storage, and secondary storage modules have compartments to provide buoyancy and reception of ballast that can be filled with water or drained so that the modules can be moved around the surface of the water to the storage location where they can be shipped or brought to the surface.The storage modules associated with this image which I is a concrete body, having a Central cavity for waste and channels for the flow of cooler, located near the Central cavity. Therefore, the present invention can be viewed as based on the previous method described in the aforementioned publication.The invention will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings, which show one possible implementation of the primary storage and secondary storage module.Fig.1 depicts a longitudinal (axial) section of the primary storage module;
Fig. 2 is a cross section of the primary storage module along the line II-II in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is longitudinal (axial) section of the secondary storage module;
Fig. 4 is a cross section of the secondary storage module along the line II-II in Fig.1.As shown in Fig. 1, the primary storage module 10 consists essentially of a cylindrical (or slightly conical) reinforced steel concrete body 11, the container Assembly 12, the whole enclosed in a concrete body and consisting of a cylindrical tubular vessel 13, concentrated concrete body, and the system pipe 14 which is connected with the inner space of the vessel. The container Assembly 12 wipey the storage module 10 contains within vessel 13 of a cylindrical metal container A, containing a hazardous substance that is intended for storage, such as used nuclear fuel rods. Supporting and fixing elements (not shown) holding the container in a centered position relative to the vessel 13 so as to form a circular gap B between the container and the inner wall of the vessel. The space inside the vessel when not engaged in container A, and 14 of the pipes filled with liquid cooling, convective flows which can circulate inside the vessel around A container system 14 pipes.The container Assembly 12 is hermetically sealed and completely enclosed in concrete, made of one-piece concrete body 11. Therefore, there are no channels that can conduct the fluid between the outer side of the concrete body 11 and the outer side of the container Assembly 12 or between the inside of the container Assembly 12 and the surrounding concrete.The ends of the tubular vessel 13 closed bottom, essentially conical end wall 16 and the upper domed end wall 17. The upper end wall 17 is mounted, preferably by welding after the introduction of A container into the vessel 13.14 pipes made of Bolo body 11 near the peripheral surface 11A of the concrete body, and two radial portion 18B, which narashima connected, preferably welded to the vessel 13 near its ends. Preferably, part of the pipes 18A was located relatively close to the peripheral surface 11A to the heat given out from the vessel 13 by means of a refrigerant can be withdrawn from the storage device 10 through the coolant flows which flow round the latter. Circulation system formed by the system 14 of the pipe and the inner space should be designed to promote circulation.The concrete body 11 is supplied to the prestressing reinforcement acting in the axial and in the radial direction.Pre-tense valves acting in the axial direction, includes a ring of prestressed and located in the axial direction of the reinforcing elements 20 made of steel wire, preferably of the well-tensile stainless steel, which is located circumferentially between the axial portions of the pipes 18A and the peripheral surface of the concrete body.Pre-tense valves acting in the radial direction, consists of prestressing reinforcement-based steel is ü 11A concrete body 11 and, accordingly, are not enclosed in concrete.As the armature 20 and valve 21 provide effective protection system 14 of the pipe excluding damage of this system if the concrete body 11 is subjected to shock or other strong influences from the outside.It is advisable that the surface of the concrete body, which is axially opposite the upper end wall 17, was free from the steel reinforcement to the concrete on this surface, and the upper end wall can be quickly and accurately removed by drilling to provide access to A container without damaging it for later retrieval.Removing the storage module 10 is as follows.First, the container A is placed in the container Assembly 12, which is open only at the upper end of the vessel and filled with coolant (water). The upper end wall 17 is set so that the container Assembly was sealed.If the fill is not carried out immediately after the blockage of the container Assembly 12, the latter may be placed in a tank of cooling to fill out.In the cooking process to fill the sealed container Assembly 12 we will lay in a steel form DL CLASS="ptx2">Poured concrete should good enough to harden before removing the forms. The heat content of the container is absorbed by the concrete and accelerates the setting, thus, disassembly of the forms can be produced in a small time - half a day or perhaps even a few hours. Through a small additional time prestressed reinforcing elements 20 are discharged. If necessary, the concrete body can be placed in the tank for cooling.Finally the concrete body 11 provided with a valve 21, acting in the radial direction, by navipane pre-stressed reinforcing wire around the peripheral surface 11A and sealing ends of the wire.After the storage device 10 is designed so that it can be placed in secondary storage module, which is shown in Fig. 3 and generally designated as 30.Secondary storage module 30 also consists of a cylindrical tubular concrete body 31 having a Central cylindrical cavity and the surrounding ring of axial cooling channels 33, which are connected with the cavity 32 near its ends by means of radial channels 34. The cavity 32, which hermetic ervicing storage modules 10, centered in the cavity by means of respective locking elements (not shown) so that the annular gap is formed between the cavity wall and the stack of modules 10, through which can flow convective flow of liquid coolant (water). In Fig. 3 solid lines shows one primary storage modules 10, and additional such modules are shown in phantom lines. If necessary, these modules can be separated from each other in the axis direction with ears located on the end surfaces of these modules, or by inserting additional elements. 1. Device for storage of hazardous waste, including radioactive waste, including storage module (10), which is essentially a cylindrical concrete glass (11) having a Central cavity for encapsulation of waste container (A), the channels for the flow of cooler, arranged around a Central cavity, and a Central cavity formed by the vessel (13), mostly cylindrical, concentric with the concrete body (11) and encased in concrete, characterized in that the vessel (13) is sealed to the concrete body (12) and completely and narashima salon and gaps which are open and connected with the inner space of the vessel (13).2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the ring of prestressed reinforcing elements (20), oriented in the axial direction, is located in the concrete body (11) between the pipe (14) and a peripheral surface (11A) of the concrete body (11).3. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the pre-tense of the reinforcing wire (21) is wound around the peripheral surface (11A) of the concrete body.4. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that a large part of the pipe (14), forming the cooling channels, is radially remote part of the concrete body (11).5. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the receptacle (13) and pipe (14) is made of corrosion-resistant material, such as stainless steel.6. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that in it the ends of the vessel (13) are closed convex end walls (16, 17).7. Device for storage of hazardous waste, including radioactive waste, comprising a cylindrical concrete body (31) for storing having a Central cylindrical cavity (32), with the possibility of a stoppering and opening for the introduction of paloose (32), characterized in that the body (31) to hold is an external receiver, adapted for introduction into its cavity (32) multiple storage modules (10) according to any one of the preceding paragraphs and education stack of such modules stored in the cavity, with said cooling channels (33) are connected to the Central cavity (32) in a closed circulation system.8. The way the content of hazardous waste, in particular radioactive waste in the concrete body, characterized in that the waste, preferably enclosed in a sealed container (A), is introduced into the vessel (13), preferably cylindrical, which is made of corrosion-resistant material, in particular metal, such as stainless steel, and surrounded by a ring (14) of the cooling pipes and the openings are freely communicated with the internal space of the vessel, then the vessel (13) is sealed and provide a complete and permanent fill the blockage, including prisoners in it waste, and system (14) cooling pipes in the concrete.9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that filling the form in which perform the filling, place the ring of prestressed reinforcing elements (20) outside the system (14) cooling pipes.
FIELD: safety facilities for handling radioactive materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed internal container designed for long-time storage and transport of high-radioactivity materials such as plutonium dioxide has container body closed with sealed cover and specified-volume charging box placed in this body and provided with its respective cover. Container body has cylindrical passage for charging box that mounts additional internal cover provided with gas filtering device and hermetically installed relative to its surface for axial displacement. External cover of container body is provided with shut-off valve accommodating gas filtering device installed therein between inner space of container and valve seat. Such mechanical design of container enables reducing irreparable loss of plutonium during its long-time storage and transport.
EFFECT: enhanced safety and reliability , enlarged functional capabilities of container.
7 cl, 2 dwg