Heat pump

 

(57) Abstract:

The heat pump contains a refrigerant circuit including the compressor, oil separator, condenser, subcooler, a throttling organ, the evaporator and the line of oil circulation, including oil, additional oil cooler, oil pump and oil cooler connected to the compressor. To increase the heat output of the heat pump and ensure reliability in the refrigerant circuit of the heat pump installed in a throttling organ and consistently placed behind the subcooler heat exchanger-evaporator, annulus which is connected by piping with the annular space of the cooler, which, in turn, is connected to the compressor. 1 Il.

The invention relates to refrigeration, particularly for units with screw compressors, and relates to heat pumps using oil flooded screw compressors.

When calculating theoretical cycles and schematic diagrams vapor compression refrigerating machines it is known that increasing the condensing temperature of the working substance increases the degree of increase of the pressure and the evaporator, respectively), that leads to deterioration of volumetric and energy ratios of the compressors, which, in turn, increases the capital and operating costs of getting cold. In addition, with the growth of the Pto/P0increase loss by throttling and losses associated with the exhaust heat of superheat of the working substance. Formed by throttling the steam, entering first into the evaporator, and then into the compressor, requires for its advanced compression spent. In addition, the larger the temperature difference (Tto-T0), the more vapor is formed by throttling, and thus, a growing proportion of the work required for compression of steam. Therefore, the throttling can be appropriately dividing the pressure drop from the condenser Ptoto the evaporator P0into several parts, and after each step of throttling required steam extraction and its compression in the compressor. Studied that the work required to compress vapor from multiple throttling when his step-by-step removal and compression, less work required to compress a pair formed by a single throttle.

Known heat pump that contains the compressor, condenser, subcooler, throttle is to-T0). However, the application of the regenerative heat exchanger increases the work of compression in the compressor. Apply also a multi-stage and cascaded heat pumps, in which the vaporous working medium is compressed sequentially, at least two compressors with low values of Pto/P0and then cooled in the condenser is divided into two sections. Thus throttling the working fluid in both stages is accompanied by lower total losses (E. I. Yantovsky, Y. C. Pustovalov /vapor compression heat pump installation. The publishing house "Energoizdat", M, 1982, S. 7-27).

Known cooling system with oil flooded screw compressor, in which the loss reduction is achieved through a two-stage throttling the exhaust steam at intermediate pressure. The design is characterized by the presence of the heat exchanger and the two throttle valves instead of one. Formed as a result of the first throttling the steam passes from the heat exchanger to the compressor. Liquid supercooled refrigerant (main thread) after the heat exchanger is choked and enters the evaporator, where after evaporation is sucked by the compressor. Mandatory condition javlja large heat transfer coefficients of wet steam in the suction pipe and the suction path of the compressor, which moves the wet steam, there is an intensive heat exchange with the environment, leading to a deterioration of the energy characteristics of the compressor (Ed. by I. A. Sakuna /Refrigeration machines. Publishing house "engineering", 1985, S. 52-82).

The disadvantage of these units is large, the intensity and large heat losses in all elements of the heat pump.

Known heat pump containing a circulating refrigerant circuit, which established the oil flooded screw compressor, condenser, throttling the body and the evaporator. Circuit oil contains two parallel highways, one of which, in particular oil supply to the compressor into the cavity of the compression on the discharge side, includes oil separator, oil pump, oil cooler connected to the compressor and the cooler water is connected to the low-grade heat source (AV.St. SU 1783260, CL F 25 B 43/02, 1992). In high temperature heat pumps, when the condensation temperature exceeds 80oC, there are large pressure differences Pto/P0that leads, as already indicated, to a large thermal losses and unstable operation of the heat pump due to overheating of steam.

The basis of the invention the goal is to create high-performance systems for the circulation of refrigerant and oil, providing operational reliability and efficiency of the heat pump.

This task is solved in that in a heat pump that contains connected in series by refrigerant oil flooded screw compressor, oil separator, condenser, subcooler, a throttling organ, the evaporator and the circuit of the oil containing the two highways, one of which, in particular, connected with the feed line from the oil in the cavity of the compression ratio of the compressor at the discharge side, includes an oil separator, an additional oil cooler, oil pump, oil cooler connected to the compressor, as well as inlet and outlet of the coolant in the condenser, additional oil cooler connected to the heating water circuit, and the subcooler evaporator, connected to the low-grade heat source, according to the invention in a pump installed in a throttling organ and consistently placed behind the subcooler heat exchanger-evaporator, annulus which is connected by piping with the annular space of masloohladitelyah diagram of a heat pump supplementary heat exchanger-evaporator reduces the temperature of the liquid refrigerant, coming to the main evaporator of the heat pump, as well as to reduce the temperature of the oil supplied to the compressor due to the fumes coming from the annulus of the heat exchanger-evaporator into the compressor, and at the same time to drain the steam, which, ultimately, will allow to create conditions for heat pump operation in the optimal mode by improving the modes of operation of the compressor, and thus to improve the reliability of operation of the heat pump and heat output.

The invention is further illustrated by the drawing, which shows a diagram of the proposed heat pump.

The heat pump contains connected in series in the refrigerant evaporator 1, a compressor 2, a separator 3, a condenser 4, a subcooler 5, the first throttling body 6, the heat exchanger-evaporator 7, the second throttling body 8 and the circuit of the oil in the form of two highways, one of which, in particular, is connected to feed line oil into the cavity of the compression ratio of the compressor 2 at the discharge side to lubricate the bearings, contains the oil separator 3, an additional oil cooler 9, the oil pump 10, the oil cooler 11 made in the form of shell and tube heat exchanger pipes which is arielm 7 and the compressor 2. The coolant condenser 4 is connected to the circulation loop heating water 12, and additional oil cooler 9 connected in parallel and disposed of the heat generated from this node. On line water circulation in the supplementary oil cooler 9 is installed regulatory body 13 that is associated with a temperature sensor 14. The evaporator and subcooler water associated with low-grade heat sources,

The heat pump operates as follows. A pair of refrigerant from the evaporator 1 with injected into the compressor 2 oil and oil coming from the bearing chambers of the compressor 2, is compressed therein and then fed to the separator 3, where the separation of the condensed oil from the refrigerant vapor, which then enter the condenser 4. In the condenser 4, the refrigerant is condensed, and then the liquid refrigerant enters the subcooler 5. After the subcooler 5, the liquid refrigerant is divided into two streams: the lower part is choked in additional throttling body 6 and enters the annulus of the heat exchanger-evaporator 7, and most of it goes through the pipes of the heat exchanger-evaporator 7 and is cooled in teplosberezheniya body 8 and enters the evaporator 1. Hot oil, leaving the oil separator 3, enters the additional oil cooler 9 and the pump 10 is supplied to the oil cooler 11 and then into the compressor 2. Annulus of the oil cooler 11 is connected with the annular space of the heat exchanger-evaporator 7 in which the steam from the boiling of refrigerant in it after throttling it in additional throttling body 6. Pairs when passing through the annulus of the oil cooler 11 cool in the heat passing through the pipes oil, simultaneously dried and becomes superheated, and then enters the compressor 2. This eliminates the need for installing a heat exchanger for dehumidification of the refrigerant vapor.

This invention allows the use of oil flooded screw compressors in high temperature heat pumps used in heating systems and hot water, with high thermal performance and reliability.

Heat pump containing a refrigerant circuit including oil flooded screw compressor, oil separator, condenser, throttling body, an evaporator, an additional reactor and the separator, and the circuit of maslia, the oil separator and oil cooler connected to the compressor, characterized in that the circuit of the oil supplied to the second parallel line, oil pump and an additional oil cooler, the heat pump is equipped with a line inlet and outlet of the coolant in the condenser and additional oil cooler connected to the heating water circuit, and sequentially placed the subcooler and the heat exchanger-evaporator, annulus which is connected by piping with the annular space of the cooler, which, in turn, are connected via an additional pipe to the compressor, and the subcooler and an evaporator connected with a source of low-grade heat.

 

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