Method and burner for burning hydrogen
(57) Abstract:In the method and burner for the combustion of hydrogen in the diffusion combustion of the hydrogen and the oxidant is fed to the burner, and, furthermore, the main direction of flow is determined by the direction of flow of the oxidant and hydrogen in directed mainly perpendicular to the main direction of flow transverse flow is distributed to the individual combustion zones, the invention lies in the fact that as the oxidant is air and the cross-flow is associated with a fine distribution of a large number of individual micro-watersheds burning. In particular, it is preferable that the technological costs, despite a significant increase in the number of combustion zones, remain low. When using the invention the technical result is to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides. 4 C. and 29 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to a method of burning hydrogen and the burner for the combustion of hydrogen.Hydrogen (H2) as fuel for burners of all types, e.g. for combustion chambers of gas turbines, is also of very high reactivity and thereby also extremely large stabilin turbines. Thanks to the publications of Heywood and Mikus in engineering combustion engines it is known that in the area with high excess air, increasing the degree of mixing reduces the formation of nitric oxide (NO). This gives a minimum education of nitric oxide in a completely homogeneous air-fuel combustible mixtures, which can be achieved approximately by pre-mixing before combustion zone. The corresponding proposal homogeneous, pre-mixed combustion of hydrogen available from the company "Pratt & Whitney of Canada". Despite the benefits of pre-mixing from the point of view of reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides, the major drawback of this measure is that, in principle, possible overshoot of the flame in the mixing zone.Technical solutions of the respective burners pre-mix show relatively simple design. Thus, for example, a distribution chamber plate for hydrogen is inserted crosswise to the direction of flow of air, hereinafter called the principal direction of flow in the combustion chamber and the distribution chamber is penetrated in the main directions of the second tube is connected through a small hole, located near the inlet, with the distribution chamber. Now if the hydrogen is sent into the distribution chamber, it flows across the main direction of flow to individual holes and falls thus in vostokovedenie tube. If now simultaneously through vostokovedenie tube into the combustion chamber of blown air, both gas are mixed inside vozduhovodnogo pipe. The resulting mixture enters then into the combustion chamber and ignited. Due to the location of the distribution chamber is substantially simplifies the design of the burner, because in this way it is possible to avoid individual pipelines to supply hydrogen to separate vozduhovodnom tubes or burning zones.Given the value of the degree of mixing, whereas the formation of nitrogen oxides during the combustion of hydrogen, which became known hydrogen burner and hydrogen combustion chamber, which operate without pre-mixing, i.e. on the principle of diffusion combustion, have increased the number of injection nozzles for supplying hydrogen. It is usually about traditional vortex nozzles, the respective solutions were presented OpenType, for example, a society WORK, the number of combustion zones mono increase by a factor of five or more, so in a certain chamber, the amount of he burning can be increased, for example, from 30 to 150 or more. While some of the combustion zone have a diameter of about 20 mm to the Further reduction zone of combustion and thereby increasing the number of underlying nozzles prevents necessary in this case, a large number of individual pipelines to supply hydrogen.In accordance with this, the basis of the invention lies in the task of improving the method of diffusion combustion of hydrogen and burners to implement this method so that due to the significant increase in the number of combustion zones was achieved by explicitly reducing the formation of nitric oxide in comparison with the previous burners with diffusion combustion.In typical fashion, as well as the corresponding burner, this task is solved by the distinguishing signs of paragraphs 1, 4 and 10 claims.In particular, the advantage is that technology costs despite a significant increase in the number of combustion zones remain low.Preferred perfect is to, the advantage to perform in accordance with paragraph 2 of the claims is that using hydrogen on the structure is particularly good cooling effect.The invention is presented using the drawing and explained in more detail below. In the drawing show:
Fig. 1: view of the burner matrix construction for a combustion chamber,
Fig. 2: a section along the line II-II in accordance with Fig. 1,
Fig. 3: guide pin,
Fig. 4: a section along the line IV-IV in accordance with Fig. 3,
Fig. 5: guide tube guide finger
Fig. 6: two-dimensional design burner
Fig. 7: a section along the line VII-VII according to Fig. 6,
Fig. 8: type of matrix design another burner
Fig. 9: a section along the line IX-IX according to Fig. 8,
Fig. 10: guide tube in accordance with Fig. 9 with the guide finger
Fig. 11: view of XI in accordance with Fig. 10,
Fig. 12: a section along the line XII-XII in accordance with Fig. 10,
Fig. 13: item XIII in accordance with Fig. 10,
Fig. 14: the image in accordance with Fig. 13 with a modified axial guide finger
Fig. 15% of the image in accordance with Fig. 14 with the changed angular position of napravlyaj channels,
Fig. 17: a section along the line XVII-XVII in accordance with Fig. 16,
Fig. 18: view of two-dimensional design another burner
Fig. 19: a section along the line XIX-XIX in accordance with Fig. 18,
Fig. 20: burner with integral perforated partition.Fig. 21: type XXI in accordance with Fig. 20,
Fig. 22: burner with a curved distribution channel and
Fig. 23: a section along the line XXIII-XXIII in accordance with Fig. 22.Fig. 1-4 show a burner for the combustion of hydrogen, for example, in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine. The burner has a plate shape and is installed in the combustion chamber transversely to the main direction of flow. Marginal zone of the burner and its connection not shown in the drawing the body of the furnace is not represented and can be done anywhere. The burner consists of a first perforated partitions 2 and the second perforated wall 3, which with the help of a large number of guide tubes 4 are held at a constant distance "d". The orifices can be arranged in accordance with certain matrix samples. The first perforated wall 2, for example, consists of an appropriate metal and is gas-tight. In contrast to atoms from a sintered alloy. The orifices in the two walls 2, 3 are arranged with the same overlap, so that each hole in the first wall 2 forms with the corresponding hole of the second wall 3 a couple of holes. The connection of the burner is created mainly due to the fact that in each pair of holes as spacers inserted and fixed guide tube 4. Guide tubes 4 are otworzenie outward circular grooves 5. Fixing rails tubes 4 in a perforated partition 2 is, for example, by soldering or welding, while recording in the partition 3 may be carried out by flaring or flanging. Thus, in cooperation with the groove 5 between the guide pipes 4 and a perforated partition 3 is respectively a connection with geometric circuit. Thereby largely perforated partitions 2, 3 with the guide pipe 4 to form a distribution chamber. In each guide tube 4 is inserted guide pin 6, as shown in enlarged scale in Fig. 3 and 4. In essence, the guide pin consists of a cylindrical body of revolution with an emphasis 6a, the guide part 6b, the fixing device 8 and the disk 9. The outer diameter of e.g. the log has four axial guide channel 7. The mounting device of Fig. 3 attached right to the guide part and virtually represents a zone with a reduced diameter, which is concentrically attached to the disk 9, the outer diameter of which approximately corresponds to the outer diameter of the guide portion 6b. Emphasis 6a is formed by a short in the axial direction of the zone, outer diameter greater than the outer diameter of the guide portion 6b. In each guide tube 4 from the air supply of the burner is inserted guide Paley 6 until it stops 6a adjacent to the perforated partition 2, and in this position firmly fixed. This kind of node forms respectively injector. For commissioning the burner gaseous hydrogen is fed in between the perforated walls 2, 3 of the distribution chamber. In addition, through the guide tube into the combustion chamber of blown air. While the hydrogen distribution inside the chamber flows across mainstream and is distributed in the form of finely dispersed distribution of local zones of porous perforated wall 3, through which he enters into the combustion chamber and forming a hydrogen atmosphere. At the output displacement of the cone, which is in the process of formation of the mixture with the surrounding hydrogen and produce axisymmetric diffusion flames. Useful for enhancing the mixing process is in this case the interaction of the colliding adjacent conical flares. The geometry of the guide pin 6 is selected so that when inserted to a corresponding emphasis 6a is obtained a predetermined deviation, i.e., a predefined shape of the flame. Also possible that the lugs on weight considerations have been omitted. In this case, the insertion of the guide pin 6 into the guide pipe 4 at a predetermined axial position by using technological regulations. Due to the extremely simple design of the injectors they can be miniaturization in such a way that in each combustion chamber can be set much larger amount. Due to the miniaturization of the specified order is made in accordance with the invention, the combustion zone are called microwaves burning.Fig. 6 and 7 show another embodiment of a burner in accordance with the invention, provided consisting of hydrogen separate elongated distribution canaliculitis alloy. The channels 11 are connected to each other by means of a perforated profiles of the angle-shaped cross-section so that, accordingly, the free longitudinal edge of the perforated profile 13 is fixed on the longitudinal edges of two adjacent distribution channels 11. The orifices 14 are located in a strip lap perforated profiles 13 at the same distance. For commissioning this burner gaseous hydrogen is fed into the distribution channels 11. Simultaneously, through the openings 14 into the combustion chamber of blown air. When this hydrogen distribution channels 11 flows across the main direction of flow and due to the fine distribution is distributed to local areas of the porous walls 12, through which it enters the combustion chamber and forms a hydrogen atmosphere. Due to the air flow in the area of each hole is formed stoichiometric area, which when ignited, the burner forms a proper torch. This burner is made particularly simple and can be made in the form of a sheet structure. Thus, for example, you can do so that U-shaped distribution channels 11 was made of listowel inserting the porous walls 12 adjacent channels 11 are connected to each other, for example, by welding along the free edges of the perforated strips. This burner can be miniaturization so that you can achieve several thousand burning zones inside the furnace chamber.When occurring in the above burners finely dispersed distribution of the hydrogen distribution chambers or distribution channels is distributed to thousands of micro-watersheds burning, so it is as if microdiffusion the hydrogen burning. Due to the fact that in the above burners within the furnace chamber is formed of a hydrogen atmosphere, in which the forced air stream, the result is inverse diffusion combustion, which can be stabilized in the formed zones of mixing in most cases with a turbulent characteristic. A significant advantage of this inverse diffusion combustion of hydrogen is that achieved good cooling structure using hydrogen.In the above-mentioned burners instead of the porous sintered alloys can also be used other porous metal material. So, for example, are taken into account in porous materials based on metal fibers, which are known for the ceramic material. In order to limit the impact of possible in a porous material inhomogeneities, you can include or be used separately perforated sheet with a certain small solution holes of a relatively thin layer of porous material.Fig. 8-11 show another embodiment of the burner, which, however, in contrast to previous works not with inverted and regular diffusion combustion. This burner again consists essentially of two perforated partitions with the same overlap, which in this case is indicated by the positions 15 and 16. Both perforated septum firmly connected to each other through guide pipes 17, which respectively have inlet and outlet openings, so that the newly formed distributing chamber. Near the outlet openings in the guide tube 17 is located a few holes 18 with the same angular step. In each guide tube 17 is inserted guide pin 19, consisting of the stop 20, the guide part 21 and Svobodnoye part 22, and Svobodnaya part of almost represents an axial section of reduced diameter. The stop 20 and the guide portion 21 have a certain share of ruinous part 22. The number of holes 18 corresponds to the number of grooves 23. When commissioning the burner air through the guide tube 17 is injected into the combustion chamber. At the same time in the distribution chamber is hydrogen, so he through a separate hole 18 is introduced into the guide tube and here are fond of coming through the slots 23 by air. Consequently downstream hole 18 is formed micro-combustion, in which the ignition of the combustion chamber is stabilized flame. As the guide pipes 17 in the example of execution have respectively six holes 18, each guide tube is received over six microzone burning. Thereby is obtained a further increase in the number of combustion zones. The application of this principle in the first mentioned chamber, the society of LABOR would increase the number of installed burning zones to about 5000. This again contributes to the fact that even without pre-mixing achieves a very high degree of mixing, the consequence of that is that significantly reduces the formation of nitrogen oxides. By rotation and/or axial displacement of the guide bolts 19 relative to the guide pipes 17 can asset axial position vostokovednyh fingers with the relevant regulations.Fig. 12-15 show various configuration options described above burners. In Fig. 12 the guide pin with the slots 23 is set relative to the guide tube 17 with holes 18 so that the introduction of hydrogen through the holes 18 is between the air jets which pass through the slots 23. Fig. 13 shows the guide pin in the position in which the guide part 21 is tightly fit to the holes 18. As a result of this stream of hydrogen can only be rejected downstream. However, if the guide part 21 is fixed in the guide tube 17 so that there is a slightly greater distance from the holes 18, as shown in Fig. 14, it may be some recirculation. Fig. 15 finally shows a configuration in which incoming through the slots 23 of the air flow, just face coming through the holes in the hydrogen stream. In all these cases fine stream of hydrogen through holes 18 are served in an air atmosphere, so you get a regular diffusion combustion, and only separate the combustion zone have a diameter of about 2 mm. in many cases, the torches stabilize the holes 18. Should have mentioned about Thurs air in accordance with Fig. 15.Fig. 16 and 17 show an embodiment of the invention, and a jet of hydrogen and air before it enters the combustion chamber are routed separately. To do this, use the above guide tubes 17 with apertures 18. These guide tubes are again inserted in the perforated partitions 15 and 16, from which we can see only a perforated partition, indicated by position 16. Used in this case, the guide pin 24 although it has again the grooves 23, however, it is also equipped with two significant changes. First, the finger with a constant diameter is set to approximately the output of the cross-section. Secondly, in between the grooves 23 zones of material in the middle are held in the axial direction of the small guide channels 25. Corresponding guide pin 24 is inserted into the corresponding guide tube 17 so that each hole 18 is included in the guide channel 25. Thus, the beginning of diffusion between hydrogen and air is displaced to the area downstream from the perforated partition wall 16, for example, to avoid excessive thermal loads on the structure. When these solutions torches stabilize the mouths on the wow burning two-dimensional type. This burner again consists of provided for supplying hydrogen separate elongated distribution channel 26, which in contrast to the distribution channels 11 in accordance with Fig. 6 and 7 are closed cross-section. This cross section is determined mainly flat rectangular shape, which, however, right in the figure, the area has a roof-edge 26a. On both sides of the roof-edge offset are small holes 27. Separate channels 26 by using a not shown mounting device to keep a mutual distance from each other, so that they form a lattice, through which in accordance with Fig. 19 from left to right may leak air. Burner contains, in addition, bandpass transitional sheets 28, the longitudinal edges of which the selected notches 29. Transitional leaves 28 are fixed respectively between the two distribution channels 26 in the area of the holes 27 by using a not shown fixing the site so that each hole 27 is associated notch 29. Thus instead of one of the shows holes 27 may be there are also several smaller holes. When commissioning this burner air in accordance with arrows 30 chere is what the inside of the combustion chamber in the respective zones of the holes 27 formed an air atmosphere with a large number of micro-watersheds burning. After ignition of the combustion chamber torches stabilize the holes 27.Fig. 20 and 21 show the burner with integral perforated wall 32 with holes 32a, on which by means of the mounting wstrict 34 secured several distribution channels 33. Distribution channels 33 have an elongated circular cross-section and facing the perforated partition 32 area a large number of holes 35. The mounting device 34 is made of wire or sheet material. As is shown in Fig. 21, with each hole 32a of the perforated partitions 32 paired two openings 35, through which hydrogen may enter in accordance with the arrows 37.When commissioning this burner air in accordance with arrows 36 through the perforated wall 32 is injected into the combustion chamber, resulting inside of the combustion chamber in the respective zones of the holes 35 formed an air atmosphere with a large number of micro-watersheds burning. After ignition of the combustion chamber torches in holes 35 are stabilized.Fig. 22 and 23 show another embodiment of a burner. A partial view in accordance with Fig. 22 shows a curved distribution canalbaraka section. Each distribution channel form a closed ring, which is using its own connection element is connected with a pipe for supplying hydrogen. The connection of the burner is created, for example, by using located between the individual distribution channels 38 wavy separators 39, which are connected to distribution channels, for example, by welding. The separator 39 is made from strips of sheet material and provide a residual distance between a dedicated distribution channels 38 for the passage of air. Valid also to the distribution channel 38 was United by winding with separator 39 for disc-shaped or annular burner, so that the distribution becomes a spiral shape. To create a large number of micro-watersheds burning on the distribution channel 38 again there are holes, which in this case is indicated by the position 40. A common feature of ring and spiral distribution channels is that they have a curved shape. These burners operate on the principle of equal steps, as has been described in connection with Fig. 18-21. 1. The method of burning hydrogen in the diffusion combustion, when the deposits of oxidant, and hydrogen in directed mainly perpendicular to the main direction of flow cross-flow distribute to individual zones of combustion, characterized in that as the oxidant used air and cross the stream associated with fine distribution across a larger number of individual micro-watersheds burning.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that separate zones of the combustion air is directed in a hydrogen atmosphere.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that separate zones of burning hydrogen is directed to an air atmosphere.4. Burner for the combustion of hydrogen under item 1, containing a distribution chamber in a generally plate shape, wherein the distribution chamber consists of a first perforated wall (2) and the second perforated wall (3), which are held at a constant distance (d) and in each guide tube (4) is inserted vostokovedenie finger (6) with multiple axial guide channels (7, 23).5. Burner under item 4, characterized in that the second perforated wall (3) consists of a gas-permeable porous material.6. Burner under item 4, characterized in that the perforated lane, however, what vostokovedenie finger (6) has a fixing device (8) with the disc (9).8. The burner according to one of paragraphs.4-6, characterized in that vostokovedenie finger (6, 19) has a guide portion (21) and svobodolyubivoi part (22).9. The burner according to one of paragraphs.4-6, characterized in that vostokovedenie finger (6, 19, 24) passes from the inlet cross section to the outlet cross-section of the respective guide tube and here has a constant diameter and located between the slots (23) zones of material in the middle are held in the axial direction of the guiding channels (25).10. The burner according to one of paragraphs.5-9, characterized in that the porous material is a sintered alloy.11. The burner according to one of paragraphs.5-9, characterized in that the porous material is a ceramic material.12. The burner according to one of paragraphs.5-9, characterized in that the porous material is a material based on a metal fibers.13. The burner according to one of paragraphs.5-9, characterized in that, before the porous material included transition sheet with a certain small raster of holes.14. The burner according to one of paragraphs.5-9, characterized in that the porous material is replaced performmove is m, what vostokovedenie finger (6, 19) has a stop (6A, 20).16. Burner for implementing the method of burning hydrogen under item 1, the burner includes at least one distribution channel, wherein the distribution channel (11) has a U-shaped cross-section, which side of the furnace is closed with walls (12) of the porous material and the distribution channel (1) with perforated profile (13), the angle-shaped cross-section, is connected to the neighboring distribution channel so that the free longitudinal edge of the perforated profile (13) secured to the longitudinal edges of adjacent distribution channels (11).17. Burner under item 16, characterized in that distribution channel (11, 26, 33, 38) has a curved shape.18. Burner under item 17, characterized in that the burner has a wave-like separator (39).19. The burner according to one of paragraphs.16-18, characterized in that the porous material is a sintered alloy.20. The burner according to one of paragraphs.16-18, characterized in that the porous material is a ceramic material.21. The burner according to one of paragraphs.16-18, characterized in that the porous material has the red porous material included transition sheet with a certain small raster of holes.23. The burner according to one of paragraphs.16-18, characterized in that the porous material is replaced by a perforated sheet with a certain small raster of holes.24. Burner for implementing the method of burning hydrogen under item 1, the burner includes at least one distribution channel, wherein the distribution channel (11, 26) has a closed cross-section in a generally flat rectangular shape in side of the fuel chamber is equipped with a large number of holes (27).25. Burner according to p. 24, characterized in that the transitional leaves (28), respectively, between the two distribution channels (11, 26) recorded in the area of holes (27) in such a way that each hole (27) involves a recess (29).26. Burner according to p. 24, wherein the burner has a one-piece perforated wall (32), which by means of fixing devices (34) secured several distribution channels (33) and each hole perforated partitions associated hole (35), or a group of holes (35).27. The burner according to one of paragraphs.24-25, characterized in that distribution channel (11, 26, 33, 38) has a curved shape.28. Burner according to p. 27, characterized in that Gotham material is a sintered alloy.30. The burner according to one of paragraphs.11-28, characterized in that the porous material is a ceramic material.31. The burner according to one of paragraphs.11-28, characterized in that the porous material is a material based on a metal fibers.32. The burner according to one of paragraphs.11-28, characterized in that, before the porous material included transition sheet with a certain small raster of holes.33. The burner according to one of paragraphs.11-28, characterized in that the porous material is replaced by a perforated sheet with a certain small raster of holes.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting at least one type of fuel and at least one oxidizer. The primary oxidizer is injected together with the fuel to generate first incomplete burning. The gases emitting from the first burning comprises at least a part of the fuel, whereas the secondary oxidizer is injected downstream of the site of the fuel injection at a distance larger than that between the fuel injection and primary oxidizer closest to the fuel injection so that to be burnt out together with the fuel part. The flow of the first oxidizer is branched into at lest two primary flows.
EFFECT: reduced emission of nitrogen oxides.
40 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to the technology of using a cumulative jet.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of formation of at least one cumulative jet includes feeding of at least one gas jet out of at least one nozzle with a converging/diverging configuration located in an injector having a face surface of the injector. At that the face surface of the injector has openings located along the circumference around at least one nozzle, moreover the indicated at least one gas jet has a supersonic speed when it is formed at the output from the face surface of the injector and remains supersonic on a distance coming to at least 20d, where d- the diameter of the output opening of the indicated at least one nozzle. Feeding of fuel from the first group of openings located along the circumference and feeding of an oxidizing agent from the second group of openings located along the circumference. Incineration of fuel and the oxidizing agent fed from the first and the second groups of openings located along the mentioned circumference for formation of a flame shell around at least one gas jet. A great number of gas jets are fed from the injector. The fuel and the oxidizing agents are fed from the first group of openings and from the second group of openings correspondingly alternate with each other on the circumference along which they are located. At least one gas jet, the fuel and the oxidizing agent are fed from the injector directly into the space for injection without passing the zone of recycling formed with the extender of the injector. At least one gas jet passes at a prescribed distance coming at least to 20d, where d- is the diameter of the output opening of the nozzle from which exits a gas jet keeping the diameter of the mentioned gas jet in essence constant.
EFFECT: the invention allows make an arrangement with the aid of which it is possible to form effective cumulative gas jets without need in an extender in the injector or in any other element for forming recycling zone for gases fed from the injector.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method of fuel combustion when at least one fuel and at least two oxidants are injected: the first oxidant is injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum from point of fuel injection. The second oxidant is injected at I2 distance from point of fuel injection while I2 is greater than I1. Oxidants are injected in such amounts that sum of their amounts is equal to at least stoichiometric amount of oxidant required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The first oxidant is oxygen-enriched air at maximum temperature of 200 °C, and the second oxidant is air preheated to temperature of at least 300 °C. Air is enriched with oxygen so that oxygen concentration in enriched air is at least 30%. Oxygen-enriched air is obtained by mixing ambient air with oxygen from cryogenic source. Preheated air is heated by means of heat exchange using part of hot combustion products. At least two oxidants are injected at I1 distance equal to 20 cm at maximum and preferably 15 cm at maximum while one oxidant called primary is injected mixed with fuel or near fuel and another oxidant called secondary is injected at distance from fuel. Amount of oxidant injected by means of primary oxidant jet ranges from 2 to 50% of oxygen stoichiometric amount required to provide combustion of injected fuel. The secondary oxidant is separated into multiple jets of secondary oxidant. The second oxidant injected at distance I2 is separated into multiple jets of oxidant.
EFFECT: fuel combustion using oxygen as oxidant suitable for retrieving energy from furnace gases.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. The proposed method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1st fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. The oxidiser primary jet is divided into two primary jets, that is, 1st primary jet, called the central primary oxidiser jet injected into fuel jet centre and 2nd primary jet called the embracing primary jet injected coaxially and around the fuel jet. The rate of the oxidiser central primary jet injection exceeds that of fuel jet injection. The fuel jet injection rate exceeds that of the 1st embracing oxidizer injection. The oxidiser 2nd jet injection rate exceeds that of the oxidiser embracing primary jet. The distance between the oxidiser central primary jet injection and its 2nd jet injection vs the rate of injection of the oxidiser 2nd jet varies between 10-3 and 10-2. The oxidiser 3rd jet is injected at the point located between the point of injecting the oxidiser central primary jet and that of injecting 2nd oxidising jet. The rate of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet exceeds that injecting oxidiser 3rd jet. The distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 2nd jet and that of injecting oxidiser central primary jet vs the distance between the point of injecting oxidiser 3rd jet and that of injecting oxidiser primary jet varies from 2 to 10. Two primary oxidiser jets feature identical oxygen concentration. The oxidizer central primary jet oxygen concentration exceeds that of oxidiser embracing primary jet.
EFFECT: higher furnace reliability.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder engineering. The method of fuel firing with oxygen-containing gas wherein fuel jet is injected and, at least, two jets of oxygen containing gas that features high oxygen content. Note here that the 1st jet of aforesaid gas, called a primary jet, is injected to allow its contact with the fuel jet and to form the 1st incomplete firing. Note here that outlet gases, thereafter, contains, nevertheless, at least, one fraction of fuel. Note also that the 2nd aforesaid jet is injected at the distance of l1 from the fuel jet to allow firing together with the said 1sr fuel fraction existing in outlet gases after 1st firing. Oxygen containing gas with low oxygen content is injected at the distance l2 from the fuel jet providing the firing together with the said outlet gases after 1st firing, where l2>l1.
EFFECT: firing gas with low oxygen content.
25 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to gas burners with separate air and gaseous fuel supply. The effect is achieved in gas burner (1) containing main metal housing (6), an inner tube for fuel gas, at least two outer tubes (10) for fuel gas, single tube (8) for supplying pre-heated air, fuel gas supply control system, refractory block (30) and a group of nozzles (20) which are located in a circumferential direction coaxially in relation to inner tube and meant for spraying pre-heated air into combustion chamber.
EFFECT: limit reduction of NOx concentration in exit combustion products.
29 cl,13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention related to energy, particularly to burner devices and can be used in gas turbine equipment. Burner device consists of a case (1), a fuel nozzle (2), a front device (3), a fire tube (4). The burner device belongs to gas-turbine engine combustion chamber. The front device executed with holes for fuel nozzles installation (2). The fire tube (4) with the front device (3) located inside of the combustion chamber cage (5). Fuel nozzles (2) connected to a gas ring collector (6). In combustion chamber fire tube and cage (5) between wall area air nozzles (7) located radically. Air nozzles (7) connected to the common ring air collector (9). The air collector (9) located in the case (1).
EFFECT: invention allows to regulate primary air supply to the combustion chamber section during equipment operation, burning device design simplification, it operation safety stays constant, possibility of device change on the running gas turbine equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel combustion process. Fuel combustion method is implemented by means of oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content, in accordance with which to combustion chamber there sprayed is fuel jet and at least two jets of oxygen-containing gas; at that, the first or primary jet of oxygen-containing gas is supplied through the hole having diametre D and sprayed around the above fuel jet in such quantity which allows providing the first incomplete fuel combustion; at that, gases formed as a result of the above first combustion contain at least some part of unburnt fuel, and the second jet of oxygen-containing gas introduced through the hole having diametre d and located at some distance 1 from the hole of introduction of the first or primary jet of oxygen-containing gas so it can be possible to enter into combustion reaction with the fuel portion which is contained in gases formed as a result of the above first incomplete combustion; at that, fuel jet opens inside the jet of primary oxygen-containing gas at some point located at some distance in backward direction from combustion chamber wall; at that, the above point is located at distance r from that wall, and oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content is pre-heated at least to 300°C. Ratio r/D has the value either lying within the range of 5 to 20, or lying within the range of 0.75 to 3, and ratio 1/d has the value equal at least to 2. Oxygen-containing gas with high oxygen content represents oxygen concentration which is at least 70% by volume. Fuel is subject to pre-heating up to temperature comprising at least 300°C.
EFFECT: increasing fuel combustion efficiency.
15 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: burner for fuel combustion comprises fuel supply line. The fuel supply line consists of several fuel sections. Also each fuel section is connected to another section and is designed for supply of fuel flow. Further, the burner includes a fuel inlet section. This section has the first fuel inlet and the first fuel outlet located at a distance from the first fuel inlet. The fuel inlet section has the first through cross section area and is designed to supply fuel flowing into the first fuel inlet and coming out the first fuel outlet. The burner has an intermediate section of fuel with fuel inlet and outlet device, notably the fuel outlet device is located at a distance from the fuel inlet device. The intermediate fuel section is designed for supply of at least part of flow coming into the inlet fuel device and going out of the outlet fuel device and has the second through cross section area. The second through cross section area changes from the initial through cross section area in the fuel inlet device to different through cross section area in the fuel outlet device. The burner has the fuel outlet section. The fuel outlet section has the second inlet of fuel and the second outlet of fuel located at a distance form the second inlet of fuel. The fuel outlet section is designed for supply of at least part of fuel flow coming onto the second fuel inlet and going out the second fuel outlet and it has the third through cross section area. This third through cross section area in essence is uniform along the whole outlet section of fuel. The burner comprises the first line of oxidant with several oxidant sections. Each oxidant section is connected to another oxidant section. It is designed to supply flow of oxidant. It includes an oxidant pressure chamber letting though oxidant flow and having the fourth through cross section area. At least part of oxidant pressure chamber is located in essence at least next to a part of at least one inlet section of fuel, intermediate section of fuel and outlet section of fuel. The oxidant outlet section lets through at least part of oxidant flow and has the fifth through cross section area. Also the fifth through cross section area is less or equal to the fourth through cross section area and in essence is uniform along the whole outlet section of oxidant. At least part of oxidant outlet section in essence is positioned next to the fuel outlet section.
EFFECT: facilitating upgraded quality of fuel combustion and reduced level of nitrogen oxide exhaust into atmosphere.
28 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene and synthetic gas via thermal partial oxidation of hydrocarbons which are gaseous at temperatures used for preheating, in a reactor which is fitted with a burner with through holes, characterised by that the starting substances to be converted are quickly and completely mixed only directly in front of the flame reaction zone in through holes of the burner, where in the mixing zone within the through holes the average flow rate is higher than the propagation speed of the flame under the existing reaction conditions. The invention also relates to a device for realising the said method.
EFFECT: possibility of avoiding preliminary and reverse inflammations.
9 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg