Method and power plant to generate electricity from oil shale

 

(57) Abstract:

Method and installation are intended for use in energy and processing industry. The apparatus comprises a block of shale pyrolysis with technological furnace, boiler, coupled with technological furnace system cleaning and condensation of vapor-gas mixture, the cumulative capacity of semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of fuels, steam turbine unit, coupled with the capacity fraction with TKip350-450C, gas turbine unit, connected to the vessel with fractions with TKip= 200-350C and TKip< 200C, an additional gas turbine unit connected to the capacity of semi-coke gas. Conclusions waste gases of the gas turbine units is connected with the boiler of the steam turbine unit. The shale is subjected to pyrolysis to obtain the vapor-gas mixture and char, the char is burned with heat recovery of flue gas and steam production, steam-gas mixture is subjected to purification and condensation with the formation of semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of the fuel. Last collected in appropriate containers, of which the fraction with TKip= 350-450C is burned in a steam turbine unit, faction, with TKip= 200-350C and TKip&l is Alyaksey gas is burned in additionally installed gas turbine unit. The use of this technical solution allows to increase the efficiency of electricity production and increase energy efficiency. 2 c. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to methods and apparatus for the production of electricity from oil shale and can be used in energy and processing industry.

A known way of generating electricity, namely, that the solid fuel is gasified, and the resulting gaseous fuel - energy after heat recovery and purification served in the gas turbine installation and burn. Waste (exhaust) gases of the turbine is sent to the HRSG. Superheated steam from the boiler is directed to the steam turbine (Japan's bid N 3-33904 02 3/23, C 1074/72, publ. 20.11.91).

Known combined-cycle power plant with gasification of solid fuels. The plant is equipped with a device for the purification of gas gasification connected with the combustion chamber inlet of the gas turbine, the exhaust of which is through the superheater connected to the boiler, generating steam for the steam turbine. In this heated environment, the superheater is included in the pipeline of extraction steam to the gasifier (A. C. USSR N 1645573 F 01 K 23/06, publ. 30.04.91 year).

Lack and steam turbines. Any technological or emergency breaks and stop the gasifier directly affect the operation of the turbines, you need to stop or switch to a backup fuel. In addition, the resource of continuous operation of the gasifier is less than the turnaround time of a gas turbine, therefore, to ensure the smooth operation of the turbine and generate electricity, you must have a backup gasifiers or reserve fuel, which complicates the establishment of such schemes and their operation. In addition, the gas produced in said gasifier has a low heat of combustion (1000 to 1500 kcal/m3that causes low thermodynamic parameters of the gas turbine.

The closest technical solution relating to a method and device for producing electricity from oil shale is a diagram of a power plant with nutricology ennoblement - pyrolysis of oil shale and the use of units with solid heat carrier (UTT) (Collection: New ways to use low-grade fuels in the energy sector. M., 1989, the Ministry of energy and electrification of the USSR, ENIN them. G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, pp. 66 - 76).

The known method comprises the pyrolysis of oil shale and solid heat carrier - hot own evils is essential heat of flue gas and steam production, cleaning and condensation of vapor-gas mixture to produce high calorific semi-coke gas (8000 - 11500 kcal/m3and fractions of liquid fuels, the combustion of semi-coke gas, the burning of fractions of liquid fuels (furnace oil and light gasoline fraction) in the boiler steam turbine unit with steam and electricity, the combustion of the fraction with TKip.= 200 - 350oC (gas turbine fuel) in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine unit with electricity generation and supply of waste gas as the oxidant to the stage of combustion in the boiler of the steam turbine unit.

Known power plant comprises a block of shale pyrolysis with technological furnace, boiler, coupled with technological furnace system cleaning and condensation of vapor-gas mixture, is connected to the pyrolysis unit and supplied with the findings of semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of fuels, steam turbine unit with a boiler connected to the outputs of the fractions of liquid fuels (light gasoline fraction and residual oil), gas turbine unit, a combustion chamber which is connected to the output of the faction with TKip.= 200 - 350oC and supplied with the output of waste gases, connected to the boiler steam turbine Xia, the bulk of the energy produced in the steam turbine unit comprising a boiler, a steam turbine and generator, which serves up to 70% residual oil energy source consisting of a liquid fuel boiler. The efficiency of the system UTT-TES is about 32%. Gas turbine installation in this scheme uses as gas turbine fuel, only a narrow part of the average fraction with a boiling point of 200 - 350oC.

Another disadvantage of this scheme is limited flexibility in working conditions during peak and half-load and complexity at stops or interruptions UTT.

The present invention aims at eliminating the above disadvantages, the solution to increase the efficiency of electricity generation, increased energy efficiency, increased agility with the ability to work at peak and half-loads. In addition, increases the service life continuous operation of the plant, improving environmental performance emissions to the atmosphere

To achieve these technical results, the method comprises the pyrolysis of oil shale with getting vapor-gas mixture and char burning polonium semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of the fuel, a collection of semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of the fuel in the respective storage tanks, of which the fraction with TKip.= 350-450oC serves to burned to produce steam and electricity, the fraction with TKip.= 200-350oC and TKip.< 200oC sent for co-combustion in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine unit (GTU) with electricity generation and supply of waste gas as the oxidant into the combustion fraction with TKip.= 350-450oC, fraction with TKip.more than 450oC return to the stage of pyrolysis, and the flow of semi-coke gas is directed to stage combustion with subsequent generation.

In the resulting combustion fractions of liquid products with TKip.= 350-450oC pairs impose additional steam flow formed at the stage of flue gases heat recovery.

Discharge gas obtained after the generation of electricity by burning of semi-coke gas, referred to as the oxidant into the combustion fraction of liquid fuels with TKip.= 350-450oC.

To ensure these tasks, the system includes a block pyrolysis of oil shale with technological furnace, boiler, coupled with technologicaly semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of the fuel, the accumulation tank connected to the corresponding terminals of the fractions of liquid fuels and semi-coke gas purification system and condensation, paroturbiny unit with a boiler equipped with a nozzle of liquid fuels, coupled with the capacity fraction with TKip.= 350-450oC, gazoturbinnyj unit, the combustion chamber which is supplied by a pipe connected to the tanks fractions with TKip= 200-350oC and TKip< 200oC and connected to the output of waste gases from the boiler steam turbine unit, and an additional gas turbine unit, a combustion chamber which is connected to the capacity of semi-coke gas, and the exhaust of waste gas from the gas turbine to the boiler of the steam turbine unit.

Capacity fraction with TKipmore than 450oC is connected to the pyrolysis unit. Conclusion steam boiler is connected to a steam system steam turbine unit, for example, cylinder medium-pressure steam turbine.

The use of two gas turbine units: one - on semi-coke gas and the second combustion of large quantities of liquid fuel, the increase in total liquid fuel by re-pyrolysis of heavy fractions allow to increase energy efficiency up to alnost operation of the plant.

The drawing shows a diagram of the power plant.

The system includes a pyrolysis unit 1 with the process furnace 2, boiler 3, coupled with technological furnace 2, the cleaning system and condensation of vapor-gas mixture 4 that is connected to the pyrolysis unit 1 and is equipped with the findings of semi-coke gas 5 and fractions of liquid fuels 6, cumulative capacity 7-11 fractions of liquid fuels and semi-coke gas, is connected to the corresponding outputs from the system, their purification and condensation 4, the steam turbine unit with a boiler 12, provided with a pipe 13 connected with the capacity of 8 fractions with TKip= 350-450oC, gas turbine unit 14, the combustion chamber 15 which is equipped with nozzles connected to the tank 9 fractions with TKip= 200-350oC and the vessel 10 fractions with TKip< 200oC, and connected to the output of waste gases 16 from the gas turbine to the boiler 12 of the steam turbine unit. The installation includes an additional gas turbine unit 17, the combustion chamber 21 which is connected to the tank 11 of semi-coke gas, made in the form of gas. Conclusion waste gas 18 of the gas turbine unit 17 is connected with the boiler 12 of the steam turbine unit. Capacity 7 fraction of liquid fuels with TKipbleeping unit.

The device operates as follows. Slate with particle sizes 0-25 mm served in the pyrolysis unit 1, where it is heated to temperatures of the pyrolysis of solid coolant - ash with the formation of the vapor-gas mixture and char. The char is burned in the processing furnace 2 (aeroportunda furnace) with the formation of ash supplied as a coolant to the stage of pyrolysis. Flue gases from the process furnace 2 enter the boiler 3, which produce steam, which is directed into the cylinder medium-pressure steam turbine unit. Gas-vapor mixture purify and condense in the system 4 with receipt of semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of the fuel. These fractions are 6 conclusions in appropriate containers, 7-10, and semi-coke gas pipeline 5 serves in the tank 11, paragenetically water 20 is used in the process and is removed for further processing. The fraction of liquid fuel with TKipabove 450oC from the tank 7 is directed to re-pyrolysis in the pyrolysis unit 1. By re-pyrolysis receive an additional amount of liquid fuels. The fraction of liquid fuel with TKip= 350-450oC from the tank 8 is fed into the boiler 12 of the steam turbine unit through pipe 13, where the combustion is < 200oC from the respective tanks 9 and 10 are directed to the combustion chamber 15 of the gas turbine unit 14. Waste gases after the gas turbine unit 14 via the output 16 is served in the boiler 12 of the steam turbine unit as oxidant. Semi-coke gas from the tank 11 (gas) is supplied into the combustion chamber 21 of the second additional set of gas turbine unit 17. Waste gases through the output 18 is also sent as an oxidant in the boiler 12 of the steam turbine unit.

1. The method for production of electricity from oil shale, comprising the pyrolysis of oil shale and solid heat carrier with getting vapor-gas mixture and char combustion of coal char with getting solid heat carrier and heat recovery of flue gases for steam generation, purification and condensation of vapor-gas mixture with the formation of semi-coke gas and liquid fractions of the fuel, the combustion of semi-coke gas, combustion of liquid fuels with steam and then electricity, characterized in that obtained after purification and condensation of a fraction of liquid fuels and semi-coke gas is collected in the respective storage tanks, of which faction with TKip= 200 - 350oC and TKip< 200oC voltage is etousa the flow of waste gas as the oxidant to the stage of combustion in the boiler of the steam turbine unit with steam, fraction with TKipmore than 450oC return to the stage of pyrolysis, the fraction with TKip= 350 - 450oC serves as a liquid fuel into combustion with steam production, and the flow of semi-coke gas is directed to stage combustion with subsequent generation.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the water vapor produced during the combustion of the fraction of liquid fuels with TKip= 350 - 450oC, impose additional steam flow formed at the stage of flue gases heat recovery.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the discharge gas obtained after the generation of electricity by burning of semi-coke gas, referred to as the oxidant into the combustion fraction of liquid fuels with TKip= 350 - 450oC.

4. Energy installation including pyrolysis unit with technological furnace, boiler, coupled with technological furnace system cleaning and condensation of vapor-gas mixture, is connected to the pyrolysis unit and supplied with the findings of semi-coke gas, and fractions of liquid fuels, steam turbine unit with a boiler equipped with a nozzle of liquid fuels, gas turbine unit, wherein the installation further comprises gasv and semi-coke gas purification system and condensation, moreover, the capacity of the fractions with TKip= 200 - 350oC and TKip< 200oC is connected to pipe input into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine unit, which is supplied by the output of waste gases, connected to the boiler of the steam turbine unit, the capacity of the fractions with TKiplonger than 450oC is connected to the pyrolysis unit, the capacity of the fractions with TKip= 350 - 450oC is connected to the nozzle liquid fuel boiler steam turbine unit, and the capacity of semi-coke gas with the combustion chamber of the additionally installed gas turbine unit.

5. Power plant under item 4, characterized in that the output of the steam boiler is connected with the steam-turbine unit.

6. Power plant under item 4, characterized in that the output of waste gas combustion chamber of the additionally installed gas turbine unit is connected to the boiler of the steam turbine unit.

 

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