Method and device for cleaning gases
(57) Abstract:The method and the device are designed for the purification of gases and allow you to increase the cleaning efficiency. Gases directed through the heat exchanging medium consisting of particles that are resistant to the decomposition temperature, and is heated in the heat exchange medium to the temperature of decomposition. Provide a continuous transfer of heat exchange medium everywhere and the subsequent removal of her from the first zone, in which the heat exchange medium heats the gases. Then transfer it to the second area in which the heat exchange medium heated by the exhaust gases from the combustion of biodegradable components and/or decomposition products and other gases, which are additionally heated by combustion. Combustion occurs in the combustion zone, located between the said zones. 2 C. and 12 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The present invention relates to a method of cleaning gas, which contains a thermally degradable components, whereby these thermally degradable components thermally decompose.Under thermally degradable components mainly understand volatile organic components, which typically emit or emit an unpleasant/P> Due to the decomposition of these decaying components decompose into harmful end products.In particular, the invention relates to a method of decomposition of thermally degradable or decomposing components, in particular volatile organic components present in the gas through which these gases are passed through the heat exchanging medium containing particles that are resistant to the temperature of decomposition or decomposition, and through which the gases heated in said heat exchange medium to the temperature of decomposition or decomposition temperature of these decomposing components. Gases can have as its source the drying and/or burning of organic waste and are in large number to enable couples.In the known method of the above type gases are held in the downward direction through the stationary heat exchange medium containing ceramic ring, which has an electric thermistor.In this known method of heat transfer environment relatively quickly gets dirty, so it must be relatively soon to be replaced.This known method cannot be used for wet gas components, present in the gases, with excellent heat transfer whereby heat exchange mass should be replaced less frequently, so that the method can be used for moist gases.This task is achieved in this invention by the fact that the heat exchange medium is continuously moved across the first zone and then taken out from the first zone, in which the heat exchange medium heats the gases, and again moved in the direction of the second zone, in which the heat exchange medium is heated at least partially exhaust gases from the combustion of biodegradable components and/or decomposing products of combustion and other gases, which were further heated by this combustion, the combustion occurs in the combustion zone, located between the first and second zones.Transfer everywhere heat exchange medium through which the gases flow, known from U.S. patent N 2636575, but the heat exchange medium is absorbent, which is mainly used for drying air in the upper zone, as in the lower zone of the absorbent dried other air which is heated by the burner. Mentions that the absorbent can be Catholicate which the catalyst is cleared babiroussa reactants and products at the lowest area.According to the private version of the present invention in the zone of combustion is supplied to the external heat.In the first and second zones of the heat exchange medium, for example, moves down due to gravity.Gases preferably are directed zigzag through the heat exchanging medium in such a way that they cross heat exchange medium several times.Suitable heat exchange medium is a granular mass.The invention also relates to a device which is particularly suitable for implementing the method in accordance with any of the above options.Thus, the invention relates to a device for thermal decomposition of thermally degradable constituents present in gases, characterized in that it contains a column with three mounted coaxial cylindrical shells, while in the inner casing openings, which are closed at the bottom and at the top, in the second case is made holes around the inner body and the outer body surrounds this second case, the space or gap between the second casing and the outer casing has walls that divide this space is bosom through the said holes in the second casing, the space inside the inner casing divided into an upper chamber and a lower chamber, at least one partition; the device further comprises a heat transfer medium between the inner casing and the second casing, consisting of particles; means for collecting this heat exchange medium at the bottom of the column and feed it back to the top of the column between the inner casing and the second casing; means for introducing gases from the bottom through the second casing and the release of gases from the top through the second casing, these tools include the input or inlet for gases, which is open in a camera located at a bottom, and the release or discharge pipe for gases, which is open in a camera located at the top.Practically, the device comprises means for supplying heat from the outside to the gases between the inlet connection and the outlet or in the form of hot gases, or in the form of the injected fuel.To better explain the characteristics of the invention as non-limiting in any way of example hereinafter described a preferred variant of the method and device according to the invention for the decomposition of thermally degradable components present in the gases, with reference to the attached drawings, components according to the invention,
Fig. 2 depicts a cross section II-II of Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 depicts the element indicated in Fig. 1 as F3 on a larger scale.As shown in the figures, the device for decomposition of thermally degradable constituents present in gases, contains the column 1, which mainly consists of three coaxially installed housings 2, 3 and 4, forming cylinders, which conically narrowed at both ends.The inner case 2 is closed at the top and bottom and has a hole 5 in its cylindrical part.As shown in Fig. 3, the housing 2 may be made in the form of hollow fireproof stones 9, which are open 10 on their curved walls, which form the above-mentioned holes 5 along with the cavities 11 in the stones.The second, or in other words, average housing 3 also has a hole 12 in its cylindrical part and may be made of similar fire-resistant stones 9 and in the same way as the inner case 2.The outer body 4 is a solid wall, for example, made of aerated concrete.Conically tapering outer parts of these buildings 3 and 4 are open at their ends so that the top and bottom of the column 1, they form respectively the input or inlet 13 and the Space between the second housing 3 and the outer casing 4 is divided annular walls 16 into three annular chambers, located one above the other, namely the lower or bottom chamber 17, the secondary chamber 18 and the upper camera 19.If the second housing 3 is formed of hollow stones 9 at the location of the annular wall 16, the hollow stones 9 are replaced with solid stones to prevent direct connection of the chambers 17, 18 and 19 with each other through the housing 3.The space between the inner casing 2 and the second casing 3 is not broken, but filled with a heat exchange medium in the form of a granular mass containing particles that are resistant to the temperatures necessary for dissolution of volatile organic components in gases, and especially resistant to temperatures from 800 to 900oC. as a granular mass use one of the following materials: clay, aluminate and a composition containing aluminate. For the sake of clarity, this granulated mass is depicted in figure 3.These particles can not only ensure good heat transfer, but can also have a catalytic effect.Gases originating from the drying and/or burning of organic waste, for example, coming from the installation of waste treatment and consisting mainly of steam and volatile thermally degradable organic Koeru 17 through the outer casing 4 by means of the fan 21, installed in the inlet.With this inlet 20 connected to the pipe 22 for supplying hot air to the gases.Gases are vented from the top of the chamber 19 through the release or discharge pipe 23, which passes through the outer body 4 and which also has an exhaust fan 21.The calorific value or heat may be supplied to the granular mass by means 24, 25 for supplying heat from the outside to the gases, and these means include annular gas pipe 24, which is installed in the secondary chamber 18 and is provided with holes, and the outer burner 25 which is connected with the pipe 24 and is installed on the outside of the outer casing 4.The outer body 4 is additionally surrounded by a casing 26 through which pass above the inlet pipe 13 and 20 and outlet connections 14 and 23.Under the exhaust pipe 14 installed exhaust screw 27 for granular masses, and above the intake pipe 13 is installed conveyor 28 to a granular mass. To ensure transfer of granulated passes from one screw to the other between the discharge auger 27 and the feed screw 28 is provided lift 29.The hot air in quantities of preferably up to 10 % by volume add agemy components and/or products of their decomposition, as well as air for possible combustion gas ejected through the gas pipe 24.The air preferably has a temperature of above 650oC, which also provides preheating of the gases and, if these gases contain pairs lowers the temperature of saturation of this pair and thus prevents condensation.The principle of purification of gas, or in other words, decomposition or decomposition of decaying components in a safe, harmless end products is to create a circulation of the granular mass and the direction of the gases in counter-current relative to the downward flow of the granular mass, resulting gases cross the flow of the granular mass several times.This intersection becomes possible when in the inner casing 2 and the second housing 3 with holes 5, 12, respectively.In normal mode, the gases are heated in the first lower zone 30 of the granular mass by the latter, whereas in the second, the upper zone 31 this granulated mass is heated flue gases from the combustion or pyrolysis of volatile organic components and/or products of their decomposition, on the one hand, and the exhaust is Yu tube 24, on the other hand. Before the gases reach the combustion zone 32, the gases give the air.Gases with a temperature of from 150 to 200oC wauwautosa in the lower or bottom area 30 through the inlet pipe 20 and the lower chamber 17 through the second housing 3.As shown by the arrows, the bulk of these gases flows through the granular mass and through the inner case 2 in the lower or bottom chamber 8, as a result, these gases are heated.Gases are stopped by a partition 6 and the result is again flowing directly through the zone 30 up in the middle chamber between the housings 3 and 4, resulting in that they additionally heated granular mass.In the process mentioned heating gases, at least a portion decompositum components usually begins to decompose into gaseous decomposition products, which may optionally thermally decomposed or burned.In this secondary chamber 18 and part of the granular mass, which is connected with it through the holes 12 in the second casing 3, is formed a combustion zone 32. In the burning zone 32 there is a further decomposition of decaying components and/or products of their decomposition, in particular happens sigayev> and N2. In this zone, the combustion can also burned exhaust gases from the exterior of the burner 25.The temperature of the gases increases in the burning zone 32 from the temperature above the 100oC to a temperature of from 800 to 900oC and even higher.Under option or conventional heated gases, either pure, for example, the gaseous fuel can be introduced through the gas pipe 24 instead of exhaust or waste gases.Thanks to injectioni gases through the gas pipe 24 in the zone of burning an excessive relative to atmospheric pressure is less than 5%, and these gases are injected into other gases. Thus preventing the formation of oxides of nitrogen.In the upper part of the Central chamber 18 hot gases are again radially flow through the granular mass, namely through the upper zone 31 into the chamber 7, resulting gases heat the granulated mass.Due to the presence of the fan 21 mounted in the exhaust pipe 23 for gases, and due to the fact that the chamber 7 is closed at the top, mainly purified gases flow across the exhaust pipe 23 radially outward from the chamber 7 through the granular mass, so they are additionally heated this is out of the column 1 at a temperature above 150oC.During this circulation of gases granulated mass is worn around. This mass is continuously lowered into the space 15 between the inner casing 2 and the second casing 3 due to gravity.At the bottom of the cooled granular mass is collected on the discharge auger 27. This mass is transferred by lift or Elevator 29 on the feed screw 28 and transferred this feed screw on the top of the space 15.Between the granular mass and gases is an excellent heat transfer, and purification of gases by decomposition or combustion of thermally degradable component can be a very economical way.Although the granulated mass is largely self-cleaning, it can be further purified from the outside of the column 1 in the circulation process. In the process of cleaning this granular mass can be partially or completely replaced by the new mass.In column 1 granulated mass can act as a filter that stops particles possibly present in the gas stream, which preferably flows with a speed of less than 1.5 m/sec. In the cleaning process of the granular mass, these solid Castoria can be released during the cleaning process, in particular copper, can be deposited on the particles of the granular mass at cooling. Due to the mutual friction of the particles during movement of the granular mass of the residue is removed.The method can be used for moist gases, but these gases should not necessarily be composed mainly of steam.The circulation of the granular mass should not necessarily be provided by a lift or Elevator. It can be done, for example, by means of screws or the like.Similarly, the gases flow should not be called exactly two fans. It can also be one fan or one or more extractors.If necessary, to the zone of combustion may be added warmth from the outside. It cannot be excluded that, once the run is completed, this Supplement is no longer needed, because the decomposition or combustion of organic components in the gas provides enough heat to maintain the decomposition process.The present invention is in no way limited to the above options presented on the attached drawings, on the contrary, the method and apparatus can be implemented in vidoral invention. 1. The method of decomposition of thermally degradable components present in the gas through which these gases are directed through the heat exchanging medium containing particles that are resistant to the temperature of decomposition, and through which these gases are heated in the heat exchange medium to the temperature of decomposition of degradable components, provide a continuous heat transfer medium, and then remove it from the first zone, then ensure its transfer to the second zone, and the combustion is carried out, mainly in the area of combustion, which is located between the first and second zones, wherein in the first zone of the heat exchange medium heats the gases, in the second zone of the heat exchange medium is heated at least partially flue gases from the combustion decaying components and/or decomposition products and other gases, which were further heated by this combustion.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein thermally degradable components in gases are volatile organic components, while the gases in the combustion zone (32) is heated to a temperature of 800oC or higher.3. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that before the gases doda at a temperature above 650oC.5. The method according to any of paragraphs.3 or 4, characterized in that the gases add up to 10% vol. air.6. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the zone of combustion (32) add heat from the outside.7. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the zone of combustion creates excessive relative to atmospheric pressure is less than 5%.8. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the first (30) and second (31) zones of the heat exchange medium is moved in a downward direction due to gravity, and gases are sent zigzag through the heat exchange medium so that they intersect the heat exchange medium several times.9. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the heat exchange medium used granulated mass.10. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the granular mass use one of the following materials: clay, aluminate and a composition containing aluminate.11. Device for thermal decomposition of a thermally degradable components present in a gas containing a column with Teploobmennik to the top of the column, means (20, 21, 23) for introducing gases at the bottom and for gases at the top, these tools contain the inlet pipe (20) and the outlet (23), characterized in that the column has three coaxially installed cylindrical body comprising an inner casing (2), in which holes (5), which closed at the top and bottom, the second housing (3), in which holes (12) located around the above-mentioned first body (2), and the outer body (4) surrounding the second housing (3), in the space between the second housing (3) and outer casing (4) is provided by wall (16), dividing this space into chambers (17, 18, 19) arranged one above the other and open into the space (15) between the second housing (3) and the inner casing (2) through the above mentioned holes (12), and the space inside the inner casing (2) is divided into an upper chamber (7) and lower chamber (8) through at least one wall (6), and the heat exchange medium is placed between the inner casing (2) and the second housing (3) with the inlet pipe (20) for gases is open into the chamber (17), located at the bottom for introduction of gases through the second housing (3) and the outlet (23) is open into the chamber (19), located at the top of the means (24 - 25) for supplying heat from the outside to the gases between the inlet pipe (20) and the outlet (23) for gases.13. The device according to p. 12, characterized in that the means (24 - 25) to supply heat to the gases contain gas pipe (24), which is installed in the middle chamber (18) formed between the second housing (3) and outer casing (4).14. Device according to any one of paragraphs.12 or 13, characterized in that the means (24 - 25) to supply heat to the gases contain outer burner (25) mounted on the outside of outer casing (4).
FIELD: equipment for realization of the adsorption processes in the gas(vapor)-an adsorbent system.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the equipment for realization of the adsorption processes in the gas(vapor)-an adsorbent system. The continuously working adsorber includes: a cylindrical body, the upper part of which is made in the form of the conical-cylindrical chamber, in which there is a bin made in the form of an overturned cone with its vertex downwards and with a perforated lateral surface; the mesh-type plates with the weighted fluidized adsorbent beds and the overflow devices. At that in the bin installed in the conical-cylindrical chamber additionally there is a funnel mounted with a backlash in respect to the lateral surfaces of the chamber. The funnel consists of cylindrical surfaces having a bigger diameter and a smaller diameter, between which there is a perforated conical surface. At that the funnel is fastened at least, by three restraining components coupling the conical surfaces of the bin and the funnel, and, at least, by three restraining components coupling the conical surfaces of the bin and the cylindrical surface of the funnel small diameter. The invention ensures an increased degree of efficiency of purification of a gas stream from a target component and a dust due to an increased surface of contact of an adsorbent with the target component.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of efficiency of purification of a gas stream from a target component and a dust due to an increased contact surface of the adsorbent with the target component.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of processing includes following stages: introduction of carbon in form of macroparticles into upper part of column, formation of regulated in height carbon layer in form of macroparticles in column, introduction of outcoming gas into lower part of column in such way that outcoming gas passes upwards through carbon, in form of macroparticles, layer,discharge of carbon material in form of macroparticles through lower part of column and regulation of height of carbon layer in form of macroparticles independently on pressure value of outcoming gas, intended for supply.
EFFECT: invention allows to preserve time of outcoming gas presence in carbon, in form of macroparticles, layer unchanged.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: production of aluminum in cells with self-fired anodes, possibly processes for cleaning anode gases.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of accumulating anode gases, preliminarily combusting them together with air in burner devices mounted in cells; supplying gas-air mixture after preliminary combustion of anode gases along gas duct to stage of dust and gas trapping and blowing out to atmosphere. Before supplying gas-air mixture from burner devices to stage of dust and gas trapping, it is fed to process for oxidizing roasting; heated up to temperature 800-1100°C and then it is cooled until 230-290°C and heat is used for production needs.
EFFECT: lowered content of carbon, resin and CO in exhaust gases.
FIELD: heat technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for treatment of smoke gases from sulfur dioxide. Method for treatment of smoke gases from sulfur dioxide involves passing smoke gases through countercurrent scrubber with absorption liquid based on ammonia aqueous solution for preparing ammonium sulfite followed by oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate. Then one part of absorption solution removing after oxidation is mixed with fresh ammonium aqueous solution and fed to treatment of smoke gases and another part is fed to utilization. Oxidation is carried out with smoke gases oxygen in indicated scrubber in addition initiating agent for oxidation to absorption liquid as azocompounds. Invention provides simplifying the process and to reduce time for accumulation of ammonium sulfite by 1.8-2.0-fold.
EFFECT: improved method for treatment.
FIELD: gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to novel catalysts, which can be, in particular, used in automobile engine exhaust treatment, in processes of deep oxidation of toxic organic impurities in industrial emission gases, and in other applications. Adsorption-catalytic system, including granules of sorbent capable of sorbing at least one of reagents and catalyst, represents geometrically structured system wherein catalyst is made in the form of microfibers 5-20 μm in diameter, sorbent granules are disposed inside catalyst, and size ratio of sorbent granules to catalyst microfibers is at least 10:1. Catalyst microfibers are structured in the form of woven, knitted, or pressed material. Gas treatment process involving use of such system is based on that gaseous reaction mixture to be treated is passed through above-defined system while periodically varying temperature of mixture, in particular raising it, to accomplish or regeneration of sorbent.
EFFECT: enhanced process simplicity and reliability (simple process government system, absence of mechanical stream switching devices, reduced power consumption, and enabled continuous gas treatment.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; reactor having a circulating fluidized layer and a system of selective catalytic reduction.
SUBSTANCE: the offered invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry. A combination of a device consisting of a reactor or a combustion chamber with a circulating fluidized layer and a selective catalytic reduction system contains the reactor chamber with a circulating fluidized layer, the primary solid particles separator, a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the primary solid particles separator to the reactor chamber, at least one surface of heat transfer of a vapor overheater or an intermediate vapor overheater, a system of the selective catalytic reduction, a dry scrubber located below on the production chain in respect to the system of the selective catalytic reduction and a means for introduction of ammonia in the flow of a smoke gas-solid particles. According to one of the offered versions the given device contains a multicyclone dust separator and a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the multicyclone dust separator to the reactor chamber. The given engineering solution ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.
EFFECT: the invention ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.
11 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: consuming industrial waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises securing the housing filled with the charge of the solid rocket fuel to the front part of the gas duct of the plant for using the charges of the solid rocket fuel, burning the solid rocket fuel, and processing the combustion products by cooling the combustion products with a material with high heat capacity, dry cleaning of gas with a neutralizer-sorbent, and afterburning the combustion products.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: purification of gases.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises absorbing sulfur dioxide by means of a lime suspension, crystallization, and removing slime. The gas is cooled before absorbing up to the dew point by water evaporating. The ratio of the volume of water to that of the gas should be 0.08-0.12 l/m3. The water temperature exceeds that of the dew point by 10°C of the cooled gas. The gas is absorbed by the suspension made of droplets supplied perpendicular to the gas flow.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of purification.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device comprises inlet and outlet for gas and plate provided with openings and interposed between the gas inlet and outlet for permitting gas to flow from below. The top side of the plate is used for flowing the absorbing liquid. The inlet pipeline connects the tank with the absorbing liquid to the top of the plate. The pump transports the absorbing liquid from the tanks to the top of the plate through the inlet pipeline and over the plate. The device is additionally provided with the outlet vessel for collecting the absorbing liquid that flows over the plate with openings and at least with one means for distributing that is in a contact with the gas supplied to the device through the inlet. The liquid flows from the outlet vessel to the tank upstream of the site where gas flows through the plate with openings.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
16 cl, 10 dwg, 1 ex