The high-voltage pulse generator

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a high-voltage pulse technique. The technical result is to increase the output voltage of the generator for the formation of a coherent resistive load with high efficiency rectangular voltage pulse. The high-voltage pulse generator includes a grounded electrode, forming a short-circuited speed line, made in the form of serially connected segments of homogeneous lines with distributed parameters the same electrical length T0. In the internal volume of the first segment of the stepped line posted by high voltage electrode, separating it into two homogeneous line. Between the high voltage and grounded electrodes included source voltage. To the output of the speed lines are connected series-connected load and prepulsed discharger. Between the high voltage and grounded electrodes in the junction of the first and second segments of the stepped line is connected one end of an additional homogeneous line, the electrical length of which is equal to the electrical length of T0. On the other end of the additional line is included switching spark gap. Prioteasa to the field of high-voltage pulse technology and can be used in electrophysical installations to obtain a powerful high-voltage pulses, for example, for generating charged particle beams (105-107B, 103-106A, 10-7-10-8c).

Known generator /1, fig. 1/ containing two electrodes, forming a stepped line (SL), made in the form of serially connected segments of homogeneous lines with distributed parameters the same electrical length T0switching spark gap connected between the electrodes at the input CL, resistive load and prepulsed a spark gap connected in series between the electrodes at the output SL, and a voltage source connected between the electrodes SL. Under the influence of the source voltage SL charged to a voltage V0and the energy stored in the generator in the form of an electric field. When turning on the switching spark gap as the result of the wave energy is concentrated at the exit SL. From the point of view of achieving maximum efficiency, optimal are the following ratio of the impedances:

Zi=Z1[i(i+1)]/2,

where i = 1,2,...,n is the number of the line segment, measured from the input TEXT;

n is the total number of segments in SL;

Ziwave resistance of the line segment number i.

In the General case of vyhoda pulse voltage. The load connected to the output SL when triggered prepulsed discharger delay time nT0in relation to the moment of switching of the switching spark gap, that is, when the generator output of the first electromagnetic wave. Coordinated load Zn= Znformed a single voltage pulse of duration 2T0during which all the energy is transferred to the load. The voltage at the agreed load exceeds the charger n/2 times, the inclusion SL each additional segment increases the tension in the coherent mode by the value of V0/2. The maximum voltage at the generator output at idle is nV0.

The disadvantage of the generator is relatively low, the voltage on the load is equal to nV0/2 in the coherent mode and nV0in idle mode.

As the prototype is set to the high-voltage pulse generator /1, fig. 3a/, containing a grounded electrode, forming a short-circuited speed line (SL), made in the form of serially connected segments of homogeneous lines with distributed parameters the same electrical length T0voltage e the IR voltage and switching spark gap, included between the high voltage and grounded electrodes, and switching spark gap placed at the junction of the first and second segments SL, resistive load connected to the output of the SL series with prepulsed gap.

Under the action of a voltage source, two cut lines near high-voltage electrode is charged to a voltage V0and the energy stored in the generator in the form of an electric field. When turning on the switching spark gap as the result of the wave energy is concentrated at the exit SL. From the point of view of achieving maximum efficiency, optimal are the following ratio of the impedances:

Zi=Zn2/[(n-i+l)(n-i+2)],

where i = 2,3,...,n is the number of the segment SL;

n is the total number of segments in SL;

Ziwave resistance of the line segment number i,

impedances of the segments formed by the high voltage electrode in the first leg of CL:

- c discharger Z1= Zn2/[(n+l)(n+2)],

without the spark gap = Zn2/[n(n+1)].

In the General case, the output TEXT generated voltage pulses of alternating polarity with duration 2T0. Work is the second voltage pulse. Load at the time of the switching spark gap, that is, the delay time 2T0in relation to the moment of arrival to the output of the first generator of electromagnetic waves. Coordinated load Zn= Znformed a single voltage pulse of duration 2T0during which all the energy is transferred to the load. The voltage at the agreed load exceeds the charger in (n+1)/2 times, the inclusion SL each additional segment increases the tension in the coherent mode by the value of V0/2.

The disadvantage of the generator is relatively low, the voltage on the load is equal to (n+1)V0/2 in the coherent mode and the (n+1)V0in idle mode.

The technical result is to increase the output voltage of the generator for the formation of a coherent resistive load with high efficiency rectangular voltage pulse.

The technical result is achieved in that the high-voltage pulse generator containing a grounded electrode, forming a short-circuited speed line, made in the form of serially connected segments of homogeneous lines with distributed parameters the same electrical length T0high-voltage electrode, rastochnik voltage, included between the high voltage and grounded electrodes, switching spark gap and connected in series with the output speed of the line load and prepulsed discharger, provided with an additional homogeneous line with an electrical length equal to the electrical length of T0one end of the additional line is connected between the high voltage and grounded electrodes in the junction of the first and second segments staggered lines, switching spark gap is enabled on the other end of the additional line and wave resistance lines are selected from the ratios of the

< / BR>
< / BR>
where Z1- the wave resistance of the lines formed by the high-voltage and grounded electrodes in the first leg speed line and additional line is connected to the line with an impedance of Z1;

Ziwave resistance of the line segments staggered lines without high voltage electrode;

i = 2,3,...,n is the number of the segment speed line;

n is the number of segments staggered lines;

Z - wave resistance of an extra line.

The inclusion of additional generator line, changing the position of the switching spark gap and the specified optimum is in the matched load when forming therein a rectangular voltage pulse of increased amplitude.

The drawing shows a schematic diagram of the proposed high-voltage pulse generator, where 1 - earthed electrode; 2 - high-voltage electrode; 3, 4 - homogeneous line formed by the high voltage electrode 2 in the first leg speed line; 5 - additional homogeneous line; 6 - switching spark gap; 7 - source voltage; 8 - load; 9 - prepulsed discharger; 10 - the third segment of the stepped line.

The generator includes a grounded electrode 1, forming a short-circuited at the input speed line, made in the form of serially connected segments of homogeneous lines with distributed parameters the same electrical length T0. In the internal volume of the first segment of the stepped line posted by the high-voltage electrode 2, which divides a line segment SL on two uniform lines 3 and 4 with wave impedances, respectively, Z1and . Between 2 high voltage and grounded electrodes 1 at the junction of the first and second segments of the stepped line is connected one end of an additional homogeneous line 5, the electrical length of which is equal to the electrical length of the segments staggered lines. On the other end of the additional line 5 connected to the yhou speed lines are connected series-connected load 8 and prepulsed discharger 9. Wave resistance lines are selected from the ratios of the

< / BR>
< / BR>
where Z1- the wave resistance of the lines formed by the high-voltage and grounded electrodes in the first leg speed line and additional line is connected to the line with the wave resistance Z1;

Ziwave resistance of the line segments staggered lines without high voltage electrode;

i = 1,3,...,n is the number of the segment speed line;

n is the number of segments staggered lines;

Z - wave resistance of an extra line.

The generator works as follows. Under the action of the voltage source 7 is pulse charging to a voltage V0the electrical capacitance of the two line segments 3 and 4 with impedances Z1and , as well as additional line 5 with impedance Z. the Energy stored in the specified lines of the electric field. When reaching the maximum charging voltage V0included switching spark gap 6, closing the short end of the additional line, which will run wave discharge-V0. For further analysis of wave processes this point in time, it is convenient to denote as t = 0. We assume the polarity of the voltage is line is directed upwards, and in an extra line from right to left.

At time t = T0wave discharge propagating along an additional line 5, reaches the place of its connection with the lines 3, 4 and 10. In an additional line 5 will be reflected wave voltage -2 /3V0and in lines 3, 4 and 10 will wave with amplitude equal to -5/3V0, [3(n-1)/(4n)]V0and -[(11n+9)/(12n)] V0. At time t=2T0the following happens. Wave -2/3V0spreading over an additional line 5, reaches the short-circuited switching spark gap 6 and is reflected without change of amplitude, but with opposite polarity.

Wave voltage -5/3V0and [3(n-1)/(4n)]V0come to the junction of lines 3 and 4. As a result, in line 3 will be wave-V0/3 and line 4 - wave [(5n+3)/(4n)]V0. At the same time wave -[(11n+9)/(12n)]V0comes to the connection line 10 with the third segment SL with an impedance of Z3. As a result, in line 10 will be reflected wave is{(11n+9)/[12n(n-1)]}V0in the third segment SL will be wave -{(11n+ 9)/[12(n-1)]}V0.

At time t = 3T0the following happens. To place the additional connection lines 5 lines 3, 4 and 10 come four wave voltage: line 5 - wave 2/3V0on Lin is litude first pulse voltage at the load generator is sufficient to consider only the wave, which superpose electromagnetic waves will propagate along the line 10. Its amplitude will be equal to { (11n+9)(2n-1)/[12n(n-1)]} V0.

Thus, in the second section of the stepped line 10 at time t = T0go wave voltage V12= -[(11n+9)/(12n)]V0and at time t = 3T0wave V22={(11n+9)2n-1)/[12n(n-1)]} V0. Further, it is enough to consider the distribution of the stepped line only these two stress waves. With the passage of the discontinuity at the joints of the segments staggered lines of the wave will change its amplitude. In the time interval iT0-(i+1)T0the first wave will be distributed along the segment of the stepped line number i and its amplitude V1iwill be equal to

< / BR>
The amplitude of the second wave in the interval speed line number i will denote it by V2iassociated with the amplitude of this wave in the interval i-1 and the amplitude of the first wave in the segment number, the following recurrent relation:

< / BR>
Taking into account the ratio of the impedances of the segments staggered lines of the expression for V1iand amplitude of wave V22in the second leg of CL found In the time t =the resistance Zn. As prepulsed discharger 9 is turned off, the voltage surge is reflected from the open end of the line without changing the polarity and amplitude. In the output segment SL, n, is charged to a voltage of 2V1n. At time t = (n+2)T0included prepulsed discharger 9, and the load 8 with an impedance of Zngenerated pulse voltage B the same time to the generator output comes wave V2n= (11n+9)V0/8 and at a load of 8 occurs the voltage pulse total pulse amplitude of the voltage appearing at the load 8 at time t = (n+2)T0equal

< / BR>
and remains constant in the time interval t = (n+2)T0-(n+4)T0. Further on the load in the General case, a pulse voltage of stepped form with a duration of stages equal to 2T0. The amplitude of the maximum voltage in idle mode and is equal to V0(11n+9)/6. The generator has a maximum efficiency in the coordinated mode, when Zn= Zn. In this case, the load 8 is formed of a single rectangular pulse voltage amplitude V0(11n +9)/12 and duration 2T0. The energy transmitted during the pulse in the matched load 8
1respectively.

Therefore, for time t = (n+4)T0stored in the generator energy is completely transferred to the matched load 8, and the voltage and current in any section of the generator is equal to zero.

In the coherent mode, the generator in the ideal case has 100% efficiency, the load 8 is formed by a voltage pulse of rectangular shape amplitude V0(11n+9)/12 that in (11n+9)/[6(n+1)] times the voltage at the agreed load generator prototype equal to V0(n+1)/2.

The correct method of analysis of wave processes in high-voltage generators speed lines, such as the above, was repeatedly confirmed in the creation of a number of high-current pulsed electron accelerators systems with pulse shaping accelerating voltage on the stepped lines /2/ - /6/.

The generator can be performed in embodiments using stripline, coaxial and radial lines with distributed parameters.

Sources of information taken into account

1. Bossamykin V. S. , V. Gordeev, S., A. I. Pavlovskii New schemes for high-voltage pulsed generators based on stepped transmission lines//9-th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, BEAMS-92, Washington, DC, May 25-29, 1992;et. al. Pulsed power electron accelerator with the forming systems based on stepped transmission lines//9-th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, BEAMS-92, Washington, DC, May 25-29, 1992; Springfield, VA, NTIS. 1992. V. 1. PP. 505-510.

3. Bossamykin V. S. , V. Gordeev, S., A. I. Pavlovskii et. al. STRAUS-2 pulsed electron accelerator//9-th IEEE Internat. Pulsed Power Conf., Albuquerque, NM, June 21-23, 1993; Springfield, VA, NTIS. 1993. V. 2. PP. 910-912.

4. Bossamykin V. S. , V. Gordeev, S., A. I. Pavlovskii et. al. Linear induction accelerator LIA-10M//9-th IEEE Internat. Pulsed Power Conf., Albuquerque, NM, June 21-23, 1993; Springfield, VA, NTIS. 1993. V. 2. PP. 905-907.

5. Linear induction electron accelerator LIU-10M with inductors on the stepped lines//VANT. Ser. : Nuclear-physics research. - 1997. - Vol. 4, 5 (31, 32). C. 117-119.

6. B. C. Josamycin, B. C. Gordeev, V. F. Basmanov, C. O. Filippov, G. A. Toes and other Injector accelerator LIU-10M//VANT. Ser.: Nuclear physics research. - 1997. - Vol. 4, 5 (31, 32). C. 120-122.

The high-voltage pulse generator containing a grounded electrode, forming a short-circuited speed line, made in the form of serially connected segments of homogeneous lines with distributed parameters the same electrical length Tabouthigh-voltage electrode placed in the internal volume of the first segment of the stepped line and dividing it into two homogeneous line, the voltage source is included is the super with the output speed of the line load and prepulsed discharger, characterized in that it is provided with an additional homogeneous line with an electrical length equal to the electrical length of Taboutone end of the additional line is connected between the high voltage and grounded electrodes in the junction of the first and second segments staggered lines, switching spark gap is enabled on the other end of the additional line and wave resistance lines are selected from the ratios of the

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
where Z1- the wave resistance of the lines formed by the high-voltage and grounded electrodes in the first leg speed line and additional line is connected to the line with an impedance of Z1;

Ziwave resistance of the line segments staggered lines without high voltage electrode;

i = 2, 3, ..., n is the number of the segment speed line;

n is the number of segments staggered lines;

Z - wave resistance of an extra line.

 

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