Optoelectronic material, the device for its use and a method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive optoelectronic material contains uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic of the semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the above-mentioned environment. Sverhmedlennye particles have an average particle size of 100 nm or less, and the environment has a specific resistance of approximately the same or greater than that of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles. The technical result - the development of optoelectronic material, which contains material which stocks are unlimited and which does not pollute the environment, and has properties such as spontaneous emission light, fast response, possibility of miniaturization of the pixel, low power loss, high resistance to environmental influences. 15 C. and 21 C.p. f-crystals, 27 ill., table 2.

The invention relates to an optoelectronic material, device for its use and the method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material. More specifically, the present invention relates to an optoelectronic material, which contains as the base semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with justices who znaet the environment, and this is perfectly consistent with silicon technology (Si)-LSI and has properties such as spontaneous emission light, fast response, possibility of miniaturization of pixels (minimum picture elements), low power loss, high resistance to environmental influences and layout that does not require Assembly, and applied to the device of the optoelectronic material and to the method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material.

Known light-emitting device includes a light emitting diode and the device using electroluminescence, which is the basis of practical use. Optoelectronic materials, which are used for these light-emitting devices are complex semiconductors, essentially containing an element of group III and an element of group V (hereinafter referred to as "group III-V) of the Periodic table, or a complex semiconductors, essentially containing an element of group II and an element of group VI of the Periodic table, instead of silicon (Si). This is because silicon is a semiconductor with an indirect transition and with a bandgap of 1.1 eV, which lies in the near infrared region of the spectrum that scicade studies of light emitting porous Si in the visible region of the spectrum at room temperature (described for example, in the work of L. T. Canham, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 57, No. 10, 1046 (1990). Enthusiastic study of the radiation characteristics in the visible region of the spectrum at room temperature is conducted with the use of Si as the main material. Most of these messages belongs to Si.

This porous Si radiating light, mainly produced by anodizing the surface of the monocrystalline Si substrate in the solution, which essentially contains hydrogen fluoride, and up to the present photoluminescence (PL) was observed at several wavelengths in the range from 800 nm (red) to 425 nm (blue). Recently, attempts were made to obtain the luminescence by excitation of the injection current (electroluminescence, EL) (e.g., published, has not passed the examination application N5-206514).

EL this porous silicon has the following typical properties. (1) EL Spectra and PL show essentially the same shape of spectral lines with some differences in intensity. (2) the EL Intensity proportional to the current injection into supposedly used in practice, the density of the injection current. However, it should be noted that in the spectral region where the density of the injection current is smaller than in the previous /P> Property (1) shows that EL and PL caused by the recombination of carriers (excited electron-hole pairs) in approximately the same levels of luminescence, property (2) shows that the generation of carriers typical EL, mainly performed with the injection of negative carriers near the p-n junction.

When considering the radiation mechanism of Si, which is a semiconductor with an indirect transition, there is an opinion that the rule of selection of the wave number for the optical transition relaxes in the smallest three-dimensional structural region of the order of nanometer (nm) in a porous configuration, thus providing a radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs, and the opinion that the often-mentioned annular oxide (polysiloxane) get on the surface of porous Si, and a new energy level, which gives the contribution to radiative recombination, is formed on the border of polysiloxan/Si. In any case, in relation to the photoexcitation, it seemed clear that the change in the structure of energy zones (the phenomenon of increase of the forbidden zone) due to the quantum effect of the deduction.

In addition, the luminescence from porous Si has a broad band of the spectrum, approximately 0.3 IEM this porous Si for to increase the radiation intensity in a specific wavelength in the continuous spectrum, which is initially generated (for example, L. Pavesi et al., Applied Physics Letters, vol. 67, 3280 (1995)).

In the known optoelectronic materials used compound semiconductors, mainly containing an element of group III-V or element group II-VI type direct transition, but they contain the element (In or similar), the reserves of which are quite small, and the cost of cleaning is high, despite the high efficiency of radiation. In addition, there is still no method of applying small-scale drawings for these complex semiconductors used in the manufacture of semiconductors, in comparison with the technique of applying small-scale drawings for Si, making it difficult to obtain small samples of the order of microns (μm) or less. In addition, the elements of group III and V are used as alloying materials for Si and thereby affect the electrical conductivity. That is, until the device is a spontaneous light emission is essentially composed of a semiconductor material, coordination with the technological processes or devices for Si-LSI as a typical electronic device is what I significant disadvantage, namely, that it is necessary to change the type of material (i.e. look for a new one), and the method of manufacture to be restructured in order to adjust the wavelength of the radiation.

In the case of porous Si, capable of emitting light, the porous layer is formed on the surface of the monocrystalline Si substrate by anodization in a solution, in this case, although the crystallite in the porous layer has a high-quality crystalline structure, it is difficult to control the shape and size of the crystal. It is especially difficult with high efficiency to obtain spherical crystallite with a particle size of 5 nm or less. If the mechanism of radiation of visible light material of group IV-based Si is a quantum effect size (weakening rule action selection wave number, the change of the band structure due to quantum effect retention and so on), it still is important to obtain a spherical crystallite size of particles of the order of nanometer. From this point of view, we cannot say that the method of production will remain optimal.

Also, there are more difficulties when intend to demonstrate the operation of the display device using the Regula porous Si directly get into the Si substrate, it is impossible to provide electrical isolation between elements. In addition, it is impossible to obtain a layered structure with another material, such transparent material which has a high transmission coefficient in the visible range of the spectrum.

Although the layout of the particles of an element of group IV or partially oxidized particles of an element of group IV between the electrodes for emitting light is already known (for example, disclosed in published application JP N 7-52670), however, there is a disadvantage associated with the management of the electrical characteristics and the inability to adapt to different types of light-emitting devices and photodetectors. Therefore, in modern technology there is no optoelectronic material that could be adapted to various kinds of light-emitting devices and photodetectors with the ability to control electric characteristics.

Therefore, the present invention is the development of optoelectronic material, which contains material which stocks are unlimited and which does not pollute the environment, and this dovetails nicely with silicon technology (Si)-LSI and has properties such as spontaneous emitted by the ü to environmental influences and the process of composition, requiring no Assembly, and applied to the device of the optoelectronic material and to the method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material.

To solve this problem optoelectronic material according to the present invention contains a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic of the semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in said medium, and mentioned sverhmedlennye particles have an average particle size of 100 nm or less, and the environment has a specific resistance of approximately the same or greater than that of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles. This allows injection of carriers in sverhnegabaritnyh particles or quantum confinement of carriers in sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which can be efficiently executed with control.

In addition, provided that the distance between the semiconductor sverhmedlennymi particles, dispergirovannykh in an environment equal to or greater than the radius of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

Provided that the packing factor of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the environment is equal to or less than 30%.

It is envisaged that the semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in said medium, cover the oxide of the element forming semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles.

The standard enthalpy of formation mentioned environment is higher than that of the oxide semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh of particles dispersed in the above-mentioned environment.

To solve this task also offers an optoelectronic material according to the present invention containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it contains layers of transparent material, and a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles and layers of transparent material are alternately one on another. This allows you to perform optoelectronic material having the property of increasing the intensity of the specific wavelength range in the continuous spectrum, which will detect or generate ivermectine the governmental sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it contains a layer with high reflectance, is performed on one surface of the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and a layer with a partial reflection, performed on the other surface of the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles. This allows you to narrow the range of wavelengths detected and emitted light beams and can increase the intensity.

It is envisaged that at least one layer with a partial reflection layer with high reflectivity is a multilayer film, which has two kinds of layers with different refractive indices that are alternately one on another.

Also provides that the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles includes a multilayer film.

To solve this task also offers a light-emitting device containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye hour is some characteristic, and a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, characterized in that when a voltage is applied to the pair of electrodes is carrier injection in a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles, and the result of radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs caused by the injection of carriers, there is a radiation of light, while the environment has a specific resistance equal or greater than that of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

It is envisaged that the energy of light photons is managed.

The task is also solved in the light-emitting device containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it comprises a first electrode on one main surface of a semiconductor substrate, an insulator layer, is performed on the other main surface of the aforementioned semiconductor substrate and having a hole for partial irradiation poluprovodnikov containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles is in contact with the semiconductor substrate through the aforementioned hole.

Provides that when a voltage is applied to the first and second electrodes is the injection of carriers in a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles, and the result of radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs due to injection of carriers occurs, the emission of light, and the intensity of the radiation increases much faster compared to the proportion for the injection current.

The object of the invention is also a monochrome display device containing the light-emitting elements, each of which has a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles having a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it comprises a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and light-emitting elements included in the composition uniformly and regularly placed a single pixel, while the radiation intensity of each of the said unit pixels is adjusted by changing the excitation current for swietoslawski cell battery (included) is, teramae light-emitting elements, each of which has a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles having a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it comprises a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and light-emitting elements included in the composition uniformly and regularly placed a single pixel, while a single pixel contains many light-emitting elements for emitting light of a specific color due to the average size of the particles or the surface atomic arrangement sverhnegabaritnyh particles of light-emitting elements, moreover, the intensity and color of each individual pixel is adjusted by changing the excitation current of the light emitting elements of a single pixel.

It is also proposed portable display device having the above display device.

The object of the invention is also a display device, worn on the head, soderzhanie to the head man, which is put on the element display device, an optical system for receiving the information displayed on the display device for the right and left eyes of the man.

It is also proposed electronic dictionary to display information using the above-mentioned display device.

The object of the invention is an optoelectronic conversion device containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic and a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and an optoelectronic conversion device has the function of photodetective carried out by detecting a change in the internal resistance, which occurs as a result of generation of carriers generated under the influence of light radiation in the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles.

This is provided that the energy of the detected photons is managed.

In addition, the object of the invention is a color sensor containing an optoelectronic Converter layers, which include the aforementioned optoelectronic devices located alternately through the transparent insulating film, and an optoelectronic conversion device has the function of photodetective in various predefined wavelength ranges due to upravo location sverhnegabaritnyh particles optoelectronic converting elements.

It is envisaged that placed alternately optoelectronic conversion layers have different optical energy gap, and optoelectronic conversion layers adjacent to the photomultiplier surface, and the optical energy gap becomes larger.

To solve this problem is proposed also a method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material, which carry out the first operation of placing the target material for placement of the first target material in a vacuum reaction chamber in the environment rarefied gas at low pressure, perform the operation of placing the substrate in the vacuum reaction chamber and perform the operation of ablation by irradiation with a laser beam of the first target material placed in the first operation of placing the target material to perform desorption and injection of the target material, whereby the received sverhmedlennye particles in the process of condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation ablation, in the environment of rarefied gas hold on the substrate, while receiving optoelectronic material containing sverhmedlennye particles.

Ekaterina target in the vacuum reaction chamber, in which place the first target material, and in which the second target material is sprayed to capture material, which is produced when spraying, the substrate is essentially at the same time as sverhmedlennye particles obtained by the condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation of ablation, in the environment of rarefied gas onto the substrate, thus obtaining the optoelectronic material having sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the material, which contains the second material of the target.

Furthermore, the method further comprises changing operation pressure input rarefied gas at low pressure, to control the average size of sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

The method further comprises the operation of performing separation by mass sverhnegabaritnyh particles obtained in operation ablation, to control the average size of sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

It is envisaged that the operation is complete separation by mass sverhnegabaritnyh particles includes the operation of ionization sverhnegabaritnyh particles and the supply of electric field or magnetic field on ionine is a mixed material, in a mixed crystal state, which includes many types of semiconductor materials.

This mixed material was obtained in the blending operation by mechanical blending of a variety of particles of the initial number and operations sintering the mixed particles by means of hot pressing.

The method also further comprises the operation of oxidation of the surface of the optoelectronic material deposited on said substrate.

It is envisaged that in the operation of the oxidation sverhmedlennye particles that get in the air operations of the Association, subjected to heat treatment in a gaseous environment containing oxygen, whereby the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles covered with a thermal oxide film.

According to the method of heat treatment in non-oxidizing environment at a temperature higher than the temperature during the formation of thermal oxide film in the operation of the coating, is carried out before formation of thermal oxide film.

To solve this problem is proposed also a method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material containing the put operation pervanovo gas, at low pressure, the operation of placing the substrate in the vacuum reaction chamber, the operation of placing the second target material to accommodate the second target material in the second reaction chamber as insulated from the first target material and the substrate as a component of the environment, the operation of ablation by irradiation with a laser beam of the first target material placed in operation of the first target material, to perform desorption and injection above the target material, and the evaporation for the evaporation of the second target material placed in the operation of placing the second target material, whereby the material obtained in the operation of evaporation on the second target material, applied to said substrate essentially at the same time, when sverhmedlennye particles obtained through the condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation of ablation on the first target material, in the environment of a rarefied gas is captured by the substrate for deposition, so as to obtain optoelectronic material having sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the material, which contains the second material of the target.

Furthermore, the use of any of the aforementioned optoelectronic materials for producing the light-emitting device, display device, or an optoelectronic conversion device with two electrodes, between which is an optoelectronic material in such a way that ensures direct contact with him, and consequently can control the electric contact between the electrodes and the layer of electro-optic material to effectively perform the light emission or function optoelectronic conversion.

A portable display device according to the present invention is constructed essentially using the display device. This design allows the portable display device, which is suitable for reduction in size and weight, and has low power loss and high resolution, and which can accordingly be adapted for use as an HMD or electronic dictionary.

The invention is illustrated by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

Fig the NTU implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 2A and 2B depict graphs of the current from the voltage of the light-emitting device;

Fig. 3 depicts graphs of the dependence of the radiation intensity from current light-emitting device;

Fig. 4 depicts a graph of the dependence of the radiation intensity from the duty cycle of the light-emitting device;

Fig. 5 depicts a graph of the dependence of the radiation intensity from energy photons PL and EL light-emitting device;

Fig. 6A,B shows the dependence of the size sverhnegabaritnyh particles from the energy bandgap of the light-emitting device;

Fig. 7 depicts a structural view in cross section of the light-emitting device according to the second variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 8A - 8C depict the structural scheme of the device is a monochrome display device according to the third variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 9 depicts a simplified diagram of the structure of one pixel of a color image equipment according to the fourth variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 10 depicts a simplified diagram of the basic structure of the device of the portable display device according to the fifth variant oswae sixth variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 12 depicts a General view of the HMD attachment in the form of points;

Fig. 13 depicts a structural view in cross section of the HMD according to a seventh variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 14 depicts a structural view in cross section of an optoelectronic conversion device according to the eighth variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 15 depicts a structural view in cross section of an optoelectronic conversion device according to a ninth variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 16 depicts a structural view in cross section of a color sensor according to the tenth variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 17 depicts the absorption spectrum of each layer of the optoelectronic conversion of the color sensor;

Fig. 18A and 18B depict structural types in the cross-section of an optoelectronic material according to the eleventh variant of implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 19A and 19B depict the emission spectrum of optoelectronic material shown in Fig. 18;

Fig. 20 depicts a structural view in cross section of an optoelectronic material according to the twelfth variant implementation of the infusion of the SNO thirteenth variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 22 depicts a General diagram of a device for obtaining sverhnegabaritnyh particle;

Fig. 23 depicts a graph of pressure rarefied gas from the average size of sverhnegabaritnyh particle;

Fig. 24 depicts a General diagram of the device control the size sverhnegabaritnyh particle;

Fig. 25 depicts a General diagram of the device of the optoelectronic material according to the fourteenth variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 26 depicts a block diagram of the device of the hybrid cathode according to the fourteenth variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 27 depicts a block diagram of the device of the composite deposition for the fabrication of optoelectronic material.

The options in the best embodiment of the invention.

Optoelectronic material according to the present invention contains a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic of the semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the environment and having the average particle size of 100 nm or less. This allows you to get quantum effect retention sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

It is preferable that the size (diameter) of the particles polypro containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles was approximately more than two times smaller than the wavelength of de Broglie semiconductor material for sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

As an optoelectronic material according to the present invention is formed using dispyergiruyuscikh sverhnegabaritnyh particles that are in the environment that have the same conductivity, it is possible to demonstrate quantum effect retention sverhnegabaritnyh particles without imbalance. In addition, because sverhmedlennye particles are dispersed essentially in a uniform medium with a controllable conductivity or dielectric constant, it is possible to control the quantum effect of confinement of carriers in sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

It is preferable that the environment had a specific resistance of approximately the same or greater than sverhnegabaritnyh particles. This allows you to get quantum effect of confinement of carriers in sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which in the future will be effectively demonstrated.

Also preferably, the distance between sverhmedlennymi particles, dispergirovannykh in an environment that was equal to or greater than the radius sverhnegabaritnyh particles. On the other hand, the packing factor sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the environment can be equal to or less than 30%. This allows you to get quantum confinement sverhnegabaritnyh castagne, than the oxide sverhnegabaritnyh of particles dispersed in the environment, sverhmedlennye particles can stably exist in the environment.

In addition, sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the environment, can be coated with the oxide of the element forming sverhmedlennye particles. In this case, even if the standard enthalpy of formation of the environment is higher than that of the oxide sverhnegabaritnyh of particles dispersed in the environment, sverhmedlennye particles can stably exist in the environment.

Appropriate is that sverhmedlennye particles in the above-described optoelectronic materials containing a group IV semiconductor. With this structure get sverhmedlennye particles of the material, the reserves of which is unlimited, which does not pollute the environment, is perfectly consistent with the technology of the Si-LSI has a high resistance to environmental influences and the process of composition that does not require Assembly. Sverhmedlennye particles can contain complex semiconductor group III-V or II-VI. In addition, the environment represents, respectively, a thin film of transparent conductive material or dielectric material.

Optoelectronic My sverhmedlennymi particles has sverhmedlennye semiconductor particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less, dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, and the layers of transparent material are alternately and layers located one on top of another. This allows you to increase the intensity of the specific wavelength range in the continuous spectrum, which is mainly formed by the generation sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

Transparent layers are respectively obtained from a thin transparent conductive film or a dielectric film. It is desirable that the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles had the above mentioned characteristics.

Optoelectronic material according to a variant implementation of the present invention contains a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles with an average size of semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles 100 nm or less dispersed in a homogeneous medium with a controllable electric characteristic, and a layer with a partial reflection layer with high reflectance, made by and under the layer containing buried fine-grained particles. This can increase the intensity of the specific wavelength range in the continuous spectrum, which is formed due to the generation of sverhnegabaritnyh part of the metal film.

Preferably, at least one of the layers with partial reflection layer with high reflectance had a multilayer structure with a periodic structure, which has at least two kinds of layers with different refractive indices that are alternately on each other. This allows you to increase the intensity of the specific wavelength range in the continuous spectrum, which is mainly formed due to the generation of sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles.

On the other hand, the layer with high reflectance can be obtained from the multilayer film, which has at least two kinds of layers with different refractive indexes arranged alternately on each other, and a thin metal film. The multilayer film may include a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has the aforementioned characteristics.

Preferably, the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles in the above-described optoelectronic material had the above mentioned characteristics. In this case, the thickness of the optical film layer containing buried spermacoceae device according to the present invention contains a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic and a pair of electrodes that are placed on and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, whereby (as voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes) media injections in the semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles, and the light emitted in the radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs, which occurs when using the injection of carriers. This allows electrical connection between the electrodes and the layer of electro-optic material, which will manage.

The energy of the emitted photons can be controlled by adjusting the particle size sverhnegabaritnyh particles or by adjusting the placement of the nuclear surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles. Appropriate is the fact that the pair of electrodes is transparent or semi-transparent electrodes, which allow to obtain high transmittance of the external light beam.

In addition, a thin film metal electrode may have the o to the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles and the metal electrode had contact type transition Schottky. Thin film metal electrode respectively contains any of the substances, such as magnesium, indium, aluminum, platinum, gold, silver, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, cobalt, Nickel and palladium.

Also suitable is that getting a semiconductor substrate made from one electrode, and an insulating layer formed on the side of one electrode of a semiconductor substrate and having a hole for partial irradiation of a semiconductor substrate, forming a layer of optoelectronic material for coating the hole in order to create part of the hole with the active region, perform radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs inside sverhnegabaritnyh particles or near the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles by means of the phenomenon of the increase, and the intensity of the radiation characteristic of an increase in excess of simply proportional dependence on the injection current in the light emitting device. The use of such phenomena increase enables a very efficient use of powerfully what about the time of the collision ions, and is significantly effective in increasing the dynamic range of the radiation intensity.

If the p-n junction is made in the layer of electro-optic material, high efficiency power compared with the case where there is only a contact type transfer Schottky, which, obviously, is the most simple structure, which allows the light emitting device.

Monochrome display device is designed to adjust the intensity of each individual device pixels, regularly placed in planar form, by changing the excitation current of the light emitting elements of the unit pixels using such light-emitting elements as light emitting elements that correspond to single pixels. A color display device to adjust the intensity and color of each individual pixel, regularly installed on the plane, by changing the excitation current of the light emitting elements forming a single pixel can be obtained with the design svetoizluchateli element is designed to have sverhmedlennye particles with the colors and use of light-emitting elements as light emitting elements, which correspond to single pixels and allow to radiate all three primary colors.

The invention additionally provides a portable display device that has the above-described display device. In this case, very high resolution can be obtained by setting the length of a single pixel in the range of about 1-100 μm. A portable display device having such a display device may be a display device with installation on the head, which contains the fastening elements for the safe operation of the display device on the man's head, on which the display device is installed, and an optical system for receiving the information displayed on the display device for the right and left eyes of a person. With this structure, the display device is compact and provides high sharpness to the optical system associated with the eyes, is a compact, thus contributing to reducing the size and weight of the main body of the display device mounted on the head, and provides a wide angle view and high resolution.

The optical system of the display device, the setting is in the display. Preferably, the light emitting device having a transmittance, was behind the element that transmits light in order to have a transmittance, so that external light beam introduced into the optical system. Due to the transmittance of this structure allows to realize a compact display device that is installed on the head, such as "see through", which does not require the semitransparent mirror or similar elements.

The display device can be installed in the direction of the line of sight, non-directed back to the line of sight of the person who wears the device, so people can easily see what's happening behind by shifting the line of sight up and down, or similarly, and without turning the head.

The present invention also provides an electronic dictionary that displays information using a display device. Since the display device is a compact type with high sharpness, it is possible to realize a compact and light dictionary, which would have the same level of high resolution, known as paper dictionaries.

The photodetector according to the present is sverhmedlennye particles with an average size of 100 nm or less, dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable dielectric characteristic and a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and has the function of photodetective by identifying changes in the internal resistance, which occurs during the generation of carriers, which are formed under the influence of the light emission layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles.

The photodetector according to the present invention contains a layer of optoelectronic material containing the above-mentioned material and a pair of electrodes, made by and under the layer of electro-optic material, with the transition Schottky formed at the boundary between the layer of electro-optic material and the electrode or the p-n junction formed in the layer of electro-optic material, and has the function of photodetective by identifying changes photoelectrode forces generated by using the generation of carriers, which arises due to the generation of carriers generated by irradiation of a light beam.

The energy of the emitted photons can be controlled by adjusting the size sverhnegabaritnyh particles or using regulatively device according to the present invention is an optoelectronic conversion device, which contains a layer of optoelectronic material containing the aforementioned optoelectronic material and a pair of electrodes, made by and under the layer of electro-optic material, and which has the function of detecting light radiation in radiative recombination of generated electron-hole pairs caused by the injection of carriers in the case when a negative carriers are injected into sverhmedlennye particles of the layer of electro-optic material through a pair of electrodes, and function photodetective by identifying changes in the internal resistance caused by the generation of carriers in the case where light strikes the layer of electro-optic material.

The optoelectronic conversion device according to the present invention is an optoelectronic conversion device that includes a layer of electro-optic material containing the aforementioned optoelectronic material, and a pair of electrodes, made by and under the layer of electro-optic material, with the transition Schottky formed at the boundary between the layer of electro-optic material and the electrode or the p-n junction formed in the layer of electro-optic material, and which has the function discovery the media in the case, when the negative media injections in sverhmedlennye particles of the layer of electro-optic material through a pair of electrodes and photodetector function by identifying photoelectrode forces resulting from the generation of carriers in the case where the light beam impinges on the layer optoelectonic material.

The energy emitted and detected photons can be controlled by adjusting the size sverhnegabaritnyh particles or with the adjustment of the surface atomic arrangement sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

In the above-described optoelectronic conversion devices, a pair of electrodes may be a transparent or semi-transparent electrodes.

Controlling the optical energy of the optical gap with the adjustment of the average size sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the above-mentioned photodetector or in the structure of the surface atomic arrangement, you can use the photodetector according to the present invention as a detector of ultraviolet radiation, which contains a photodetector having a function of photodetective ultraviolet radiation. This structure eliminates the need to use the SI, resistance to environmental influences and the ability of a composition that does not require Assembly.

Controlling the optical energy gap with the adjustment of the average size sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the above-mentioned photodetector or in the structure of the surface atomic arrangement, the present invention provides a sensor blue, containing a photodetector, which has the function of photodetective for blue light. This structure eliminates the need to use filters or similar elements and provides high performance in coordination with the technology of the Si-LSI, resistance to environmental influences and the ability of a composition that does not require Assembly.

Controlling the optical energy gap with the adjustment of the average size sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the above-mentioned photodetector or in the structure of the surface atomic arrangement, the present invention provides a color sensor containing layers with optoelectronic conversion, which contain the photodetectors having a function of photodetective in different predetermined ranges of wavelengths, arranged through the transparent insulating film. With this structureagency wavelength, performs optoelectronic conversion, thus performing the function of the color sensor.

Suitable from the point of view of the sensitivity of the received light is that stacked layers of photoelectric conversion have different optical energy gap, and a layer that is closer to the light-receiving surface has a higher optical energy gap. In addition, the layers of photoelectric converting may include three layers with photoelectric conversion, which have different optical energy gap in the visible range of the spectrum.

The present invention provides a semiconductor device in monolithic integrated circuits, which has at least one or more of the above-mentioned light-emitting device, display device, an optoelectronic conversion device, the detector ultraviolet radiation sensor blue color and the color sensor. With this structure, the device is made of material, the amount of which is unlimited and which does not pollute the environment, and has high performance in coordination with the technology of the Si-LSI, resistance to environmental influences and the process is the overarching invention is characterized by that the laser beam falls on the first target of a semiconductor material, which is placed in the reaction chamber in the environment rarefied gas at low pressure, the semiconductor material is removed from the first tee, condense and grow in order to get sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less, and sverhmedlennye particles are sealed in the material environment, which has managed the electrical characteristic. The schema for the emergence of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will be in the closed state in the material environment with controlled electrical characteristics include the operation of laser ablation and the scheme dive sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the material environment, had been completed.

That is, the method is characterized by the fact that the place of the first target material in a vacuum reaction chamber in the environment of a dilute gas under low pressure, place a substrate for deposition in a vacuum reaction chamber and irradiated with a laser beam of the first target material, which is placed in the operation of the first target material in order to cause desorption and injection material mishearing and injected on this ablation, in the environment of rarefied gas on the substrate for deposition in order to obtain optoelectronic material containing sverhmedlennye particles.

With the above structure sverhmedlennye particles with a particle size controlled at the nanometer level, guaranteed sprayed on the substrate by performing the operation of laser ablation in the rarefied gas environment.

A method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material according to the present invention includes an operation of irradiating the laser beam to the first target semiconductor material placed in the reaction chamber in the environment of a dilute gas under low pressure and the second target material medium with a controllable electric characteristic, placed in the reaction chamber, and condensing/growth of a semiconductor material that is removed from the first tee, which will continue to gather as sverhnegabaritnyh particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less on the substrate, located in the reaction chamber, and condensing/growth material environment, which is removed from the second target for further collection on the substrate, located in the reaction chamber, thereby obtaining the PSS is s, dispersed in the environment on a substrate.

According to the method according to the present invention place a second target material in a vacuum reaction chamber in which is placed the first target material, and sprayed a second target material in order to collect material obtained by sputtering on the substrate for deposition is essentially at the same time as sverhmedlennye particles resulting from the condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation of ablation, in rarefied gas environment, are collected on a substrate for deposition, so as to obtain optoelectronic material having sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the material, which contains the second material of the target. With this structure on the substrate receive a thin dielectric film containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles by spraying with the use of operations ablation and sputtering.

In addition, the method according to the present invention place the first target material in the first reaction chamber in the environment of a dilute gas under low pressure, place a substrate for deposition in the reaction chamber, place oblozhki as component of the environment, irradiated with a laser beam to the first target material, which is placed in the operation of the first target material in order to cause desorption and injection of the target material (ablation), and evaporated the second target material, which is placed in the operation of placing the second target material. With this structure, the material obtained in the operation of evaporation on the second target material, is collected on a substrate for deposition on the merits at the same time as sverhmedlennye particles obtained by using the condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation of ablation on the first target material, in the environment of a rarefied gas is collected on the substrate for deposition, so that you can get optoelectronic material having sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the material, which contains the second material of the target.

Preferably, the laser was used in the operation of evaporation for the evaporation of the second material of the target and in the operation of ablation associated with the irradiation of the second laser beam of the second target material to cause desorption and injection of the target material.

Preferably, the above method of manufacturing the gas, under low pressure, and this structure would allow to control the average size of sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

In addition, you can perform the separation of isotopes sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which are obtained from the operation of ablation. This structure will allow in the future to control the average size of sverhnegabaritnyh particles. In this case, the operation execution isotope separation sverhnegabaritnyh particles may include the operation of ionization sverhnegabaritnyh particles and the supply of electric field or magnetic field on the ionized sverhmedlennye particles.

In the above method, the first target material may include at least one of semiconductor, metal and dielectric substances. In addition, the first target material may be a mixed material containing the set of group IV semiconductors, and this mixed material may be a mixture of silicon and germanium and mixed crystalline state. With this structure, using mixed crystal sverhmedlennye particles, the composition of the mixed crystal can be used as an auxiliary parameter in regulator wave number at the time of manufacture sverhnegabaritnyh particles, or facilitates the emergence of radiative recombination.

Appropriate is that the mixed material is obtained by using the operations of mixing mechanical mixing of many types of particles of the initial number and operations sintering of mixed particles by means of hot pressing.

Using the first target material, which is a semiconductor of group II-VI semiconductor of groups III-V, the laser ablation is mainly a process that is not affected by the melting point element of the target or evaporation pressure in order to manufacture these semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles supported with the stoichiometric composition.

In addition, you can perform the operation of introducing an impurity of p-type conductivity and an impurity of n-type conductivity in the semiconductor layer formed using sverhnegabaritnyh particles collected on the substrate for deposition in order to obtain the layer of semiconductor p-n junction. In this case, the impurity of n-type conductivity and the impurity of p-type conductivity, which will be introduced in the semiconductor layer, can be introduced at different depths diffusion to form a p-n junction conductive material or dielectric material.

In addition, the substrate can be perform oxidation of the surface of the optoelectronic material. This structure eliminates the surface layer in which a crystal defect or impurity is mixed and improves the crystalline structure and purity. Appropriate is that the oxidation step in the operation of oxidation, sverhmedlennye

particles, which are obtained in the operation of the air Association, are subjected to heat treatment in the environment of a gas that contains oxygen, so as to cover the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles thermal oxide film. Suitable also is that heat treatment in non-oxidizing environment at a temperature higher than the temperature during the formation of thermal oxide film, the coating operation is performed before the formation of thermal oxide film, which allows you to more fully recover the crystal structure sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

The present invention provides an optoelectronic material, manufactured using the above method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material. This structure allows to obtain a material containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles is dispergirovannykh sverhmedlennymi particles or a layer of an optoelectronic material, formed from electro-optic material, which is manufactured using the above method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material. This structure allows to obtain a material containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles with a controlled size sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

The present invention provides a light emitting device, optoelectronic layers of material which contain optoelectronic material, which is obtained by means of the method described above. In addition, the present invention provides a monochrome display or a color display device, which includes the aforementioned light-emitting device. In addition, the present invention provides a portable display device that has the above-mentioned display device.

The present invention provides an optoelectronic conversion device, the layer of electronic material which contains the above-mentioned electrooptic material. In addition, the present invention provides a detector of ultraviolet radiation and a sensor blue colors, each of which contains the aforementioned optoelectronic conversion on the e optoelectronic conversion device.

In addition, the present invention provides a semiconductor device in monolithic integrated circuits, which has at least one or more of the above-mentioned light-emitting device, display device, an optoelectronic conversion device, the detector ultraviolet radiation sensor blue color and the color sensor.

The first version of the implementation.

The basic structure of the light-emitting device that uses an optoelectronic material according to the present invention will be described in detail below as a first option, with reference to Fig. 1-5.

Under this option implementation description will be given electroluminescent (EL) device, in which light-emitting (active region) is a layer of electro-optic material, which has sverhmedlennye Si particles, usually one of the semiconductors of group IV with its surface covered with its own thermal oxide film, which is dispersed essentially in a homogeneous transparent medium with a controllable conductivity or dielectric constant.

This version done by whom and environment, in particular, the conductivity, which is approximately homogeneous in the environment. That is sverhmedlennye particles that will dispergirujutsja on Wednesday, are a set of several tens to several hundreds of atoms/molecules, while the environment itself consists of a set (group) of very small atoms/molecules or more atoms/molecules. For example, it is a homogeneous environment is obtained by using a homogeneous film, which contains a set (group) of atoms/molecules, smaller than sverhnegabaritnyh particles or more atoms/molecules on a predetermined substrate or the like using such a method as sputtering. In this case, the homogeneous deposition on the substrate can be performed by adjusting the differential pressure in the reaction chambers, for example the differential pressure between the reaction chamber and the chamber for sputtering, using a method similar to the scheme of laser ablation, which will be described below.

In the present invention, when it is confirmed that the packing factors of material sverhnegabaritnyh particles in randomly selected small areas (containing, for example, about ten sverhnegabaritnyh particles) is equal to the e of such a homogeneous transparent medium containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles is suppressed by the wide distribution of kinetic energy of the electrons, thus ensuring efficient emission of light.

In Fig. 1 shows the structure in cross section of the light-emitting device using an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation. In Fig. 1A position 11 labeled substrate. As the substrate 11, and one example was used, the Si substrate of n-type having a plane orientation (100), the conductivity of n-type doped with phosphorus and a specific resistance of 10 MSM. Get the insulation film 12 of the insulator, which is a film of silicon dioxide (SiO2as one example, with a thickness of 100 nm on the upper surface of this Si-substrate n-type. This insulating film insulator 12 has an opening 12A with a diameter of about 1-2 mm or less, made on the part which should be light-emitting (active) area of the light-emitting device using the exposure surface of the substrate 11.

The layer 13 of optoelectronic material is sprayed so as to cover at least the opening 12a. This layer 13 optoelectronic material, which is shown in Fig. 1B, made of sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si dispersed in the transparent medium 15. Sverhmedlennye particles L4 Si are essentially SF is Yu doping with phosphorus doping at low concentrations, and adjustable particle size of about 3-10 nm. This layer deposition with sverhmedlennymi particles has a thickness of approximately 150 nm. In addition, the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si covered with a film of SiO2(not shown), whose thickness is, for example, must be 3 nm or less. As the layer 13 of optoelectronic material and the substrate 11 is n-type conductivity, the electronic barrier is not formed at the boundary between them.

A transparent medium 15 is a thin homogeneous film which has a high transmittance in the visible region of the spectrum and has managed the conductivity or dielectric constant, and a thin film of tin oxide (SnO2) is used here as one example. This thin film of SnO2has a transmittance of visible light of more than 80%, and its conductivity or dielectric constant can be controlled by adjustment of its formation conditions (temperature of the substrate, the partial pressure of oxygen, and so on). Appropriate is that the specific resistance of the medium is approximately the same or is equal to or larger than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which will be palladium in the range of about 10-10-3MSM due to the concentration of impurities, the specific resistance of a thin film of SnO2can only be controlled in the range of about 103-10-2OSM in accordance with the specific resistance sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja. The specific resistance can be obtained by forming thin film SnO2when the temperature of the substrate in the range, for example, from room temperature to approximately 600oC. Above allows you to get quantum effect of confinement of carriers in managed sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

It is desirable to set the packing factor sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si layer 13 optoelectronic material was higher, since it increases the value of the radiation intensity of light emitted from the inner layer 13 of optoelectronic material. However, when the packing factor of the material becomes higher or the distance between sverhmedlennymi particles becomes closer, the wave function of carriers in sverhnegabaritnyh particles become wider and the media penetrate into the transparent medium to the overlap of the wave functions of the carriers in the of media in sverhnegabaritnyh particles. Therefore, it is desirable that the dispersion could be done using the distance between sverhmedlennymi particles, which are supported in such a way that the overlap of the squared absolute values of the wave functions become, for example, equal to or less than cell peak value. This distance is equal to the radius r sverhnegabaritnyh particles. In this case, there is evidence that the spherical sverhmedlennye particles having a radius of half r, have a tightly Packed structure, is the packing factor becomes approximately equal to 22%. In connection with the above packing factor sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si layer 13 optoelectronic material was approximately 20%.

Semi-transparent electrode 16 made of platinum (Pt) with a thickness of 10 nm as one example, is in contact with the top surface of layer 13 optoelectronic material, forming a so-called Schottky contact (in the electrical sense) with a layer 13 of optoelectronic material, which includes a transparent medium 15 with controlled conductivity. The back electrode 17 made of silver (Ag) as a first example, performed on the bottom surface of the substrate 11 and forms while ohmic contorno run between the substrate 11 and the back electrode 17 to reduce the height of the electric barrier at the border. Instead of Pt and Ag electrodes 16 and 17 can be made of one substance, such as Mg, indium, aluminum, gold, silver, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, cobalt, Nickel and palladium.

Although Si is used as the material for sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which form a layer of optoelectronic material, respectively, using a different group IV semiconductor, such as germanium (Ge) or a mixed crystal or you can use a complex semiconductor group III-V or group II-VI. Although a thin layer of SnO2used as a homogeneous transparent medium, you can also use another thin dielectric film having a specific resistance essentially the same or greater than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja, such as a thin film of titanium dioxide (TiO2), indium oxide (InO2), indium oxide-tin (ITO), cadmium oxide (CdO), tungsten oxide (WO3), zinc oxide (ZnO), magnesium oxide (MgO), zinc sulfide (ZnS). If the film thickness is in the range in which the electric conductivity is possible due to a tunneling effect or jump, you can also use a thin dielectric film of SiO2, oberholseri particles of Si are covered by their own thermal oxide film, in this case, the oxide film sverhnegabaritnyh particles is not significant. That is, when the standard enthalpy of formation of the transparent medium is less than the standard enthalpy of formation of oxide sverhnegabaritnyh particles forming the layer of electro-optic material, which means that a transparent medium is more stable, oxidation does not occur when sverhmedlennye particles are dispersed in a transparent medium, thus eliminating the necessity of using the oxide film. When the transparent medium has a higher standard enthalpy of formation, on the other hand, this means that the oxide sverhnegabaritnyh particles is more stable. When sverhmedlennye particles are dispersed in a transparent medium, the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles are oxidized in the reduction of the transparent medium. In this case, therefore, it is preferable that sverhmedlennye particles could be coated with an oxide film, before they are dispersed in a transparent environment.

Especially typical material combinations for sverhnegabaritnyh particles forming an optoelectronic material and transparent environment, are presented in table. 1. In table. 1 combination is kisna film sverhnegabaritnyh particles optional. For contrast combination is shown for the case when the standard enthalpy of formation of the transparent medium is higher than the enthalpy of oxide film sverhnegabaritnyh particles, so sverhmedlennye particles may preferably be coated with an oxide film.

The performance of the EL device using the above-described structure will be described below.

To ensure operation of the EL device according to the present variant implementation of the negative bias voltage is applied to the back electrode 17 relative to the semi-transparent electrode 16. This means that the light emitting device of this variant implementation of the works under forward bias.

In Fig. 2 shows curves of current depending on the voltage of the light-emitting device when the light-emitting device that uses an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation of the works subject of this condition.

In Fig. 2A shows a vertical scale (current) and the horizontal scale (voltage) in a linear scale; for the applied voltage along the horizontal scale of the potential forward bias on the transition Schottky formed at the boundary between the floor of the high direction. In Fig. 2A shows a strong characteristic of straightening with the transition Schottky formed at the boundary between the semi-transparent electrode 16 and a layer 13 of optoelectronic material. External series resistance of the light-emitting device as a whole, which is estimated through extrapolation on the side with a high current value at the time of filing the direct bias voltage is approximately equal to 400 Ohms.

In Fig. 2B shows only the vertical scale (current) in logarithmic scale and the horizontal scale (voltage) in a linear scale with a direct bias potential of the transition Schottky, which on the graph is chosen as the positive direction. The slope of this dependence on the drawing is determined by the value of the ideal factor n junction Schottky. However, it is clear that the value of n light-emitting device according to the present variant of the implementation depends on the applied voltage, that is, 1.8, in the case when the applied voltage is 0.2 V or less, and increases to approximately 15 to higher field values. In General, a high value of n is significantly greater than 1 means that the density level is high, and they are charged. With aaet light, when applied direct bias voltage to the junction Schottky, which is formed at the boundary between the semi-transparent electrode 16 and a layer 13 of optoelectronic material.

In Fig. 3 shows the curve of radiation intensity depending on the current device EL, which runs in the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation. In the drawing the vertical scale (intensity) and the horizontal scale (current) is shown in logarithmic scale. It is evident from Fig. 3 it is clear that the light emission starts when the current density in the direct bias voltage is 30 mA/cm2(in this case, a direct bias voltage is approximately 7.0), after which the radiation intensity increases monotonically with increasing current when the forward bias voltage. That is, the intensity IELand the direct current bias voltage j is expressed by the following equation:

< / BR>
The radiation intensity is proportional to the rate of 3.5 direct current bias means that the dependence of the radiation intensity from the direct current bias is very strong, which is a new result which was not observed in all known light-emitting ustroystva active region, for example, as discussed at the beginning of the description, mainly the radiation intensity increases only in proportion to the direct current offset (in the drawing, broken line). The strong dependence of the radiation intensity from the direct current bias means that the light-emitting display device with a large dynamic range, it is possible to realize a high contrast ratio and high quality.

In Fig. 4 shows the curve of the radiation intensity of the electroluminescent device (EL), depending on the duty cycle according to the present variant implementation. In the drawing the vertical scale (intensity) and the horizontal scale (duty cycle) is shown in logarithmic scale. The applied voltage to the electroluminescent device (EL) had a pulse width of 20 μs and a voltage of 32 V, and the duty cycle was changed from 0.25 to 100% (DC current) when the frequency changes. It is evident from Fig. 4 shows that the intensity of the radiation decreases in proportion to the reduction of the duty cycle. This result shows that the efficiency of light emission is constant. In other words, we can say that the electroluminescent device EL in accordance with the present efficiency of light emission, as for DC, can be obtained even when the EL device is excited by a pulse with a duration of 20 μs or less, while it can be argued that the device has a response rate at the level of the order of microseconds or less.

In Fig. 5 shows the spectrum (curves of the radiation intensity depending on the photon energy) as photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescent devices EL, using an optoelectronic material according to the present invention. The photoluminescence excitation was performed using an argon ion laser (AG+) with photon energy of 2.54 eV and 10 mW directly and through irradiation with a laser beam optoelectronic layer of material, which then becomes the active layer. The excitation conditions for the electroluminescence was power injection box from 0.55 to 1.10 W for a layer of optoelectronic material and circular fluorescent active area (3,110-2cm2).

In Fig. 5 shows that the photoluminescence has a spectrum with a major peak by 2.10 eV (green) and an additional peak at 1.65 eV (red), while the electroluminescence has a wide range of luminescence with a peak of 1.65 eV (red). Projectii in the electroluminescent device is increased.

The results show that the principle of light emission of the electroluminescent device, which uses an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation is not based on the radiation of a black body. This is because the peak emission shifts towards higher energy as the temperature increases when the radiation of a black body, meanwhile, as mentioned above, it is shifted to lower energy when the power injection increases (i.e. the temperature rises) in this embodiment. In addition, when a black body emits light having a peak at 1.65 eV, the temperature is estimated at 3800 K, however, in the present embodiment, the temperature may not reach such high values.

It is obvious that the principle of operation of the light-emitting device according to the present variant, the implementation of which has the above-mentioned results, explained in the following form. First, the hot electrons, which are accelerated under the action of the applied direct voltage offset introduced into the layer 13 of optoelectronic material. The injected hot electrons when they reach the core sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si, vznuzdanie reaches approximately 1.1 in the case, when the energy of the injected electrons is 4.0 eV and increases with further increase in energy.

The electrons, once injected, or electron-hole pairs, once excited, kept inside sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si at the boundary between sverhmedlennymi particles 14 Si and film SIO, SIS2formed on their surfaces or transparent medium 15 in order to continue to generate electron-hole pairs when the applied strain energy in sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si. That is, there is the so-called phenomenon of multiplication, which leads to the generation of numerous excited electron-hole pairs. Therefore, the phenomenon of light emission with a strong dependence of the radiation intensity from the direct current offset occurs due to the phenomenon of recombination near radiative recombination associated with the excited electron-hole pairs that support the generation in this method of multiplication.

In addition, since sverhmedlennye particles 14 Si targets have a spherical shape is of the order of nanometer according to this variant implementation, it becomes shorter average length of free path Elloree, apparently, you can generate the excited electron-hole pairs more effectively with impact ionization.

In an electroluminescent device having a porous Si as an active layer, as described above, basically, the excited electron-hole pairs are generated only by the injection of negative carriers in the p-n junction, and the number of excited electron-hole pairs is proportional to the current injection. Therefore, the radiation intensity is also proportional to the current injection. According to this prior art porous Si really has a linear form, although he has a fine-grained structure of the order of nanometer, the average length of the free path of the carriers during the drift in the porous Si is relatively long, which adversely affects the efficiency of generation of excited electron-hole pairs.

In addition, as shown in Fig. 5, the reason why the photoluminescence PL spectrum and electroluminescent spectrum is not consistent with each other, can be explained as follows. When impact ionization and generation of excited electron-hole pairs by multiplying in electroluminescent process EL hot electrons will be injectionable 26-32 In when the excitation conditions, Fig. 5), in order for the transition to higher energy (the so-called higher interband transition) was possible even in the conduction band. This causes not only radiative recombination with minimal forbidden zone, but also radiative recombination, which has a higher energy differences, which, apparently, further increases the width of the luminescence spectrum.

In respect of the photoluminescence (PL) to compare the energy of the injected photons is of 2.54 eV, which is relatively low. Thus, there is a low probability of occurrence higher interband transition, which, apparently, makes the width of the luminescence spectrum is narrower than the spectrum of electroluminescence.

In addition, when the electroluminescence impact ionization due to the injected electrons in the core sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si near the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particle Si. Although the excitation process is largely sensitive to the state boundary, one cannot expect the excitation of electron-hole pairs and same for the volume due to the presence of many surface levels charged on the border razdolninskiy (PL) for comparison is, what excited light with approximately the same intensity penetrates sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles due to the large absorption coefficient during irradiation excited by light with energy equal to 2.54 eV, and it is estimated that electron-hole pairs are excited, as the amount in excess of approximately entire sverhmedlennye particles 14 Si, including their centers so as not falling efficiency of excitation-side with high energy.

In the structure of the light-emitting device using an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation, can be obtained in the layer 13 of optoelectronic material p-n junction. In Fig. 1C as an example shows the structure in cross section of the light-emitting device with a p-n junction.

In Fig. 1C shows that the Si substrate of p-type conductivity, which has a plane orientation (100) and the conductivity of p-type, obtained by boron doping, and in one example of the used substrate 19 with a specific resistance of 10 MSM. Layer 1010 optoelectronic material of p-type conductivity is applied on the top surface of the substrate 19 Si p-type conductivity. This layer 1010 optoelectronic Mat is th Wednesday 1012. Sverhmedlennye particles 1011 Si are mostly spherical in shape, similar crystal structure as the amount of Si, the conductivity of p-type, obtained when the boron doping with a low concentration, and the size of the regulated particles approximately 3-10 nm. In addition, a thin film of SiO2is used as one example of the transparent medium 1012, and the packing factor of the material sverhnegabaritnyh particles 1011 Si is approximately 20%. This layer deposition with sverhmedlennymi particles of p-type conductivity has a thickness of about 100 nm. As the layer 1010 optoelectronic material of p-type conductivity and the substrate 19 are p-type conductivity, on the border between them is formed non-electronic barrier.

Then a layer 1013 optoelectronic material of n-type conductivity in contact with a layer 1010 optoelectronic material of p-type conductivity. This layer 1013 optoelectronic material of n-type conductivity has the same structure as the layer 13 of optoelectronic material, which is shown in Fig. 1A, and has a thickness of approximately 50 nm. When applying this layer of optoelectronic material of n-type conductivity is completed, enter boron using ion injection for h is I the energy of acceleration of 20 Kev and dose of 51015cm-2.

Additionally, the translucent electrode 1014, made of Ag with a thickness of 10 nm, as one example, is in contact with the top surface of layer 1013 optoelectronic material of n-type conductivity, forming the so-called ohmic contact (in the electrical sense) with a layer 1013 optoelectronic material of n-type conductivity. The rear electrode 1015, made of Ag, carried out on a bottom surface of the substrate 19, thus forming the ohmic contact (in the electrical sense) with the substrate 19. In addition, a thin film of Mg with a thickness of approximately 20 nm can be performed between the layer 1013 optoelectronic material of n-type conductivity and a translucent electrode 1014 and between the substrate 19 and the rear electrode 1015 in order to reduce the height of the electric barriers on the boundary. The electrodes 1014 and 1015 can be made instead of Ag from Mg, indium, aluminum, gold, platinum, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, cobalt, Nickel, palladium, etc.

A translucent electrode 1014 and the rear electrode 1015 is connected to a power source, as required, by means of wires or the like through a conductive paste 1016 or similar.

With the above red towards the rear electrode 1015), negative media mutually injections like the electrons from the region of n-conductivity type high-concentration region of the p-type conductivity with a low concentration of holes from the area of p-type conductivity with a low concentration in the region of n-type conductivity with a high concentration. This p-n junction is more effective when receiving the generation of electron-hole pairs than the previous patterns, which provide injection only electrons across the junction Schottky.

Below is the description for how to control the wavelength luminescence (photon energy) of the light-emitting device using an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation in the visible range of the spectrum. First, the first scheme allows you to adjust the particle size (size) core sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si, and the energy bandgap and the associated energy of the emitted photons directly change due to quantum confinement, which occurs at the same time. To obtain the quantum effect of the deduction, the estimated size sverhnegabaritnyh particles is about two wavelength de Broglie. In table. 2 shows the wavelengths of the s will lead to the quantum effect of the deduction. As can be seen from the table. 2, the diameter sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles should be 5 nm or less in order to obtain a quantum effect retention using, for example, Si.

In Fig. 6A shows the energy bandgap of different types sverhnegabaritnyh of semiconductor particles, which are obtained theoretically on the basis of the quantum of deduction in the field, which is a satisfactory approximation of the effective mass. From this drawing it is seen that the particle sizes shown in the table. 2, will be selected to provide light emission in the visible range of the spectrum

In Fig. 6B shows the energy bandgap of the spherical sverhnegabaritnyh particles of Si, Ge and Si-Ge that calculated theoretically on the basis of the quantum of deduction in the area in which the effective mass approximation is satisfactory. From this drawing it is seen that the emission of light of three primary colors (RGB) (GLC), for example, can be performed using sverhnegabaritnyh of Si particles on a simple substrate by control of the particle size in the range from 2.8 to 4.0 nm. That is, the red light can radiate with a diameter of 4.0 nm, green light with a diameter of 3.2 nm.

Diameter of 2.8 nm corresponds to the blue color is, the efficiency of excitation of electron-hole pairs with impact ionization becomes lower with increasing energy. In addition, the ratio of surface atoms sverhnegabaritnyh particle diameter in the range of 2 nm is approximately 70%, so that you cannot neglect the surface defects and the influence of the resulting surface level. Therefore, we can say that the generation of blue light using quantum of deduction in sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si is not simple.

From the point of view of the foregoing, in order to realize the generation of light emission of blue color with sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 Si is used as the active light-emitting layer, it would be effective as of the second circuit to recover the molecular placement of surface oxide film at the boundary between sverhmedlennymi particles 14 Si and the surface oxide film, and to form the center of luminescence corresponding to the energy of photons of blue light. More specifically, the emission of blue light becomes possible by forming the upper surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles 14 to be reportnow the structure of the polysiloxane which you can control by restoring the molecular placing the oxide film, if sverhmedlennye particles of complex semiconductor can be oxidized, and another type of dielectric films, if the oxidation is not possible.

The second variant implementation.

The basic structure of another light-emitting device that uses an optoelectronic material according to the present invention, is described below as a second option, with reference to Fig. 7.

In Fig. 7 shows the structure in cross section of the light-emitting device according to the present variant implementation. As one example (Fig. 7) on the surface of the monocrystalline substrate 71 Si made a layer 72 of tungsten silicide with a thickness of 50 nm, which is also shown as one example of that is the lower electrode. The layer of tungsten silicide 72 formed dielectric layer (SiO2) 74 with a thickness of 50 nm, in which the semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles of group IV with controlled particle sizes at the level of the order of nanometers are dispersed in the mixed crystal SiGe (Siof 0.2Gefor 0.3) 73 with a molar ratio of 0.2:0.8 to. Glued to the top of the dielectric layer 74 with a semiconductor sverhmedlennymi particles 73, dispel the underwater example, the upper transparent electrode, with the transmittance of visible light of 90% or more. The composition of this ITO represents the In2O3- (about 10 mol%) SnO2.

Although the layer 72 of tungsten silicide is used as part of the low resistance of the lower electrode, and a reflective layer for further reflection light beam, which is generated by the semiconductor sverhmedlennymi particles, the titanium silicide can also be used, if the priority is lower resistance. If low resistance electrode and a direct reflection of the light does not require too large, the surface of the substrate 71 Si can be performed as a diffusion layer with n-type conductivity and a high concentration, which can serve as the lower electrode. This structure is effective from the viewpoint of the manufacturing cost.

In addition, the oxide of aluminum (Al2O3or similar materials can be used as a dielectric material.

Moreover, a thin magnesium (Mg) film which has a thickness of approximately 20 nm, can be performed in the middle layer 72 silicide of tungsten and the dielectric layer 74 containing buried semiconductor Vermelho/oxide). It is effective at the effective discharge of the injection media induced tunneling effect of electrons in the oxide film (here, the dielectric layer 74 containing buried semiconductor sverhmedlennymi particles).

Light emitting device having a light transmittance property, obtained using a transparent or semi-transparent thin film as the lower electrode, in which case it is desirable to use a material having a transmittance of visible light is lower than that of the top electrode.

Below is a description of the operation of the light-emitting device, which has the structure described above. First, a layer 74 of a silicide of tungsten bottom electrode is grounded, and on film 75 ITO, which is used as the upper transparent electrode, voltage 12.0 V from the positive voltage source (not shown). At the same time is applied, the electric field intensity of approximately 106V/cm (average value) to the SiO2the dielectric layer 74 containing buried semiconductor sverhmedlennymi particles. Typically, the breakdown voltage of the insulation film SiO2is n tunneling effect electronic and electrical conductivity. The electrons in the film SiO2accelerated in order to increase their kinetic energy, which, however, begins to dissipate due to the mutual influence of acoustic photons. Therefore, the increase of the kinetic energy tends to saturation and stabilization.

The required distance when accelerating electron saturation velocity at strength of approximately 106V/cm is about 10 nm, Srednekanskaya energy electrons film SiO2every field intensity is approximately 2.0 eV at 2,0106V/cm to 3.0 eV at 5,0106V/cm and 4.0 eV at 8,0106In/see the Distribution of the kinetic energy after saturation velocity tends to become wider, as the intensity of the field increases and has, in particular, the tendency to extend to the edge in the direction of increasing energy.

Below is a description of a phenomenon whereby electrons propagating in the film SiO2the dielectric layer 74 containing buried semiconductor sverhmedlennymi particles, in such a way collide with the surface of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles 73 group IV.

Suppose that, as a semiconductor sberemennoy zone (Eg) is the maximum of 1.10 eV for Si. Because electrons that are accelerated on the distance distribution of 10 nm or more when the field intensity of the order of 106V/cm, have a kinetic energy of 2.0 eV or more, as mentioned above, it is possible to fully excite electron-hole pairs on the surface of the Si via impact ionization. The quantum efficiency of g (the number of generated electron-hole pairs/number of colliding electrons) in this process is about 0.1 when the average kinetic energy of the electrons Eav= 2.0 eV, but it significantly increases as E increases and reaches q"=l,0 if Eav= 4.0 eV and q = 2,0 at Eav= to 8.0 eV. Such excited electron-hole pairs, which emit light in accordance with the energy gap Eg in the recombination process, which is confirmed by the work of the light-emitting device according to the present variant implementation.

As the group IV semiconductor is of the nature of the type with indirect transition, the presence of a photon is significant in the interband transition. In the recombination process inevitably produces a lot of heat, and the probability of radiative recombination is very small. However sverhmedlennye particle size of the sludge screening wave number and the increase of the amplitude of the oscillator in the interband transition. This increases the probability of radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs, allowing, thus, to get a strong emission of light.

In addition, changes of the band structure due to the mixed crystallization, as there are changes of form in the coordinates of the energy (E) is the wave number (k), and changing the value end of the absorbed energy, thus facilitating the relaxation of the selection rules of the wave number during the formation of sverhnegabaritnyh particles, that is, there is the effect of more light radiative recombination. That is, in our opinion, because the bottom of the conduction band is located near the point X in the coordinates of the energy of the wave number for the simple substance of Si and the bottom of the conduction band is located near the point L to simple substances Ge, while the bottom of the conduction band (the point of minimum energy) is obtained in the middle of the points X and L in the case of a mixed crystal of Si-Ge, and when the composition is Siof 0.2Geof 0.2in particular, the minimum energy of the conduction band is obtained near the point G (the maximum energy of the valence band). The control wavelength luminescence (energy fluorescent photons) must be done with used is in the first embodiment (see Fig. 6) of the present invention.

It is characteristic that the desired wavelength of the luminescence can be obtained by adjusting the particle size of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles 73 group IV. For the mixed crystal Si-Ge can be used to change the energy Eg is the forbidden area using a relationship of the composition. As for sverhnegabaritnyh particles mixed crystal Si-Ge, the composition gives a curve characteristics between the curves for the simple substance of Si and simple substances Ge (Fig. 6). Sverhmedlennye particles mixed crystal Si-Ge with a molar composition of Siof 0.2Ge0,8that is usually used in the present embodiment, represent the dependence of particle size on the energy bandgap (Fig. 6).

Since the internal quantum efficiency q' (number of emitted photons/number of electron-hole pairs) is about 0.5%, if the use at approximately E = 4.0 eV and g = 1,0 is the standard operating condition of the device, the value of the external quantum efficiency g = q q" guaranteed is about 0.5%.

Of course, as an optoelectronic material, you can use a simple substance or a mixed one another, what aka as gallium arsenide (Ga-As), which is a type of semiconductor with a direct transition, or a group II-VI, such as cadmium sulfide (CdS).

Although the use of SiO2(energy bandgap is 9 eV) for the dielectric layer 74 containing buried semiconductor sverhmedlennymi particles applied voltage of about 12.0 To limit the resulting current density. If the density of the injected electrons or radiation intensity has priority, therefore, it is effective removal of the transparent conductive thin film, which has a specific resistance of essentially the same or greater than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which will be

to dispergirujutsja, such as a thin film of a transparent conductive material, tin oxide (SnO2), titanium oxide (TiO2) or indium oxide (InO2).

A third option implementation.

The structure of the monochrome display device according to the present variant of the implementation will be described below as a third option, with reference to Fig. 8.

Fig. 8 shows the structure in cross section of the ml is the implementation its equivalent circuit and diagram of the lattice of pixels. In Fig. 8A shows a light-emitting device similar to that which was used in the second embodiment, as the device 81 for one pixel monochrome display device. Of course, you can also use light-emitting device described in the first variant implementation.

A thin ITO film having a transmittance of visible light of 90% or more is used for the upper electrode 83, and a thin film of tungsten silicide is used for the lower electrode 84 in order to improve direct reflection of the fluorescent energy to provide low resistance. In the light emitting device of the first variant implementation of the semi-transparent electrode 16 corresponds to the upper electrode 83 and the back electrode 17 corresponds to the lower electrode 84. The equivalent circuit can be regarded as a capacitor and resistor connected in parallel, as shown in Fig. 8B.

For semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particle group IV used a mixed crystal of Si-Ge with respect to the composition of Si : Ge = 0,2 : to 0.8, and the average particle size is 4.2 nm. In the light-emitting device according to the first var is the et of 2.27 eV (see Fig. 6) and corresponds to green light.

Then prepared the panel monochrome display device, which is formed using the regular placement of the above-mentioned pixels in the form of a lattice in a matrix (Fig. 8C).

Under this option the implementation of multiplex excitation system, which is valid for excitation in a General way with the separation of the electrodes and method with separation in time is used as the primary excitation system, and for each pixel is used, the excitation system is a simple matrix, which does not require connection of the active devices. The panel display device of matrix type X-Y with such a structure works by resolution to hold the valves in the terminal connector, which is added to one side of the scan electrode (Y) in the form of a sequential scan, and applying the voltage selection/no selection, which corresponds to the picture display device and set the contrast to the other electrode of the signal (X). Since the pixels of the display device according to the present variant of the implementation are the property of lack of memory, the internal screen is performed using the Above-described an implementation option allows the panel monochrome display device, each pixel which has a very fast response time (about 1 µs) and which emits green light, and, thus, the most suitable for a small display device, in particular with the size of 2.54 cm or less.

If you need additional improvement of image quality, there is no need to say that the method of excitation of the active matrix, which has a driver MOS transistor, which is added to each pixel, is effective.

The fourth option implementation.

The structure of the color display device according to the present invention will be described below as a fourth option, with reference to Fig. 9. Fig. 9 depicts a simplified diagram of the structure of one pixel (single device) of a color display device according to the present variant implementation.

The device is equivalent to one pixel of a color display device according to the present variant implementation, mainly includes three types of light-emitting devices, which have the same structure as in the first embodiment or the second embodiment, as one group, and their geometries what about the light of 90% or more, is used for the upper electrode 92, and a thin film of tungsten silicide is used for the lower electrode 93 in order to improve a direct reflection of the energy of the fluorescent radiation and to ensure low resistance. When using the light emitting device of the first variant implementation, the correlation is the same as that described in the third variant implementation.

Under this option the implementation of three types of light-emitting devices, each of which emits light of one of three primary colors and which have different average particle sizes of semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles of group IV are grouped together to allow one pixel 91 to emit light beams of all three primary colors. These three types of light-emitting devices are respectively light-emitting device 91R for red color light emitting device 91G for green color and a light-emitting device 91B blue

For semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles of group IV, which play a major role in the emission of light, as described in the previous embodiment, uses a mixed crystal of Si-Ge with online, you must use your optoelectronic material. The average particle size and the energy of the fluorescent photons of the three kinds of light-emitting devices, which form one pixel, is 4.8 nm and is 1.77 eV for the red light-emitting devices 91R, 4,2 nm and of 2.27 eV for the green light-emitting device 91G and 3.6 nm and 2,84 eV for blue light-emitting device 91B (see Fig. 6B).

Each pixel 91 color display device formed from a group of these three kinds of light-emitting devices, is placed on a plane in a matrix, and the radiation intensity and the color of each pixel is adjusted by changing the excitation current of each of the light-emitting devices, which form each pixel. In the color display device can be performed using an additive mixture of three primary colors, which are emitted from the three kinds of light-emitting devices.

In addition, you can implement a very small 91 pixels of a color display device, each of which has a size of from 1 to 100 μm, in comparison with the known pixels of a color display device. The minimum pixel size of the display device is limited by light diffraction. Tokeshi system, equal to 0.5, the diffraction limit (=/NA) is 1 μm.

Although the semiconductor material of group IV or similar, and the dielectric substance, such SiO2discussed in the previous description of specific embodiments, of course, possible to use other metals, semiconductors or dielectric substances separately or in combination, if required for the respective application.

The layer of electro-optic material in the third embodiment or the fourth embodiment, is described as the one which is obtained in the first embodiment or the second embodiment, it is also possible to use light-emitting device that uses a layer of electro-optic material, which contains other sverhmedlennye particles.

The fifth option implementation.

The basic structure of the portable display device according to the present invention, is described below as a fifth variant of the implementation with reference to Fig. 10. In Fig. 10 shows a General diagram of the basic structure of a display device that includes a screen 101 of the display device, the decoder 102 and row decoder 103 of the column.

The screen is a set of three kinds of light-emitting devices (Fig. 9) placed on a plane in a matrix and regulating the intensity and color of each pixel by changing the excitation currents of the individual light-emitting devices, which form each pixel in accordance with the signals from the decoder 102 and row decoder 103 column. In the case of a monochrome display device must only adjust the intensity of the radiation.

As such, the color display device is used samoletovtockoe device that contains small pixels, it is possible to get a low power loss and high resolution. In the case of a display device with a size of approximately one inch (2.5 cm), which uses the known display device installation on the head, a possible implementation in a color display device, such as over a million pixels.

In addition, when receiving the above structure on the Si substrate to achieve a high degree of integration, it is possible to make a device with a thickness of about 1 mm and to ensure easy Assembly and alignment with existing LSI to ensure that the device you are eligible to use as a portable display device.

In Fig. 11A shows a structural view in cross section of the HMD, which contains the casing 111, the device 112 are displayed to the right and left eyes, which is located in the casing 111, the eyepiece optical system 113 and the portion 114 of the strap for fastening the casing 111 to the head. Images for right and left eyes from the devices display 112 are formed on the respective eyes of the user through the eyepiece optical system 113. In Fig. 11B shows a structural view in cross section of the HMD type end-to-end vision with two semi-transparent mirrors 115 and things similar to that shown in Fig. 11A.

The image to the right and left eyes from the devices 112 display recorded using a semi-transparent mirror 115 is directed to the eyepiece optical system 113 are formed on the respective eyes of the user. Since the external light that passes through the semitransparent mirror 115, also reaches the user's eyes, is achieved by the function of the end-to-end view.

In any case, the use of the display device (Fig. 10) for devices 112 display can be performed with reduced size and weight reductions, and you can do the HMD with a resolution that is more than desultory flight simulators or similar systems that require fast response and high reliability.

If the above is performed on a transparent substance such as glass, which uses light-emitting device having transparency, which is obtained when using a transparent or semi-transparent thin film for the lower electrode in the light emitting device of the first variant of implementation or the second implementation, it is possible to realize a display device of the type end-to-end view. The use of the device does not require semi-transparent mirrors or similar items, and you can do HMD type end-to-end view of a more compact and lightweight.

In Fig. 12 is a perspective view showing ocular HMD type having when using the structure shown in Fig. 11A or 11B. Because the design is more compact and more lightweight, you can wear it easily and can use it for a long period of time.

Although the preceding description is provided with respect to the HMD, which allows you to provide a three-dimensional image using a display separate left and right images, you can also implement HMD, in which ispolzuemaya.

The seventh version of the implementation.

Another structure of the HMD as specific device applications portable display device according to the present invention is described below as a seventh variant of implementation with reference to Fig. 13. In Fig. 13 shows another structural view in cross section of the HMD according to the present invention, which contains the casing 131, the device 132 display and the eyepiece optical system 133, which are part of the casing 111, and a portion 134 of the belt, which attach the cover 131 to the head. Image from devices 132 display is generated on the eyes of the user through the eyepiece optical system 133.

With the above structure, the user can watch the rear view in the direction of the line of sight forward or upward for observation of the rear view, and can view the image display devices with high sharpness when the shift of the line of sight down. That is, the user can separately or simultaneously view and back view images with high sharpness from the display device simply by using the shift of the line of vision without moving your head.

For example, in medicine image transfer or similar protostat information without turning their heads, thus greatly improving the work efficiency and accuracy. This effect can also be used during the examination or similar small parts.

Although a display device included in the lower part of the casing in the present embodiment, they may be part of the top or side parts of the shroud with almost the same function depending on the direction of the working target.

The use of display devices (Fig. 10) as display devices for electronic dictionaries allows not only to reduce the size and weight, but also to provide for electronic dictionaries resolution 10 times greater than in the known electronic dictionaries that use LCD. Accordingly, it is possible to depict the explanation of one word, which consists of several lines with the size of the existing electronic dictionaries and so ensure easy viewing and paper dictionaries.

Although the HMD and electronic dictionary depicted above as applications portable display device of the present invention, the device can, of course, be adapted to many portable devices, such as a portable phone and a portable terminal.

Was, using optoelectronic material according to the present invention will be described in detail below as the eighth variant of implementation with reference to Fig. 14.

According to this variant implementation, as well as in the first embodiment, will be given a description of the type of photodetector with electromotive force, in which the light-receiving (active) region is a layer of electro-optic material having sverhmedlennye Si particles, usually of the semiconductors of group IV, with its surface covered with its own thermal oxide film, dispersed essentially in a homogeneous transparent medium with a controllable conductivity or dielectric constant.

In Fig. 14 shows the structure in cross section of an optoelectronic conversion device using an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation. In Fig. 14 position 141 labeled substrate as one example, which uses the Si substrate with n-type conductivity, which has a plane orientation (100), the n-type conductance, obtained by doping with phosphorus and a specific resistivity of from 0.02 to 0.05 Omsm. Ilmenau 100 nm on the upper surface of the substrate 141 Si n-type conductivity. This insulating film 142 insulator has a hole 142a with a diameter of about 1-10 mm, which is performed on the parts, which will further the light-receiving active region of the optoelectronic conversion device using the exposure surface of the substrate 141.

Layer 143 optoelectronic material sprayed for coating at least a hole 142a. As mentioned earlier, this layer 143 optoelectronical material formed from sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si dispersed in the transparent medium 145. The structure of this layer 143 optoelectronic material is the same as layer 13 optoelectronic material that was discussed in the part of the first variant implementation. That is sverhmedlennye particles 144 Si are essentially spherical in shape, the same crystal structure as the amount of Si, and the conductivity of n-type alloyed with phosphorus at a concentration of approximately 1016- 1018cm-3with particle size, which is adjustable from approximately 3 to 10 nm. This layer 143 optoelectronic material has a thickness of about 150 nm. In addition, the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si covered with a film of SiO2not shown in the drawing, the thickness of which, nab is ora has a high transmittance in the visible light range and has managed the conductivity or dielectric constant, when this thin film of SnO2is used here as an example. This thin film of SnO2has a transmittance of visible light of 80% or higher, and its conductivity or dielectric constant can be controlled by adjusting the conditions of its formation (temperature of the substrate, the partial pressure of oxygen, and so on). Appropriate is that the specific resistance of the medium is approximately the same as, or equal to, or higher than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja. With the help of a specific resistance Si, equal to 0.02-0.05 Omsm, the specific resistance of a thin film of SnO2here is 0.1-1 Ohm.

The packing factor sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si layer 143 optoelectronic material is 20%, in order to effectively perform quantum confinement, which was mentioned in the part of the first variant implementation, thereby obtaining a homogeneous sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in a transparent medium as defined in part of the first variant implementation.

A translucent electrode 146 Pt with a thickness of 10 nm as one example, is in contact with the upper poverhnosti 143 optoelectronic material, which includes a transparent environment 145 with controlled conductivity. The rear electrode 146 of the Ag as one example, is performed on the bottom surface of the substrate 141, forming ohmic contact (in the electrical sense) with the substrate 141. In addition, a thin film of Mg with a thickness of about 20 nm can be performed between the substrate 141 and the rear electrode 147 to reduce the height of the electric barrier at the interface. The electrodes 146 and 147 can be made of one substance, such as Mg, indium, aluminum, gold, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, cobalt, Nickel and palladium, or similar substances instead of Pt and Ag.

A translucent electrode 146 and the rear electrode 147 are connected to the power source as necessary, by means of wire conductors or the like via a conductive paste 148 or similar. Appropriate is that the light-receiving (active) area should be avoided as the provisions of the translucent electrode 146, which should be connected to the power source and position the conductive paste 148.

Although the material for sverhnegabaritnyh particles used Si, which forms a layer of optoelectronic material, you can use another group IV semiconductor, such is uppy II-VI, as discussed in part of the first variant implementation. Although a thin film of SnO2used as a homogeneous transparent medium, it is also possible to use another thin conductive film or a thin dielectric film having a specific resistance essentially the same or greater than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja. For example, a specific resistance sverhnegabaritnyh particles must be controlled in the range of approximately 1 to 10-3OSM by using the concentration of impurities, and the specific resistance of the transparent medium must be controlled in the range of about 102-10-2OSM in accordance with the specific resistance sverhnegabaritnyh particles. Although sverhmedlennye particles Si cover oxide film, the oxide film can be avoided through a combination sverhnegabaritnyh particles and the transparent medium, as shown in the table. 1 the first version of the implementation.

The principle of operation of the photodetector of the type photoelectrode force with the above-described structure will be described below. First, for the operation of the photodetector, which uses optoelectronic materace electrode 146 relative to the rear electrode 147. With this structure, a strong characteristic of straightening due to Schottky on the border of the translucent electrode layer 146 and 143 optoelectronic material shown in Fig. 2 in the first embodiment, and is a reverse bias should approximate range from several volts to several tens volts.

When the light beam having a higher photon energy than the energy bandgap sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si falls on layer 143 optoelectronic material in this position, the carriers of electron-hole pairs are formed in sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si, and the resulting electrons are moved in the direction of layer 143 optoelectronic material, and the holes toward the translucent electrode 146. Hence, the transition Schottky, which is formed using a translucent electrode layer 146 and 143 optoelectronic material occurs photoelectrodes power. The light-receiving function is provided by detecting this photoelectrode force.

Using the structure of the photodetector, which uses optoelectronic material in this variant implementation, as discussed in part first version of opentrace n-type conductivity, and its lower half, which has a low concentration p-type conductivity, is provided similar to the ohmic contact layer 143 optoelectronic material and electrode 146 semi-transparent metal, and form a p-n junction in the centre layer 143 optoelectronic material.

The structure of the photodetector, which has a p-n junction as one example, will be described below. As the substrate was used, the Si substrate of p-type conductivity, having a plane orientation (100), the conductivity of p-type with boron doping and the specific resistance of 10 MSM. The region of p-type conductivity with low concentrations in the lower part of the layer of electro-optic material formed by dispersing sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles in a transparent medium. Sverhmedlennye Si particles are essentially spherical in shape, the same crystal structure as the amount of Si and the conductivity of p-type with boron alloyed at a low concentration, particle size, which are regulated approximately 3 to 10 nm. In addition, as one example, the transparent medium is used a thin film of SiO2and the packing factor sverhnegabaritnyh particles is 20%. Layer coated sverhnegabaritnyh h which have p-type conductivity, the electric barrier is not formed on their surface.

Region with n-type conductivity with a high concentration located in the upper part of the layer of electro-optic material has the same structure as the layer 143 optoelectronic material, and its thickness is approximately 50 nm. By doping boron obtained a high concentration n-type conductivity, which is introduced by means of ion injection, when finished spraying this area is n-type. Conditions of the ion injection energy is accelerated to 20 Kev and dose of 51015cm-2.

With the above structure, when the light having higher energy photons than the energy bandgap sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si, falls on layer 143 optoelectronic material, on which the floor reverse bias voltage (translucent electrode 146 is positive with respect to the substrate 141), sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si are generated carriers of electron-hole pairs. Negative media mutually accelerated in the layer 143 optoelectronic material, and electrons towards areas with a high concentration of n-type conductivity, and the holes towards areas with a high concentration is an additional advantage, associated with a lower rate shock on the structure of the transition Schottky.

Since the energy bandgap of Si is 1.1 eV (wavelength of light emission is 100 nm), the amount of Si is the sensitivity of reception of light in almost the entire visible range. Below is a description of how to control the area svetoizluchateli wavelength optoelectronic conversion device of the present variant implementation.

First, the first circuit adjusts the size of the particles (size) of the main body sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 Si and directly changes the width of the forbidden zone with the help of quantum confinement, which occurs at this time. Size sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which carry the quantum retention effect differs depending on the material that is presented in the table. 2. For sverhnegabaritnyh particles with a simple substance of Si, for example, the diameter of 4.0 nm is for red light, a diameter of 3.2 nm for green, and the diameter of 2,8 - blue as the target region of the absorption (Fig. 6). Therefore, when the diameter sverhnegabaritnyh particles of a simple substance of Si, equal to 3 nm or less, you can implement the photodetector having the feeling is However, as mentioned in part of the first variant of implementation, it is very difficult to control the diameter in the range of 2 nm. In addition, the ratio of surface atoms sverhnegabaritnyh particles with a diameter in the range of 2 nm is approximately 70%, so that you cannot neglect the surface defects and the subsequent influence of the level of the surface.

It seems, therefore, effective as of the second circuit to recover the molecular device surface oxide film at the boundary between sverhmedlennymi particles 144 Si and the surface oxide film and to form the center of the local light emission corresponding to, for example, energy blue photons. More specifically, the reception sensitivity of the light in the blue region is improved by designing the upper surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles 144 in order to have a chain structure of the polysiloxane chain skeleton polysilane).

In the case of complex semiconductor region of wavelengths of the received light can be controlled by reduction of molecular devices the oxide film, if sverhmedlennye particles of complex semiconductor can oxidize, or molecular another type of device di is to blue, containing a group IV semiconductor, which does not require a filter or similar element can be designed using the optoelectronic conversion device according to the present variant implementation, which has the above-described light-receiving characteristics.

In addition, as can be seen from the above description and the preceding description of the first variant implementation, the optoelectronic conversion device that uses an optoelectronic material in this variant implementation is a function of the photodetector. That is, when a negative bias voltage is applied to the rear electrode 147 is relatively translucent electrode 146, the hot electrons injections in optoelectronic layer 143 of the material, thus excite electron-hole pairs. The excited electron-hole pairs begin to emit light in accordance with the energy bandgap sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the recombination process. So you can get an optoelectronic conversion device that can emit light and receive using the same structure.

The ninth version of the implementation.

The basic structure have the following as a ninth variant of implementation with reference to Fig. 15.

Under this option the implementation of the first variant implementation will describe the photoconductive photodetector of the type in which the light-receiving active region is a layer of electro-optic material having sverhmedlennye particles Si (group IV semiconductor) with its surface covered with its own thermal oxide film, dispersed essentially in a homogeneous transparent medium with a controllable conductivity or dielectric constant. In Fig. 15 shows the structure in cross section of an optoelectronic conversion device that uses an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation. In Fig. 15 position 151 labeled substrate, as one example, which used a glass substrate. The lower electrode 152 of the Pt as a single sample is made on the upper surface of this glass substrate 151. Layer 153 optoelectronic material is deposited on the upper surface of the lower electrode 152. As mentioned earlier, this layer 153 optoelectronic material is formed by dispersing sverhnegabaritnyh particles 145 Si in a transparent environment 155. These and the amount of Si and n-type conductance alloyed with boron at a low concentration, with adjustable particle size of about 3 to 10 nm. A transparent medium 155 is a homogeneous thin film, which has high transmittance in the visible region of the spectrum and has managed the conductivity or dielectric constant, and as one example is a thin film of SnO2. This thin film of SnO2has a transmittance of visible light of 80% or higher, and its conductivity or dielectric constant can be controlled by adjusting the conditions of its formation (temperature of the substrate, the partial pressure of oxygen, and so on).

Because this version of the implementation is a photoconductive photodetector of the type that is appropriate is that the resistance is maximum in dark condition and decreases approximately twice as bright state (during illumination light). For example, the state of the resistance should be from one hundred to several hundred kilimov in dark condition and should be about 10 to several hundred kilimov during illumination light. As one example, the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles 154 Si and SnO2as the transparent medium 155 sostavlyaetsya with this structure in dark condition becomes approximately 100 ohms. When light falls on the layer of electro-optic material formed media and accelerated by an external electric field in order to obtain the phenomenon multiplying effect, which causes the resistance to drop to about 10 ohms, although the principle of operation will be specifically discussed later.

Although Si is used as the material for sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which form a layer of optoelectronic material, you can use another group IV semiconductor, such as Ge or a mixed crystal, which is suitable for use, or complex semiconductor group III-V or group II-VI, as discussed in the parts of the first and second embodiments. Although a thin film of SnO2used as a homogeneous transparent medium, it is also possible to use another thin conductive film or a thin dielectric film having a specific resistance essentially the same or greater than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja.

A translucent electrode 156 of Pt, having a thickness of 10 nm as one example, is in contact with the top surface of layer 153 optoelectronic material. The electrodes 152 and 156 mo is I or similar substances instead of Pt.

A translucent electrode 156 and the rear electrode 152 connected to the ohmmeter as necessary, by means of wire conductors or the like via a conductive paste or the like.

The principle of operation of a photoconductive photodetector of the type above described structure will be described below. For the operation of the photodetector, which uses optoelectronic material in this variant implementation when light falls on layer 153 optoelectronic material, the energy of the light beam is absorbed in sverhnegabaritnyh particles 154 Si layer 153 optoelectronic material, electrons in the valence band or the donor level are excited to the conduction zones and they become free electrons. The electrons are accelerated by an external electric field, demonstrating the phenomenon of the multiplication to obtain numerous free electrons, and reach the electrode. In the internal resistance of the layer 153 optoelectronic material falls. The light-receiving function is obtained by detecting changes in the internal resistance.

To control the light-receiving range of wavelengths in the optoelectronic conversion device in which apolstry, provides a way to adjust the particle (size) of the main body sverhnegabaritnyh particles 154 Si and directly modify the width of the forbidden zone using quantum of deduction, which takes place at this time, and method of recovering molecular placing the oxide film in case sverhmedlennye particles can be oxidized, or molecular accommodate other types of dielectric films if the oxidation is not possible.

Detector UV radiation or sensor blue, containing a group IV semiconductor, which does not require a filter or similar item that can be created using the optoelectronic conversion device according to the present variant implementation, which has the above-described light-receiving characteristics.

The tenth version of the implementation.

The basic structure of the color sensor, which uses an optoelectronic material according to the present invention, as a more specific example of an optoelectronic conversion device will be described as a tenth variant, with reference to Fig. 16 and 17.

According to the present which, which contains a photoconductive photodetector of the type in which the light-receiving (active) region is a layer of electro-optic material, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles Si group IV having the surface covered with its own thermal oxide film, dispersed essentially in a homogeneous transparent medium with a controllable conductivity or dielectric constant.

In Fig. 16 shows the structure in cross section of a color sensor that uses such an optoelectronic material. In Fig. 16 positions 161, 152, 163 designated first, second and third photoelectric conversion layers. Each of the photoelectric conversion layer has the same structure as the photoconductive photodetector type, which was discovered in part of the ninth variant implementation, and contains a layer 164 of optoelectronic material, which has sverhmedlennye particles 165 Si dispersed in a transparent medium 166, and a transparent electrode 167 of Pt with a thickness of 10 nm as one example, is placed on and under layer. The upper and lower transparent electrodes 167 is connected to the ohmmeter as necessary, using wire wire is 64 optoelectronic material are essentially spherical in shape, the same crystal structure as the amount of Si, and the conductivity of n-type with boron alloyed with a low concentration in order to have p-type conductivity with a specific resistance of about 1 ASM. A transparent medium 166 is a homogeneous thin film, which has high transmittance in the visible region of the spectrum and has managed the conductivity or dielectric constant, and as one example is a thin film of SnO2which has a specific resistance of about 1 ASM. In this structure, the resistance of the layer of electro-optic material in a dark state becomes approximately equal to 100 ohms.

So how is the packing factor sverhnegabaritnyh particles 165 Si layer 164 optoelectronic material increases, the change in internal resistance inside layer 164 optoelectronic material becomes more or sensitivity to received light becomes higher. However, as mentioned in the part of the first variant implementation, if the value of the packing factor is too high, the quantum effect of retention sverhnegabaritnyh particles is reduced so that the packing factor is preferably about 20%.

2used as a homogeneous conducting medium, well you can use another thin conductive film or a thin dielectric film which has a specific resistance of essentially the same or greater than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja. Additionally, the translucent electrode 167 can be made of one substance, such as Mg, Ag, indium, aluminum, gold, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, cobalt, Nickel and palladium, or similar substances instead of Pt.

The individual photoelectric conversion layers 161, 162 and 163, which have the structure described above, are electrically isolated from each other by the insulating film 168 insulator material which in one example is a film of SiO2having a high transmittance of visible light. Although it is a film of SiO2you can also use an insulator, yourdata the principle of operation of the light-receiving sensor color with the structure described above. First, as to the operation of each of the photoelectric conversion layer using an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation in the case where light strikes the layer 164 optoelectronic material, the carriers generated in sverhnegabaritnyh particles 165 Si layer 164 of optoelectronic material and are accelerated by an external electric field, causing the phenomenon of multiplication by collision and ionization, whereby additionally formed numerous free electrons, and reach the electrode. In the internal resistance of the layer 164 optoelectronic material falls, for example, approximately 10 Ohms. The light-receiving function is performed by detecting changes to this internal resistance.

As described in detail in the part of the first variant implementation, the region of wavelengths of the received light of each of the photoelectric conversion layer, which has the light-receiving function, can be controlled. In terms of the mechanism of emission of Si, which is a semiconductor with an indirect transition, there is an opinion that the rules of selection of the wave number for the optical transition to sustainable radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs, and the opinion that the oxide with numerous remembered rings (polysiloxane) are formed on the surface of porous Si, and a new energy level, which gives the contribution to radiative recombination, is formed at the boundary of prosilica/Si. In any case, it is evident that in relation to the photoexcitation of changing the structure of the energy bands (the phenomenon of increasing Eg) due to the quantum effect of the deduction using the design form Si in such a way to have sverhmedlennye particles, the size of which would be of the order of several nanometers. That is, a single photoelectric conversion layers may have different light-receiving characteristics by adjusting the average particle size or surface sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles contained in each of the photoelectric conversion layer.

If the size sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles of the first, second and third photoelectric conversion layers 161, 162 and 163 are increased in this order, Eg increases as the size sverhnegabaritnyh particles becomes smaller, so that the optical gap is becoming greater for the layer, which is adjacent to the light-receiving surface. Atego photoelectric conversion layer, as one example, respectively 3,0, 3.5 and 4.0 nm, and their optical gaps are in the blue, green and red spectral regions, respectively

Therefore, red (R) light passes through the first and second photoelectric conversion layers without absorption and is absorbed in the third photoelectric conversion layer. Similarly, green (G) light passes through the first photoelectric conversion layer without absorption and is absorbed in the second photoelectric conversion layer (the third photoelectric conversion layer is too dependent on thickness), and blue (B) light is absorbed mainly in the first photoelectric conversion layer. Therefore, the differences between the values of the intensity of the received light in a separate photoelectric conversion layers can be obtained intensity R, G, and B. in Addition, these three primary colors correctly processed signal in order to provide discrimination of colors, including intermediate color.

Although photoconductive photodetector is used as the photoelectric conversion layer in such a light sensor, you can use the photodetector type photoelectromagnetic for incident light, the characteristic of fast response property low noise.

The eleventh version of the implementation.

The basic structure of another optoelectronic material according to the present invention will be specifically described below as the eleventh variant with reference to Fig. 18 and 19.

Under this option the implementation will be described optoelectronic material as photoluminescence (PL) light-emitting element in which light-receiving (active) region is a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has sverhmedlennye Si particles is usually from a semiconductor of group IV having the surface covered with its own thermal oxide film, dispersed in a transparent environment. As was explained in the part of the first variant implementation using table. 1, oxide film sverhnegabaritnyh particles can be avoided depending on the combination sverhnegabaritnyh particles and the transparent medium.

In Fig. 18 shows the structure in cross section of an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation. In Fig. 18A position 181 indicated mean Scotti (100), conductivity is n-type, phosphorus alloy, and a specific resistance of 10 MSM. Layers 182 a transparent material with a low refractive index and layers 183 containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles with a high refractive index are alternately in a predetermined cycle on the upper surface of the substrate 181 Si n-type conductivity, forming a periodic structure. Layers 182 transparent material is a homogeneous thin films, which have high transmittance in the visible region of the spectrum and managed conductivity or dielectric constant, and as one example is a thin film of indium oxide - tin oxide (In2O3-SnO2:ITO) This thin ITO film has a transmittance of visible light of 90% or more, and its conductivity or dielectric constant can be controlled by adjusting the conditions of its formation (temperature of the substrate, the partial pressure of oxygen, and so on). For example, the specific resistance can be controlled in the range of about 10-4-10-2Omsm when adjusting the total relationship SnO2during preparation of a thin film of ITO by sputtering in diabetologe be controlled in the range of about 4-5.

Although a thin film of ITO is used as a uniform layer of transparent material, preferably a homogeneous thin film, which has a desired dielectric constant as a layer with a low refractive index, was used in accordance with the design of periodic structures, which will be discussed below, it is also possible to use other conductive thin film such as a thin film of SnO2, TiO2or InO2or you can use a dielectric thin film of SiO2, Al2O3or similar materials. In addition, the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation can be used for the layer of the optoelectronic material of the light-emitting display device, an optoelectronic conversion device or a light sensor that is described in the units of the first-tenth embodiments. In this case, it is preferable that this layer of transparent material has a high conductivity.

As shown in Fig. 18V, layer 183 containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles formed from sverhnegabaritnyh particles 185 Si dispersed in the transparent medium 184. The structure of this layer 183 with Diala, discussed in part of the first variant implementation. That is sverhmedlennye particles 185 Si are essentially spherical in shape, the same crystal structure as the amount of Si, and the conductivity of n-type alloyed with phosphorus at a low concentration with particle size, which is regulated in the range of about 3-10 nm. In addition, the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles 185 Si covered with a film of SiO2, which are not shown, the thickness of which should be for example, 3 nm or thinner. A transparent medium 184 has a high transmittance in the visible region of the spectrum and managed conductivity and dielectric constant, and as one example used a thin film of SnO2. Appropriate is that the specific resistance of the medium is approximately the same or is equal to or greater than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja, and as one example is 1 ASM.

In addition, the value of the packaging multiplier sverhnegabaritnyh particles 185 Si layer 183 optoelectronic material is about 20% in order to effectively perform quantum confinement of carriers, as mentioned in part II of the particles, forming a layer of an optoelectronic material, you can use another group IV semiconductor, such as Ge or a mixed crystal, suitable for use, or complex semiconductor of groups III-IV or group II-VI. Although a thin film of SnO2used as a homogeneous transparent medium, it is preferable that a uniform thin film having the required dielectric constant as a layer with a high refraction, would be used in accordance with the design of periodic structures, which will be discussed below, it is also possible to use other conductive thin film or a dielectric thin film. In addition, the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation can be used for the layer of the optoelectronic material of the light-emitting device, display device, optoelectronic devices or color sensor, which is described in part of the first-tenth embodiments. In this case, it is preferable that a transparent medium of this layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles had a specific resistance that is approximately the same or greater than spectrograde periodic structures for optoelectronic material according to this variant of the implementation will be described below. When the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation demonstrates the phenomenon of light emission , which is the desired Central wavelength of the emitted light, the periodic layered structure is designed in such a way that the thickness of the optical film of the same period (refractive index x film thickness) of the layered structure of the layers 182 a transparent material and layers 183 containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles becomes /2. Under this option implementation in one example of the structure of a periodic structure is 600 nm, and the thickness of the optical film of each layer is 150 nm (/4). More specifically, as a typical refractive index thin film is 2.1, the thickness of the layers 182 a transparent material is 72 nm.

Layers 183 containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles were designed based on theory of average effective environment. We assume that the layers containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles are formed using a spherical sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which have a dielectric constant dispersed in a transparent medium having a dielectric constantmin walny, the average dielectric constant avlayers containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles is expressed by the following equation:

av=m[1+f3f(-m)/{e(1-f)+am(2+f)}]. (2)

Under this option the implementation of the typical value of the dielectric constant of a thin film of SnO2is 4.8, and uses the value of the amount of Si, equal to 11.9, the approximation for the dielectric constant sverhnegabaritnyh particle Si. Suppose that the packing factor f is 20%, then from the above equation it turns out the average dielectric constant of the layers containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles of 5.8. Since the refractive index can be approximated 1/2 power of the dielectric constant, the average refractive index layers containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles is 2.4. Therefore, the thickness of layers containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles as a layer with a high refractive index is 63 nm. Although the thickness of the optical film of each layer is /4, the thickness of the optical film of the same period of the layered structure of the layers 182 a transparent material and layers 183 with disperser containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles can be installed in less than /4. Accordingly, it is possible to increase the efficiency of generation of the light emitting optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation. The principle of operation of the light emission by means of an optoelectronic material with the above-described structure will be described below. First, concerning the work of the light-emitting photoluminescent element of the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation when illuminated by a light beam having a photon energy equal to or greater than the energy (Eg) of the forbidden zone sverhnegabaritnyh particles in sverhnegabaritnyh particles 185 Si layers 183 containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles are formed electron-hole pairs, as has been discussed specifically in the part of the first variant implementation. Formed electron-hole pairs emit light in accordance with Eg sverhnegabaritnyh particles due to the phenomenon of recombination through the center associative radiative recombination.

As the semiconductors of group IV are the original type with indirect transition, the probability of radiative recombination is very small, but if sverhmedlennye particles made with the particle size of the order of several nanometers, verblichene Eg using quantum of deduction is used so as discussed in part of the first variant implementation. That is, the desired wavelength of the luminescence can be obtained by adjusting the particle size (size) and surface atomic placement sverhnegabaritnyh particle Si. However, the luminescence spectrum sverhnegabaritnyh particles one has a wide width of the spectrum (Fig. 19A). Sverhmedlennye Si particles according to the present variant implementation have a width range of about 0.3 eV, as shown in Fig. 5 in part of the first variant implementation.

Under this option implementation to compare layers 182 a transparent material and layers containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles were placed alternately one on another in accordance with the above structure of the periodic structure in such a way that the thickness of the optical film of the same period of the layered structure was 1.2. Accordingly, numerous interference that occurs at the boundaries of the individual layers due to the difference of the refractive indices of the layer of transparent material and a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, allows you to increase the intensity of the wavelength close to . This behavior is depicted in f is URS, the number of layers need to be adjusted in accordance with the desired width of the spectrum.

In addition, the effect of increasing the intensity of radiation of the desired wavelength of the continuous spectrum, which is essentially generated sverhmedlennymi particles can be improved by adjusting the particle size or surface atomic arrangement sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles in such a way that the Central wavelength of the original light emission sverhnegabaritnyh of Si particles is consistent with the Central wavelength, which is increased by using the periodic structure and with the adjustment of the thickness of each layer in accordance with the above construction of the periodic structure.

Although optoelectronic material such as light-emitting photoluminescent element, discussed in part this variant implementation, the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation can also be used for layers of optoelectronic material in the first-tenth embodiments of implementation. In this case, the light-emitting device, display device, an optoelectronic conversion device or color sensor, which is described in the possible region of wavelengths of the continuous spectrum, which essentially is formed by using sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

Twelfth variant implementation.

The basic structure additional optoelectronic material according to the present invention will be specifically described below as the twelfth variant with reference to Fig. 20. Under this option the implementation describes the optoelectronic material as photoluminescence (PL) light-emitting element in which light-receiving (active) region is an active layer having sverhmedlennye Si particles, usually of the semiconductors of group IV with its surface, which is covered with its own thermal oxide film, dispersed in a homogeneous transparent medium. As explained in the part of the first variant implementation using table. 1, the oxide film sverhnegabaritnyh particles can be neglected depending on the combination sverhnegabaritnyh particles and the transparent medium.

In Fig. 20 shows the structure in cross section of an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation. In Fig. 20 the position of the substrate 201 is designated as one example katoloki 201 is made of a thin metal layer 202 of aluminum (Al) with a thickness of 100 nm. As the thin metal layer 202 should use a material having high reflectivity in the visible spectrum, which can be performed essentially of one substance, such as Pt, Mg, indium, gold, silver, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, cobalt, Nickel and palladium, or other similar substances instead of Al.

Multi-layer film 203 is made on the upper surface of the thin metal layer 202. This multi-layer film 203 has at least two kinds of layers with different refractive indices that are alternately one on another in order to have a periodic structure. In one example of the completed optoelectronic material, which contains an alternating layered structure of the layers of the transparent medium, made of a thin film of ITO and sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in a thin film, as discussed in the part of the first variant implementation.

The periodic structure of the multilayer film 203 is designed in such a way that when the optoelectronic material according to this variant demonstrates the phenomenon of light emission, the thickness of the optical film of the same period (refractive index x film thickness) the debtor is described in part eleventh variant implementation. Under this option exercise at = 600 nm multi-layer film 203 made with alternating layered structure of the layers of the transparent medium with a thickness of 72 nm and a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles with a thickness of 63 nm in one example. Although optoelectronic material eleventh variant implementation is used for the multilayer film 203, a dielectric multilayer film or the like, which is traditionally used, can be used as a multilayer reflective film in the visible region of the spectrum.

The active layer 204 is made on the upper surface of the multilayer film 203. This active layer 204 has the same structure as the layer 183 containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which is discussed in section eleventh variant implementation, and is made of sverhnegabaritnyh particles 205 Si dispersed in the transparent medium 206. Sverhmedlennye particles 205 Si are essentially spherical in shape, the same crystal structure as the amount of Si, and the conductivity of n-type with boron alloyed at low concentration, particle size, which is adjustable from approximately 3 to 10 nm. In addition, on the surface St is m or less. A transparent medium 206 is a homogeneous thin film, which has high transmittance in the visible region of the spectrum and managed conductivity and dielectric constant, and here as one example used a thin film of SnO2.

In addition, the thickness of the optical film (refractive index x film thickness of this active layer 204 establish a multiple of an integer . Under this option implementation as one example, 600 nm, and the thickness of the optical film of the active layer 204 is equal to 2. More specifically, the packing factor is 20%, as one example, the refractive index of the active layer 204 is equal to 2.4, as happened in parts of the eleventh variant implementation. Therefore, the thickness of the active layer 204 is 500 nm.

Although Si is used as the material for sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which form the active layer, you can use another group IV semiconductor, such as Ge or a mixed crystal, which is suitable for use, or mixed semiconductor of group III-V or group II-VI, as discussed in section eleventh variant implementation. Although as a homogeneous prozracinaia dielectric constant, used in accordance with the design of a periodic structure, which was discussed in part eleventh variant implementation, and you can also use another conductive thin film or a dielectric thin film. In addition, the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation can be used for the layer of the optoelectronic material of the light-emitting device, display device, optoelectronic devices or color sensor, which is described in the units of the first-tenth embodiments. In this case, it is preferable that a transparent medium of this active layer had a specific resistance of about the same or equal or greater than the specific resistance of sverhnegabaritnyh particles that will dispergirujutsja.

A partially reflective layer 207 Pt with a thickness of 10 nm as one example performed on the top surface of the active layer 204. Material having the desired resistance in the visible region of the spectrum, it is necessary to use as a partially reflective layer 207, which can essentially be made from one of Mg, India, Al, gold, silver, tungsten, molybdenum, t the th film, which is traditionally used, can be used as a partially reflecting film in the visible region of the spectrum.

The principle of operation of the light emission by means of optoelectronic material with the above-described structure will be described below. When exposed to light, which has a photon energy equal to or greater than the energy bandgap (Eg) sverhnegabaritnyh particles, the emission light has a wide range, as shown in Fig. 19A on the basis of the principle described in part eleventh variant implementation.

Accordingly, alternating layered structure is designed in such a way that the thickness of the optical film of the multilayer film 203 in one period becomes equal to a /2 in the form of a periodic structure, and the thickness of the optical film of the active layer 204 is constructed so as to be a multiple of an integer , as mentioned above, when this resonance structure has an active layer 204 located alternately between the multilayer film 203 and a partially reflective layer 207. Therefore, it is possible to increase the radiation intensity in the wavelength range having a single peak , (Fig. 19C).

In addition, since the optoelectronic material, which was discussed in part odinadtsatiklassniki particles Si multilayer film 203 is also emit light, thus increasing the radiation intensity of the light.

In addition, the effect of increasing the intensity of the desired wavelength of the continuous spectrum, which is essentially obtained by sverhnegabaritnyh particles can be improved by adjusting the particle size of the surface atomic arrangement sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles in such a way that the Central wavelength of the original light emission sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles was agreed with the Central wavelength is increased by the periodic structure, and by adjusting the thickness of each layer in accordance with the above construction of the periodic structure.

Although optoelectronic material such as light-emitting photoluminescent element discussed in part this variant implementation, the optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation can also be used for layers of optoelectronic material in the first-tenth embodiments of implementation. In this case, the light-emitting device, display device, an optoelectronic conversion device or color sensor, which is described in the units of the first-tenth options Ossetia, which essentially is formed sverhmedlennymi particles.

Thirteenth variant implementation.

A suitable method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material according to the present invention will be described in detail below as the thirteenth variant with reference to Fig. 21-24.

In Fig. 21 presents the scheme of operations depicting a method of manufacturing sverhnegabaritnyh particle group IV as one of the example optoelectronic material, and position 201 refers to the powder of silicon (Si), position 212 is denoted powder germanium (Ge), the particle size of which is approximately 1.0 to 2.0 μm and a purity of 6N or more. Position 214 is denoted installation of hot pressing and 215 - mixed target of Si-Ge.

To prepare mixed powder 213 Si-Ge powder 211 Si and powder 212 Ge first mechanically mixed until a homogeneous dispersed state (Fig. 21A). Although the ratio of the concentrations of the components of the mixture can be set arbitrarily in order to control the wavelength of luminescence, which will be discussed below, it was set equal to Si:Ge = 0,2:0.8 in molar ratio with priority associated with the efficiency of light emission is Slovenia, in which perform the heating and shrinking during sintering in a compressed state. Although the temperature of the heating at this time is usually about 0.8 times relative to the eutectic point (K), in the present embodiment, it was set to the value of around 700oC. the pressure Level was set in the range of 15-20 MPa, and the environment at this time of sintering in a compressed condition was sparse gas (argon gas). However, using the method of vacuum hot pressing, it is possible to finally obtain the extruded product with high density. On the other hand, obtaining a molded product, which has essentially the same density as obtained in the method of hot pressing, which uses a sparse gas, can be performed using a compression at low temperature and low pressure. In Fig. S shown pressed a mixed target of 215, of mixed Si-Ge, performed at the facility 214 hot stamping.

Thus, the mixed target of 215 with compressed Si-Ge is uniformly dispersed particles of Si and Ge with a thickness at the level of microns, the density of which reaches or exceeds the ideal value of 99%.

In Fig. 22 shows a General shamlaye on the nanometer level by performing laser ablation on the target mixed particles Si-Ge, which is obtained by using the manufacturing method shown in Fig. 21A-C.

Laser ablation is an irradiation of a laser beam with high energy density (pulse energy of 1 j or more) of the target material, which causes melting and desorption of the surface of the irradiated target material, and is characterized by the equilibrium condition without heating and instantaneous process. Specific effect equilibrium state without heating represents the ability to conduct spatial temporal selective excitation. In particular, the spatial selective excitation allows to obtain only the necessary source material that will be excited, while the known thermal process or a plasma process causes thermal or ion impact for a sufficiently large area or the inner area of the reaction zone, and, thus, is a pure process, suppressing mixing with an admixture.

"Instantaneous" means means a significantly lower damage threshold compared with the ion process with the same equilibrium state without heating. The desorbed material in laser ablation consists mainly of inoki tens of atoms), the kinetic energy which reaches several tens of electron volts (eV) ions and a few EV for particles neutrons. This energy is much higher than that of the atoms during thermal evaporation, but lies at a lower energy region than that of the ion beam.

This process pure laser ablation with low damage threshold is suitable for preparation sverhnegabaritnyh particles, in which mixing with impurities, crystal structure, surface condition and the like has the ability to control. That is, since the low threshold of destruction is an inevitable factor in the preparation of sverhnegabaritnyh particles with very high surface areas and sensitivity to the structure, and if sverhmedlennye particles grow during thermal equilibrium, the distribution of structure parameters like particle size becomes inevitable.

The basic structure of the device is such that the laser beam (wavelength 193 nm) from the source 2201 fluorine-argon (ArF) excimer laser is introduced into the reaction vacuum chamber 2206 through the optical system, which contains the slot 2202 collecting lens 2203, mirror 2204 Annoy inside the vacuum reaction chamber 2206. The energy irradiation conditions at this time are the energy density of the pulse of 1.0 to 3.0 j/cm2and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In addition, the target 2207 mixed particles of Si-Ge is in the holder 2208 target, which has a rotational mechanism. The substrate 2209 for spraying is located at a distance of 7 to 10 mm in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the target 2207 mixed particles of Si-Ge and parallel to the surface of the target, and the desorbed material from the irradiated target surface 2207 mixed particles of Si-Ge is collected and deposited. That is, since the desorbed material is essentially an atom, gram-molecule or group of particles under the condition of irradiation of this variant implementation, a thin film containing it is formed by deposition by laser ablation in a high vacuum environment.

When the deposition by laser ablation with the above-mentioned exposure conditions is performed in the environment of the gas is Not under pressure of several Torr, the kinetic energy of the desorbed material is absorbed by the atoms of the surrounding gas, and the Association and the growth in air are accelerated and the material grows in the form sverhnegabaritnyh particles with a particle size of from several nanometers to dillenia.

More specifically, the reaction vacuum chamber 2206 pre obzharivayut to a pressure of 1 x 108PA using system 2210 pumping and provide a deep vacuum, which mainly contains turbomolecular pump, after which the system 2210 pumping and provide deep vacuum sealed. Then helium gas (Not) is injected through the line 2211 rarefied gas supply, and the environment rarefied gas (Not) implemented using control-of-flow controller 2212 mass flow and differential pumping using differential system 221 pumping, which contains mostly dry rotary pump or turbomolecular pump high pressure range control pressure medium gas (No) is from 1.0 to 200.0 Torr.

Traditionally it is difficult to obtain a crystal with a high degree of mixed particles of Si-Ge using the melting and heat treatment volume at the temperature of 1000oC, whereas this version of the implementation allows us to provide state of equilibrium without the use of heat, equivalent to the high temperature of several thousand degrees on the surface of the target 2207 mixed particles Si-Ge, thus ensuring the formation of a perfect crystal of mixed particles of Si-Ge.

blast spot laser irradiation has a size of several square millimeters and is in a very hot state, equivalent to several tens of thousands of degrees in terms of temperature, i.e. the difference between the melting point and the temperature of evaporation of Si and Ge is small, the composition of the desorbed material for each pulse quite consistent with the composition of the target 2207 mixed particles of Si-Ge (molar ratio of 0.2:0.8 a).

Needless to say that the application sverhnegabaritnyh particles with particle size, which is regulated at the nanometer level, you can certainly get on the substrate with use of a mixed target, but also the target of one material of the group IV, like Si or Ge or target mixed with these particles.

Below is a description of the method of controlling the average particle size of mixed particles of Si-Ge sverhnegabaritnyh particles according to the present variant implementation. The running average size of the particles according to the present variant implementation is largely done through continuous change of pressure of a dilute gas (Not) located in the vacuum reaction chamber 2206, through flow control using the controller 2212 mass flow and adjust conductivity using differential system 2213 pumping, K, representing the ratio between the pressure of the introduced gas and the average particle size is mixed Si-Ge sverhnegabaritnyh particles adhered to the substrate 2209 for spraying. It is evident from Fig. 23 it can be understood that the particle size sverhnegabaritnyh particles increases monotonically with increasing pressure gas when the gas pressure is Not in the range of 2.0 to 10.0 Torr. It is also clear that quantify the size of the particles increases in proportion to the 1/3 power of pressure (p) gas. Dependence is explained by the dissipation of the kinetic energy of desorbed (injected) of particles in the gas environment, which is considered as medium with inertial resistance. This control can, of course, be used not only on the target of the mixed material, but also on the target of a single material such as Si or Ge.

Briefly according to this variant implementation of the operation of laser ablation performed first in the rarefied gas environment to ensure you receive spraying sverhnegabaritnyh particles with a controlled particle size on the nanometer level on the substrate. Further, the pressure of a dilute gas in the vacuum reaction chamber constantly change in order obespechit particles, in particular the composition of the mixed crystal can be used effectively as subparameter, although the particle size is a key parameter when adjusting the energy bandgap as shown in Fig. 6 as part of the second variant implementation.

As an optoelectronic material can also be used a single substance or a mixed crystal of a different type or with a different composition ratio. For example, you can also use the connection group III-V type gallium arsenide (GaAs), which is a semiconductor with a direct transition type, or a compound of a group II-VI type cadmium sulfide (CdS).

Sverhmedlennye particles obtained in the vacuum reaction chamber, in the foregoing description directly applied to the surface in the case when the distribution of particle size sverhnegabaritnyh particles becomes larger. As for the method of controlling the size sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the operations of manufacturing an optoelectronic material according to this variant implementation, it will be described with reference to Fig. 24.

Fig. 24 depicts in schematic form the control unit particle size, which allows you to manage razmazannoy ablation. In Fig. 24 in the case where a pulsed laser beam impinges on the target surface 241, which is located in the center of the reaction chamber in the rarefied gas environment on the target surface 241 occurs the phenomenon of laser ablation and accelerates the Association and the growth in air environment, while receiving sverhmedlennye particles 242. Received sverhnegabaritnyh particle separator is used, 244 mass, which contains the passage 245 to input received sverhnegabaritnyh particles 242, ionization chamber 246 for ionization entered sverhnegabaritnyh particle accelerator tube 247 to increase the speed of ionized sverhnegabaritnyh particles using an electric field and deflecting electrode 248 for receiving electric field for separation by mass sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

Below will be discussed, the method of controlling the particle size sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the above-described structure. First, as mentioned above, when the pulse laser beam impinges on the target surface 241, which is placed in the vacuum reaction chamber in the environment rarefied gas, formed sverhmedlennye particles 242. Sverhmedlennye particles 242 inserted through the passage 245 in inibriated in the ionization chamber 246, they are ionized. Then ionized sverhmedlennye particles are accelerated depending on the applied voltage to the accelerator tube 247 and reach deflecting electrode 248. If an electric field is applied to the deflecting electrode 248, the direction of injection of some sverhnegabaritnyh particles varies in the direction of the substrate 243 for spraying. Since the direction of injection is determined by the particle size (weight to be exact) sprayed sverhnegabaritnyh particles, accelerating voltage in the acceleration tube 247 and applied to the deflecting electrode 248 electric field allows you to inject only sverhmedlennye particles that will be sprayed in the direction of the substrate 243 for spraying through the management of these physical quantities.

By setting the above-described separator 244 mass between targets 241 and the substrate 243 for spraying, you can get sverhmedlennye particles with consistent particle sizes, which will be sprayed on the substrate 243 for spraying. Although the electric field is applied using a deflecting electrode in order to change the direction sverhnegabaritnyh particles precede iant implementation.

Another suitable method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material according to the present invention will be described in detail below as the fourteenth variant of implementation with reference to Fig. 25. According to the above thirteenth variant implementation of the present invention describes a method of manufacturing sverhnegabaritnyh particle group IV. If sverhmedlennye particles directly glued and napylyaetsya on a substrate for deposition, at least in this way is formed a thin film with a porous configuration that contains sverhmedlennye particles. In respect of porous forms may require a more optimal configuration based on the assumption that the electrodes are connected to the receiving device, or may require a more optimal configuration or the like in order to obtain initial quantum retention effect of spherical sverhnegabaritnyh particles to demonstrate the new functions associated with the emission of light.

In this connection describes the method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material, which contains a transparent conductive thin film containing buried sverhmedlennymi operation simultaneous execution of spraying sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles and deposition of transparent conductive material on the same substrate for dispersion sverhnegabaritnyh of Si particles in the transparent conductive thin film, this sverhmedlennye Si particles prepared and sprayed with adhesion to the substrate using laser ablation in the environment rarefied gas (Ar, he or the like), and form a transparent conductive thin film on the same substrate in such a way that sverhmedlennye Si particles are dispersed with the operation of spraying, respectively, before surgery laser ablation in the environment oxidizing gas.

In Fig. 25 specifically shows a simplified diagram of a device for manufacturing an optoelectronic material, intended to receive a thin layer of optoelectronic material, which has sverhmedlennye Si particles, dispersed in a homogeneous transparent conductive thin film, using simultaneous laser ablation on Si target transparent conductive target.

In accordance with Fig. 25 after the first all-metal reaction chamber 2501 is the outgassing pressure 1,0109Torr by means of the pumping system and receive a deep vacuum, which mainly contains a turbomolecular pump, and argon gas is introduced through the line 2503 filing of a rarefied gas through the controller 2502 of mass flow. Simultaneously with the operation of the system 2504 pumping gas, which is i.i.d. gas in the first reaction chamber 2501 is set at a constant value in the range of 0.1-10 Torr.

In this situation, the pulse laser radiation emerging from the source 2507 first laser pulse impinges on the target surface 2506, which is placed on the support 2505 first tee, which has a rotational mechanism. Therefore, there is the phenomenon of laser ablation on the surface of the target 2506 Si, with ions or neutrons (atoms, groups) desorbers and injections mainly in the direction perpendicular to the first target with a kinetic energy of about 50 eV for ions or 5 eV for neutrons. Because of desorbed material collides with atoms in a dilute gas, the direction of migration is distorted and the kinetic energy is dissipated in the environment, thus speeding up the Association and condensation in the air. The result is growth sverhnegabaritnyh particles with a particle size of from several nanometers to several tens nanometers. The operation of laser ablation in this environment rarefied gas is basically the same as the operation explained with reference to Fig 22.

Meanwhile, after the second metal reaction chamber 2508 perform outgassing under pressure from 1.0 to 109Torr with the help of the pumping system and receive a deep vacuum, and the walking is the mixing of oxygen in the gas is Not in the relative oxygen content of a few percent. Simultaneously with the operation of the system 2511 pumping gas, which mainly contains a dry rotary pump or turbomolecular pump high pressure, set the constant value of the pressure of the rarefied gas in the second reaction chamber 2508 in the range of 0.1-10 Torr. When a pulse of laser radiation from a source 2514 second laser pulse impinges on the target surface 2513 SnO2placed on a stand 2512 second target, which has a rotary mechanism, is the phenomenon of laser ablation on the surface of the target 2513 SnO2when ions or neutrons (molecules, groups of particles) SnO2desorbers and injections mainly in the direction perpendicular to the target with a kinetic energy of about 50 eV for ions or 5 eV for neutrons in its original size or molecular group level. Providing a feed gas environment of oxygen, at this time, the injected material is transformed into molecules SnO2or group with single molecules, which are supported in a metastable state and the stoichiometric composition.

In addition, the substrate 2516 for spraying placed in the vacuum reaction chamber 2515, which receive sufficient outgassing approximately deep HAC is which mainly contains a turbomolecular pump. Due to the pressure difference between the vacuum reaction chamber 2515 and the first reaction chamber 2501 sverhmedlennye Si particles obtained in the first reaction chamber 2501, injections through the first nozzle 2518 and the first 2519 in the vacuum reaction chamber 2515 for further deposition on a substrate 2516.

Also due to the pressure difference between the vacuum reaction chamber 2515 and the second reaction chamber 2508 molecule or group SnO2obtained in the second reaction chamber 2508, are introduced into the vacuum reaction chamber 2515 through the second nozzle 2520 and the second 2521 for further deposition on a substrate 2516 as a homogeneous thin film.

Therefore, using simultaneous laser ablation of Si and SnO2you can get slim SnO2(transparent conductor) containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles on Si substrate 2516 for spraying. In addition, because active oxygen intended for the preparation of the conductive thin film exists only in the second reaction chamber 2508 according to the present variant implementation, sverhmedlennye Si particles are very sensitive to oxidation, can be atomized in navigating relationist particles is controlled by the laser power on target during laser ablation and repetition frequency. On the other hand, it is controlled, by adjusting the shapes of the nozzles and intdelay and the differential pressure between the vacuum reaction chamber and each reaction chamber.

The difference between using Ar and use Not as rarefied gas environment is that the Ar pressure should be set from 0.1 to 0.2 times the pressure is Not taken as a control.

Surface sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles directly after spraying has crystal defects or impurities, peremestivsheesya due to the destruction caused by high energy particles or radiation. In order to eliminate such undesirable surface layer sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles with a high degree of crystallization and purity, it is effective to expose sverhmedlennye particles of Si oxidation in oxygen atmosphere, or heat treatment. For this operation surface treatment fit the following scheme, the appropriate combination sverhnegabaritnyh particles and the transparent medium, which was discussed in the part of the first variant implementation using table. 1.

First, in the case of combinations And (PL. 1), that is, when standardisierte in a transparent environment is not simply when sverhmedlennye particles are dispersed in a transparent medium for transparent thin film containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles were subjected to heat treatment after deposition. Characteristically, after spraying the vacuum reaction chamber 2515 temporarily pumped to a state of deep vacuum, and then introducing nitrogen gas for formation of a nitrogen environment. Then, a transparent thin film containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles on the substrate 2516 for spraying heated. In this operation the heat treatment, the temperature is set from 0.5 to 0.8 times the melting point (absolute temperature) sverhnegabaritnyh particles and lower than the melting point of the transparent medium. In addition, it is desirable that the melting point of the transparent medium was higher than that sverhnegabaritnyh particles. For example, the melting point of Si is 1414oC and the melting point of SnO2- 1127oC, so that the temperature of operation of heat treatment is set in the range from 600 to 1000oC. Operation of surface treatment in the nitrogen atmosphere, helps to eliminate unwanted surface layer and allows you to get sverhmedlennye particles with high stay in the medium gas of oxygen or similar environment. In this case, the oxide film can be formed on the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

In the case of the combinations In (table. 2), as in the present embodiment, when sverhmedlennye particles are dispersed in a transparent environment, they are oxidized with oxygen in a transparent environment. Therefore, before dispersing sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles in a transparent environment they should be covered with an oxide film. Characteristically, in this time of execution of the above-mentioned laser ablation of Si and SnO2gas oxygen must be entered in the vacuum reaction chamber 2415. The pressure must be set to provide a pressure difference between the reaction chamber and the second reaction chamber, for example, at the level of 102Torr or less. When sverhmedlennye Si particles obtained in the first reaction chamber 2501, is introduced into the vacuum reaction chamber 2515 through the first nozzle 2518, they are in contact with oxygen molecules in the vacuum reaction chamber, while accelerating the oxidation of the surface. However, the composition of oxygen deposited thin film SnO2is not reduced when the mixed gas of oxygen and supported the stoichiometric composition. In the operation processing poorernise particles, having superior crystalline structure and purity.

According to this variant implementation, as described above, it is possible to obtain a thin film of SnO2containing buried sverhmedlennymi Si particles, thus eliminating the porous configuration. Therefore, it is possible to prepare a thin film containing sverhmedlennye particles, which can be used in connecting the electrodes to complete the device, and can effectively implement a quantum effect size.

In addition, undesirable surface layer can be removed by the surface treatment sverhnegabaritnyh particles in order to obtain sverhmedlennye particles having excellent crystalline structure and purity.

Although the foregoing description has discussed a method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material containing sverhmedlennye Si particles, dispersed in a thin film SnO2single substance or a mixed crystal of a different type or with a different composition, it is possible, of course, also be used as an optoelectronic material and the dielectric thin film of SiO2or the like as a material transparent environment in tx2">

Sverhmedlennye Si particles obtained in the first reaction chamber, directly napylyaetsya to the substrate through the first nozzle in the foregoing description, in which the particle size distributions sverhnegabaritnyh Si particles becomes wider. In this respect sverhmedlennye particles with consistent particle sizes can be applied using the method of space management sverhnegabaritnyh particles, which was due in part to the thirteenth variant with reference to Fig. 24 in the operations of manufacturing an optoelectronic material of this invention.

Fifteenth variant implementation.

Another method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material according to the present invention will be described in detail below as the fifteenth variant with reference to Fig. 26 and 27. Will describe the method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material containing dielectric thin film mainly using sverhnegabaritnyh particles of group IV, which are dispersed according to the present variant implementation. This implementation has the operation simultaneous spraying sverhnegabaritnyh particles mixed closematch particles mixed crystal group IV in the dielectric thin film. Coating with adhesion sverhnegabaritnyh particles mixed crystal group IV using laser ablation and deposition of dielectric thin films using sputtering are performed simultaneously on the same substrate.

In Fig. 26 and 27 shows simplified diagrams of devices according to the present variant implementation. In Fig. 26 shows the structure of a hybrid cathode 261, obtained by means of ablation, sputtering, which is used in this embodiment. In Fig. 26 it is shown that a mixed target of 262 group IV (Si-Ge) shaped for laser ablation placed in the center, and the target of 263 dielectric material (SiO2for spraying installed concentrically around the target 262. A mixed target of 262 group IV (Si-Ge) is the same as the target in the thirteenth embodiment of the present invention.

The bottom of the target 263 dielectric material connected to the power source 264 RF (high-frequency (13.56 MHz, 1.0 kW), and the structure 267 magnetron with a permanent magnet carried out under the target of 263 dielectric material in order to improve the plasma density near the target 263 dielectric material and to increase the speed of the spray.

Andn is spalanie on the surface of the mixed target 262 group IV during laser ablation or other unwanted parts.

Although the bottom of the mixed target 262 group IV and bottom of the target 263 dielectric material is water-cooled to prevent overheating, to enhance the cooling effect provided by the plate 266 packaging.

Fig. 27 depicts a simplified diagram of the device of the composite coating, which is intended to receive the layer of electro-optic material having sverhmedlennye particles mixed crystal group IV, which are dispersed in the dielectric thin film.

Is depicted in Fig. 27 vacuum reaction chamber 2701, made entirely of metal, first obzharivayut to deep vacuum 1,0107PA system 2702 pumping and receive a deep vacuum, which mainly contains a turbomolecular pump. Then the system 2702 pumping and getting deep vacuum block valve, after which the gas is Ar or Not is injected through the line 2704 filing of a rarefied gas through the controller 2703 of mass flow. Simultaneously with the operation of the system 2705 differential pumping, which contains mostly dry rotary pump or turbomolecular pump high pressure, the pressure of the rarefied gas in the vacuum reaction chamber 2701 installed on pathophysi source 2707 excimer laser, is fed through the input light box 2706 on the target surface 262 of the Si-Ge, which is located in the centre of the hybrid cathode 261. Therefore, on the target surface 262 of the Si-Ge is the phenomenon of laser ablation, while ions and neutrons (atoms, groups of particles) Si and Ge desorbers and injections mainly in the direction perpendicular to the target with an initial kinetic energy of about 50 eV for ions or 5 eV for neutrons. The kinetic energy of the desorbed material is dispersed in the surrounding gas atoms and, thus, accelerates the Association and the growth in air environment. Therefore, the material grows, as sverhmedlennye particles with a particle size of several nanometers during this time achieve it and going on a substrate 2708 for spraying, which is positioned perpendicularly above the center of the target 226 particles of Si-Ge.

The operation of laser ablation in the rarefied gas environment is basically the same as the operation discussed with reference to Fig. 22. The packing factor sprayed sverhnegabaritnyh particle control using power laser radiation, which irradiates the target during laser ablation, and using repetition frequency of the laser radiation.

High power h is e SiO2using the spray.

The above-mentioned simultaneous sputtering using ablation (Si-Ge) and spraying (SiO2) allows to obtain a thin film of SnO2(dielectric film) containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles of mixed crystals of Si-Ge (group IV) on the substrate 2708 for spraying.

After the deposition of the vacuum reaction chamber 2701 temporarily pump out the air to deep vacuum, and then introducing gas oxygen through line 2709 oxygen for the formation of an oxygen environment. Then infrared light (incoherent light) from the device 2710 radiation and heat, which contains a halogen 2710 performed from the back side of the substrate 2708 for deposition and homogeneous reflector 2710b, falls on the substrate 2708 for spraying and heats a thin film of SiO2containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles mixed crystal Si-Ge on the substrate 2708 for spraying. In this case, a transparent material such as quartz is used for the holder 2711 substrate. This heat treatment is performed in oxygen atmosphere, the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles mixed crystal group IV can oxidize when temperat mixed crystal group IV immediately after spraying has crystal defects or impurities, mixed due to the destruction that occurs under the influence of high energy particles or radiation. Undesirable surface layer must be eliminated by the operation of surface oxidation in oxygen atmosphere to obtain sverhnegabaritnyh particles mixed crystal group IV, with excellent crystalline structure and purity.

Because the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles during flight in the air are active, they are in contact with oxygen molecules, accelerating the oxidation of the surface. The composition of oxygen deposited thin film SnO2do not reduce this mixing gas of oxygen, and thereby support the stoichiometric composition. Is appropriate mixing of oxygen in Ar gas at a mixing ratio of about 1.0%.

According to this variant implementation, as described above, it is possible to obtain a thin film of SnO2containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles mixed crystal of Si-Ge and, thus, eliminate porous configuration. Therefore, it is possible to prepare a thin film containing sverhmedlennye particles that are suitable for connecting electrodes, neobhodimuju using Ar and use Not as rarefied gas environment is the Ar pressure must be set from 0.1 to 1.0 times the pressure, which is selected as a control. When considering coordination with the known sputtering using sputtering, indeed, appropriate is that the set pressure of Ar in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 Torr.

The operation of surface oxidation by heating in a gas environment of oxygen while spraying eliminates the unwanted surface layer and get sverhmedlennye particles mixed crystal group IV having excellent crystalline structure and purity.

A single substrate or a mixed crystal of another type or the composition can, of course, be used as a semiconductor material as in the thirteenth or fourteenth embodiments, implementation, and as a dielectric material, and you can also use other material like aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Al2O3use because it is less affected (which basically means that the excess oxygen oxidizes the semiconductor group IV) deviations from the stoichiometric composition of aluminum oxide on sverhmedlennym the invention, as follows from the above, sverhmedlennye particles are dispersed in the environment, which has managed the conductivity or dielectric constant and is essentially homogeneous, so you can effectively run and manage the injection of carriers in sverhnegabaritnyh particles or quantum effect of confinement of carriers in sverhnegabaritnyh particles, and, thus, to realize a light-emitting device and the photodetector, the light radiation which and the reception characteristics and the wavelength can be controlled, and which have a high efficiency of reception and emission of light.

Due to the periodic structure, in which layers containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles using an optoelectronic material, and layers with a transparent medium alternately arranged one above the other, you can perform optoelectronic material having such a characteristic that allows you to increase the intensity of the specific wavelength range in the continuous spectrum, which is emitted or generated using sverhnegabaritnyh particles, and, thus, it is possible to realize a light-emitting device, a photodetector, and so on, in order to manage their energy is of optoelectronic material and a layer with high reflectance, and layer with partial reflection located alternately on the active layer, allows you to perform optoelectronic material, and therefore, the light emitting device, a photodetector, and similar devices that allow you to narrow the range of wavelengths received or emitted light and to increase the intensity of the radiation.

Moreover, performing a pair of electrodes that are placed on and under the layer of electro-optic material containing such an optoelectronic material, and at least one of which is in direct contact with him, an electric connection between the electrodes of the layer of electro-optic material can be managed properly and you can get light-emitting device, a photodetector, etc. that have a high light emission and effectiveness.

If such optoelectronic material especially adapted to the detector ultraviolet radiation or the like, the optical filter or a similar element is optional.

Using the above-mentioned display device allows a portable display device, which is suitable for reduction in size and weight and has low power loss and high retraceability material, light-emitting device, a photodetector, and similar devices according to the present invention using the material, the amount of which is unlimited and which is free from pollution and has excellent advantages in coordination with the technology of the Si-LSI, high resistance to environmental influences, a layout that does not require Assembly, and which can be adapted to various types of adaptive multimedia devices.

According to the method of manufacturing the aforementioned optoelectronic material, the operation of laser ablation for the first tee perform in the environment of the rarefied gas that is guaranteed to receiving coating sverhnegabaritnyh particles on a substrate with particle size, which are controlled on the nanometer level, and you can control the average particle size and control of the composition of the mixed crystal, thereby providing adjustment of the light radiation and receiving characteristics with a high degree of freedom.

Also suitable is the operation of the second evaporation of the target material. Accordingly, the material obtained in the operation of evaporation going on a substrate for deposition is essentially at the same biretta and injected into operation ablation, gather in the air on the substrate for deposition in order to really you could get optoelectronic material having sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in a homogeneous environment, which contains the second material of the target.

The present invention has excellent characteristics matching with silicon technology (Si)-LSI, samootrechenie light, fast response time, the miniaturization of pixels, low power loss, high resistance to environmental influences and the process does not require Assembly, and able to adapt to various kinds of portable terminal devices and other display devices.

1. Optoelectronic material containing a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, and semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in said medium, characterized in that the said sverhmedlennye particles have an average particle size of 100 nm or less, and the environment has a specific resistance of approximately the same or greater than that of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

2. Optoelectronic material under item 1, characterized in that the distance between propokovych sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

3. Optoelectronic material under item 1, characterized in that the packing factor of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles in the environment is equal to or less than 30%.

4. Optoelectronic material under item 1, characterized in that the standard enthalpy of formation of the environment is lower than the oxide of the element forming semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the environment.

5. Optoelectronic material under item 1, characterized in that the semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in said medium, cover the oxide of the element forming semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles.

6. Optoelectronic material on p. 5, characterized in that the standard enthalpy of formation of the above-mentioned environment is higher than that of the oxide semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh of particles dispersed in the above-mentioned environment.

7. Optoelectronic material containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it contains layers proemial alternately arranged one on top of another.

8. Optoelectronic material containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it contains a layer with high reflectance, is performed on one surface of the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and a layer with a partial reflection, performed on the other surface of the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles.

9. Optoelectronic material under item 8, characterized in that at least one layer with a partial reflection layer with high reflectance, is a multilayer film, which has two kinds of layers with different refractive indices that are alternately one on another.

10. Optoelectronic material under item 9, characterized in that the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles includes a multilayer film.

11. Light-emitting device containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles is a characteristic, and a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, characterized in that when a voltage is applied to the pair of electrodes is carrier injection in a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles, and the result of radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs caused by the injection of carriers, there is a radiation of light, while the environment has a specific resistance equal or greater than that of the semiconductor sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

12. The light emitting device according to p. 11, characterized in that the energy of the light photon is managed.

13. Light-emitting device containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it comprises a first electrode on one main surface of a semiconductor substrate, an insulator layer, is performed on the other main surface of the aforementioned semiconductor substrate and having a hole for partial irradiation unnatural semiconductors containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles is in contact with the semiconductor substrate through the aforementioned hole.

14. The light emitting device according to p. 13, characterized in that when a voltage is applied to the first and second electrodes is the injection of carriers in a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles, and the result of radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs due to injection of carriers occurs, the emission of light, and the intensity of the radiation increases much faster compared to the proportion for the injection current.

15. Monochrome display device containing the light-emitting elements, each of which has a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles having a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it comprises a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and light-emitting elements included in the composition uniformly and regularly placed a single pixel, while the radiation intensity of each of the said unit pixels is adjusted by changing the excitation current for the light emitting cell battery (included), the each of which has a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles having a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic, characterized in that it comprises a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and light-emitting elements included in the composition uniformly and regularly placed a single pixel, while a single pixel contains many light-emitting elements for emitting light of a specific color due to the average size of the particles or the surface atomic arrangement sverhnegabaritnyh particles of light-emitting elements, moreover, the intensity and color of each individual pixel is adjusted by changing the excitation current of the light emitting elements of a single pixel.

17. A portable display device having the display device according to p. 16.

18. A display device, worn on the head, containing the display device according to p. 16, the fastening element for fastening the said device display of the Oia information displayed on the display device for the right and left eyes of the man.

19. Electronic dictionary for displaying information via a display device according to p. 16.

20. The optoelectronic conversion device containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, which has a semiconductor sverhmedlennye particles with an average particle size of 100 nm or less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic and a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and an optoelectronic conversion device has the function of photodetective carried out by detecting a change in the internal resistance, which occurs as a result of generation of carriers generated under the influence of light radiation in the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles.

21. The optoelectronic conversion device according to p. 20, characterized in that the energy of the detected photons is managed.

22. The optoelectronic conversion device containing layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi less dispersed in a uniform medium with a controllable electric characteristic and a pair of electrodes placed over and under the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, thereby forming transition Schottky on the border between the layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles and the electrode or the p-n transition in a layer containing buried sverhmedlennymi particles, and an optoelectronic conversion device has the function of photodetective carried out by detecting a change photoelectrode force, which manifests itself in the generation of carriers generated under the influence of light radiation.

23. The color sensor containing an optoelectronic Converter layers, which include optoelectronic devices on p. 20 located alternately through the transparent insulating film, and an optoelectronic conversion device has the function of photodetective in different predetermined ranges of wavelengths by controlling the optical energy gap with the adjustment of the average particle size or surface atomic arrangement sverhnegabaritnyh particles Annie alternately optoelectronic conversion layers have different optical energy gap, and optoelectronic conversion layers adjacent to the photomultiplier surface, and the optical energy gap becomes larger.

25. A method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material, which carry out the first operation of placing the target material for placement of the first target material in a vacuum reaction chamber in the environment rarefied gas at low pressure, perform the operation of placing the substrate in the vacuum reaction chamber, and perform the operation of ablation by irradiation with a laser beam of the first target material placed in the first operation of placing the target material to perform desorption and injection of the target material, whereby the received sverhmedlennye particles in the process of condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation of ablation, in the environment of rarefied gas hold on a substrate, while receiving optoelectronic material containing sverhmedlennye particles.

26. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that it further comprises the operation of placing the second target material to accommodate the second target material in a vacuum reaction chamber, in which you get when spraying, on a substrate essentially at the same time as sverhmedlennye particles obtained by the condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation of ablation, in the environment of rarefied gas onto the substrate, thus obtaining the optoelectronic material having sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the material, which contains the second material of the target.

27. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that it further comprises changing operation pressure input rarefied gas at low pressure, to control the average size of sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

28. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that it further comprises the operation of performing separation by mass sverhnegabaritnyh particles obtained in operation ablation, to control the average size of sverhnegabaritnyh particles.

29. The method according to p. 28, wherein the operation of performing separation by mass sverhnegabaritnyh particles includes the operation of ionization sverhnegabaritnyh particles and the supply of electric field or magnetic field on the ionized sverhmedlennye particles.

30. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that h is standing, which includes many types of semiconductor materials.

31. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that the mixed material was obtained in the blending operation by mechanical blending of a variety of particles of the initial number and operations sintering the mixed particles by means of hot pressing.

32. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that it further comprises the operation of oxidation of the surface of the optoelectronic material deposited on said substrate.

33. The method according to p. 32, characterized in that in the operation of the oxidation sverhmedlennye particles that get in the air operations of the Association, subjected to heat treatment in a gaseous environment containing oxygen, whereby the surface sverhnegabaritnyh particles covered with a thermal oxide film.

34. The method according to p. 33, characterized in that the heat treatment in non-oxidizing environment at a temperature higher than the temperature during the formation of thermal oxide film in the operation of the coating, is carried out before formation of thermal oxide film.

35. A method of manufacturing an optoelectronic material containing the put operation of the first target material dey at low pressure, the operation of placing the substrate in the vacuum reaction chamber, the operation of placing the second target material to accommodate the second target material in the second reaction chamber, as insulated from the first target material and the substrate, as a component of the environment, the operation of ablation by irradiation with a laser beam of the first target material placed in operation of the first target material, to perform desorption and injection above the target material, and the evaporation for the evaporation of the second target material placed in the operation of placing the second target material, whereby the material obtained in the operation of evaporation on the second target material, applied to said substrate essentially at the same time, when sverhmedlennye particles obtained through the condensation and growth of material desorbed and injected in the operation of ablation on the first target material, in the environment of a rarefied gas is captured by the substrate for deposition, so as to obtain optoelectronic material having sverhmedlennye particles dispersed in the material, which contains the second material of the target.

36. The method according to p. 35, otlichuy OSU irradiation of the second laser beam of the second target material, performing the desorption and injection above the target material.

Priority points:

19.06.96 on PP. 11-18, 25-26, 27, 30-34;

27.11.96 on PP. 7-10, 20-21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29, 35, 36;

26.05.97 on PP. 1-6, 19.

 

Same patents:

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The invention relates to the purification of flue gases from sulfur oxides

The invention relates to the purification of gases, in particular, the combustion of sulfur-containing raw materials, particularly coal, oil, natural gas, peat, etc

FIELD: separation.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises inlet and outlet for gas and plate provided with openings and interposed between the gas inlet and outlet for permitting gas to flow from below. The top side of the plate is used for flowing the absorbing liquid. The inlet pipeline connects the tank with the absorbing liquid to the top of the plate. The pump transports the absorbing liquid from the tanks to the top of the plate through the inlet pipeline and over the plate. The device is additionally provided with the outlet vessel for collecting the absorbing liquid that flows over the plate with openings and at least with one means for distributing that is in a contact with the gas supplied to the device through the inlet. The liquid flows from the outlet vessel to the tank upstream of the site where gas flows through the plate with openings.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

16 cl, 10 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: the invention may be used for protection of environment.

SUBSTANCE: On the first step the exhaust gases are set in contact with a recirculated liquid melt of urea holding predecessors of melamine and NH3, on the second step - with a raw liquid melt of melamine. The gas washer has two stages located one above the other. The upper section of the low stage has a sprayer, and the low section- a gas distributor. The upper section of the upper stage has a sprayer and one or more plates with chaffers located opposite it.

EFFECT: improves purification of gases exhausting from a reactor from melamine and other admixtures, increases energy effectiveness of the process of the melamine synthesis process due to better usage of the heat of exhaust gases.

15 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reduction in aerosol emissions at urea pelletiser. Urea pelletising plant comprises pelletiser producing urea from urea concentrated solution with emissions of dust, ammonium and ammonium isocyanate. Proposed method comprises the step of dust removal in scrubber wherein major dust particles are removed, the aerosol step with specially designed spraying and collection sites to release the first air and ammonium flow and second ammonium isocyanate and water flow. Note here that said second flow is directed to isomerisation step whereat ammonium isocyanate fraction is isomerised to urea. Note also that ammonium isomerisation to urea is performed at evaporator with low-pressure steam feed to column foot to convert urea formed therein into liquid phase. Remained ammonium and carbon dioxide is discharged from column header.

EFFECT: reduced emissions, higher efficiency.

13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of continuous removal of hydrogen sulphide from a gas flow includes a contact of an initial gaseous raw material, containing hydrogen sulphide with a catalyst, representing a chelated metal, in an absorber, operating under pressure P1, higher than 100 ft/in2, with obtaining the first gas flow, which does not contain hydrogen sulphide, and the second flow, containing elemental sulphur and a solution of the chelated metal, removal of the first flow, provision of an oxidation apparatus, operating under pressure P2, where P2>P1+5 ft/in2, supply of a part of the second flow into the oxidation apparatus, introduction of an oxygen-containing compressed air flow into the oxidation apparatus in such a way as to realise oxygen diffusion and its contact with the said second flow, and separation of elemental sulphur from the catalyst solution based on the chelated metal in the oxidation apparatus and removal of sulphur from the redox process.

EFFECT: efficient removal of hydrogen sulphide from the gas flows by the redox method under high pressure.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of adding oxygen to a liquid absorbent, which contains a compound, capable of reacting with oxygen, in a device (1) for gas purification. Used is the device (1), which contains a unit (16) for the absorbent circulation, made with a possibility of transferring the absorbent from the first place in the device (1) into the second place in the device (1), oxygen is added by adding air to the absorbent in the first point in the unit (16) for the absorbent circulation and a separating unit (16e), made with a possibility of separating gas, contained in the absorbent, from the absorbent in the second point, located above the first point, before return of the absorbent into the second place in the device (1), and a part of oxygen, contained in the air, is introduced into a reaction with the compound before its supply into the separating unit (16e).

EFFECT: possibility of adding a sufficient amount of oxygen to the absorbent and prevention of passage of nitrogen, the remaining part of oxygen and other gases, contained in the added air, which represent harmful admixtures, into the device 1 and their mixing there with purified gas.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purification from sulfur includes continuous supply of acidic gaseous hydrocarbon, which contains hydrogen sulphide, into absorber, working under P1, which exceeding 100 ft/in2, contact of acidic gas with water solution of catalyst in absorber to convert hydrogen sulphide into elementary sulfur in solid form and obtain waste solution of catalyst, which contains sulfur in solid form, removal of gas flow from absorber, pumping waste catalyst solution, which contains sulfur in solid form, into oxidiser, working under pressure P2, where P2≥P1+5 ft/in2, regulation of pressure in oxidiser by monitoring opressure in absorber and changing pressure by pressure regulator on exhaust line of oxidiser, oxidation of waste catalyst solution by compressed air in oxidiser with formation of regenerated catalyst solution, separation and removal of solid sulphur from regenerated catalyst solution from oxidiser and removal of regenerated catalyst solution from oxidiser.

EFFECT: effective removal of sulphur from gas flows by redox method under high pressure.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding a first portion a stream of furnace gas for cleaning to a carbon dioxide absorption trapping step, simultaneously feeding a second portion of furnace gas along the entrance surface of a membrane, feeding a stream of blow-out gas, usually air, along the exit surface, and then returning the blow-out gas with the penetrating substance to the furnace chamber.

EFFECT: invention provides efficient cleaning of furnace gases.

23 cl, 6 dwg, 8 tbl, 7 ex

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