Vacuum appliance microwave, istron
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to electronic equipment, in particular to enable the microwave oven, in which the formation of the electron flow and modulation of its density is carried out in the space of the cathode - control grid, and the interaction of the grouped stream with the microwave field and the selection of useful energy in the output resonator. In the electronic device, the flow is divided into separate beams due to the special arrangement of the individual beams into a single tube drift. The device is intended for use in a wide band of frequencies, mainly in the range of UHF television. The technical result is to provide high-appointment of efficiency gain and the low values of the accelerating voltage. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il., table 1. The invention relates to electronic equipment, in particular, to the vacuum microwave devices, in which the formation of the electron flow and modulation of its density is carried out in the space of the cathode - grid and interaction grouped electron flow from the microwave field and the selection of useful energy in the output resonator. We proposed an electronic device based on the same principle, but is to give it a new name. Let's call it "wonderful". Our device is designed to operate in a wide band of frequencies, mainly in the range used for UHF television - 470 - 860 MHz.First vacuum device with a similar mechanism was proposed by A. C. Gevim in 1938 and named Inductive Output Tube (IOT) device with an inductive output . However, at that time failed to achieve high output power due to overheating of the grid and limitations associated with the lack of emission capacity of the existing cathodes. In 80-ies of the twentieth century some technical problems this plan were overcome. The American company Eimac-Varian, applying metallopoiske the cathodes and grids of pyrolytic graphite, began to produce powerful IOT (tens of kW) with the brand name "klystrode".Known electron device IOT, the design of which the electron flow is divided into separate bundles ("rays") by executing in the space from the cathode to the collector channels for the passage of electrons . This design ensured known for multipath devices compared to single-beam advantages: lower control voltage, intensity and magnitude of the focusing MAGN which provides job opportunities in a wide band of frequencies, in particular required for television. In some application-specific devices  generally unsuitable. So, when using duhsasana output resonator, as proposed in  , even if successful in overcoming the difficulties associated with mechanical tuning frequency of such a resonator in a wide frequency band (470 - 860 MHz), cannot be forced to work effectively, the device of this class in the whole wide (almost octave) frequency band UHF television band. Indeed, in such a wide band of frequencies substantially, almost 2 times, changing the electrical length misusing period duhsasana resonator, which has a decisive impact on the efficiency of energy exchange between electrons and high-frequency fields. The operation of the device with dasatinib resonator is only possible in a limited narrow band of frequencies, is many times smaller than required.To the proposed technical solution is the most similar in design resulting parameters and features of realization of the device , who adopted us for the prototype. The design of this known device includes a cathode, control grid, anode, through which the operating mode is skipped e stream, the shedding of active output resonator chain connected resonators, and the collector. The known device  allows to provide instantaneous bandwidth 6.9 MHz required for transmission of a television signal, in a fairly wide bandwidth of the transmitter 470. . . 860 MHz, high conversion efficiency (about 60%), high output power (tens of kW). Similar devices are being developed and delivered to the market by US firms (Eimac - Varian), the UK (EEV), France (Thomson), the Netherlands (Philips). A disadvantage of the known devices of the type  is necessary to apply a high accelerating voltage, and hence to accept the large size of the power sources. Known design has physical limitations on the maximum achievable gain. Known design requires the use of nets of large diameter, operating at high temperatures, for example, pyrolytic graphite and termostato with high emission power.The technical result of the present invention is to create a new kind of powerful devices type IOT designed for operation in the entire frequency band of modern television UHF with in comparison with the known  IOT smaller values uskoi result is achieved by using the idea of multipath, but implemented with consideration of the peculiarities of the IOT. Therefore the design of the device differs not only from , but also from the well-known multi-beam structures (in particular ), namely the location of the individual rays passing in their channels, and the current density in the sun. Specifically, the technical result of the present invention is achieved by the following set of essential features:
Known  features:
- the presence in the design of the device cathode, control grid and anode, through which the operating mode is skipped e stream input and active output resonators, the drift tube, outer passive output resonator, forming with active output resonator chain connected resonators, and collector.Different from  features:
the cathode is made in the form of a set of individual emitting surfaces forming the individual electron beams,
the grid is made in the form of a set of individual control grids, each of which is placed above its emitting surface, and all together they are mounted on a single metal wire holder,
the drift tube contains a collection of separate longitudinal Cana is>/BR>0,1 D/ 0,5,
where D is the diameter of the drift tube,
- wavelength short wavelength end of the working wavelength range,
and the centers of the channels and corresponding channels emitting surfaces and meshes are located on more than one concentric circles about the axis of the drift tube.The proposed solution can be implemented in a number of variants. We will specify some of them, representing in our opinion the greatest interest.Option 1. To improve the efficiency of interaction of electron beams with high-frequency field in the gap resonators and achieve instantaneous bandwidth gain required for television, separate electron beams (emitting surface, the corresponding mesh and channels) are placed in such a way that the total number of
where n is the given number of circles.Option 2. For devices operating at high thermal loads, suitable design in which a Central beam excluded from the topology of individual electron beams in a common stream, i.e., the number of individual electron beams is
where n is the given number of circles.Efficiency of the device obviously rise and is of ollector will provide a positive effect in vysokofrekvencnim the device due to that low of Persians separate beams.Thus, the Central point of the proposed design is executed in the special multibeam system.The meaning of this feature can be explained as follows:
A characteristic feature of the proposed design, fundamentally distinguishes it from , is the presence of a population of N individual span of channels within a single tube drift arranged in several layers in concentric circles relative to the tube drift. Each channel covers a separate electron beam. Thus, in contrast to the single-beam prototype, eliminating a fundamental physical limitation associated with strong and harmful effect of space charge vysokoperedelnogo low beam.Nicobariensis with a relatively small current separate electron beams are easier to focus, more easily managed in the input resonator and more efficiently transmit the energy to the high-frequency field in the output cavity. Microwave power in the output resonator is formed by the summation of the capacities given field many low-current beams.We ustanovlyennoi, in which a change of the electric field along the radius of the resonator does not exceed 10%. This condition is satisfied when performing ratio
D/ < 0.5 in.
When this is achieved the same high efficiency of interaction between electrons and high-frequency fields for all of the individual electron beams.The restriction in the direction of decreasing diameter tubes
D/ > 0,1
due to a sharp increase in current density in a separate electron beams with decreasing pipe diameter drift.The proposed solution, called "wonderful", could be illustrated by the drawing, which schematically shows a section of the device. Here is displayed: 1 - cathode Assembly, 2 - individual emitting surface, forming a separate electron beam, 3 - holder nets, 4 - individual mesh, 5 - period of the cathode-grid, 6 - anode 7 - part pipe drift, 8 - individual channel for a single electron beam, 9 - input resonator 10 - high-frequency output gap of the active resonator 11 - output active resonator, 12 - output passive resonator 13 - communication device 14 to the output power, 15 - blocking capacitors, 16 - focusing electromagnets, 17 - collector.During the experimental testing were made of the number of samples differing requirements of output parameters and therefore are made with a different location and number of rays. Assay results are shown in table.In the bottom row of the table shows data from the advertising firm Eimac-Varian for single-beam instruments with similar parameters. The comparison is obviously in favor of our device.Thus, the Istron is quite feasible efficient appliance microwave favourably distinguished from known devices of the same type on the magnitude of a control voltage and gain. And thanks to the lower temperature of the grid, it has greater reliability in operation.Sources of information taken into account in the preparation of the application:
1. A. V. Haeff, Electronics, R. 30 - 32, Feb. 1. Vacuum microwave device comprising a cathode and a control grid, an anode and a drift tube through which the operating mode is skipped e stream, odnosezonnye input active output resonators, outer passive output resonator, forming with active output resonator chain connected resonators, and a collector, wherein the cathode is made in the form of a set of individual emitting surfaces, forming a separate electron beams; a grid made in the form of a set of individual control grids, each of which is placed above its emitting surface, and all together they are mounted on a single metal wire holder; the drift tube is made with respect to the ratio
0,1 D/ 0,5,
where D is the pipe diameter drift;
- wavelength short wavelength end of the working wavelength range,
and contains a collection of separate longitudinal channels designed to span separate electron beams parallel to the axial axis of the device, and the centers of the channels and corresponding channels emitting surfaces and meshes are located on more than one concentric circles.2. Vacuum microwave device under item 1, outlinesthe.3. Vacuum microwave device under item 1, characterized in that the total number of individual electron beams
N = 3n (n + 1),
where n is the given number of circles.
FIELD: microwave engineering; high-power broadband multibeam devices such as klystrons.
SUBSTANCE: proposed O-type device has two multibeam floating-drift tubes in each active resonator with operating wave mode H201, diameter D of each tube being chosen from condition D = (0.4 0.45)λ, where λ is wavelength corresponding to center frequency of device operating band. Input and output active resonators with floating-drift tubes asymmetrically disposed relative to opposite walls of these resonators are proposed for use. Input active resonator can be connected to energy input directly or through input waveguide, or through input passive resonator and input waveguide. Output active resonator can be connected to energy output through one output passive resonator and output waveguide or through two output passive resonators and input waveguide. Two multibeam floating-drift tubes are disposed in each active resonator including intermediate ones.
EFFECT: enhanced output power, efficiency, and practical feasibility, simplified design, facilitated manufacture, assembly, and adjustment of device.
11 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: multirange microwave devices for radar stations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed multirange O-type device used for radar stations to replace separate devices for each range thereby simplifying station design and reducing its cost is assembled of electrodynamic systems disposed along electron beam and isolated from each other by conducting disks with drift tubes. Each electrodynamic system is provided with energy input and output. Operating-range wavelength of electrodynamic system rises in direction of electron beam motion and ratio of electrodynamic system diameter to this wave reduces in same direction. Transit-time channel diameter remains constant or increases from system to system in direction of electron beam motion.
EFFECT: enhanced self-excitation resistance, reduced probability of current lowering, minimized size and mass.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electronic microwave equipment, namely to powerful wide band microwave devices of O-type, for instance, to multiple-beam klystrons that mostly operate in medium and short-wave part of centimeter range of waves length. Microwave device of O-type consists of sequentially installed along its axis electron gun, active resonators in the form of wave conductors segment and collector. Active resonators are made as stepwise changing in height, where height is the distance along microwave device axis between end walls of active resonator. In active resonator floating-drift tubes are installed linearly in rows and are fixed in its opposite end walls, and ends of coaxially installed floating-drift tubes are separated by permanent high-frequency gap. Central rows of floating-drift tubes are installed in sections of active resonators with the least height, and subsequent rows of floating-drift tubes that are installed along both sides of central rows, are installed in sections of active resonators with higher heights. It is also suggested to use inlet and outlet active resonator with non-symmetric installation of floating-drift tubes relative to opposite side walls of these resonators. Inlet active resonator may be connected to energy input directly through inlet wave conductor or through inlet passive resonator and inlet wave conductor. Outlet active resonator may be connected with energy output directly through outlet wave conductor or through one or several outlet passive resonators and outlet wave conductor.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency factor at the account of improvement of electric field distribution uniformity in the sphere of electronic flow interaction with microwave field.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; radio.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns electronic engineering, in particular to the electrovacuum microwave devices intended for reception of microwave capacity on two multiple frequencies also can be used, for example, in the accelerating technics, radar-location, radio countermeasure. The klystron-type microwave device contains the cylindrical target double-gap cavity (TDC), adjusted on an antiphase kind of fluctuations with an operating frequency co and on an inphase kind of fluctuations with an operating frequency 2ω. The device for microwave energy output contains, at least, two square-topped wave guides, connected with the TDC accordingly through the first and second coupling windows. The first coupling window is located between face walls of the target double-gap cavity equally spaced from them and allocated from a communication slot in a TDC conducting plate. The second coupling window is located from a continuous site of the conducting plate and located between the conducting plate and one of face walls of the output TDC opposite to corresponding high-frequency spacing. The sizes of wide walls of square-topped wave guides are chosen from the set conditions. The microwave device can contain a band elimination filter connected to the second square-topped wave guide.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency and expansion of functionality of the microwave device.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed klystron comprises spatially developed resonant systems, which are evenly arranged in the form of a fan in radial direction around the axis of symmetry of the klystron, with holes for electromagnet connection between active sector resonators. Each active sector resonator has through tubes that are arranged at the same distance from the klystron axis and are fixed on the central conductors, which are fixed on a "П"-shaped pedestal arranged on the inner cylindrical wall and having direct contact with two side covers. Metal pins passing through holes arranged in the inner cylindrical wall of active resonators are fixed in the lower part of the pedestal and are located at one axis with central conductors.
EFFECT: simplified system of microwave energy input and output, expansion of working frequency band, and also simplified manufacturing of active resonators tuned for various frequencies, design of which makes it possible to achieve multiplication factor of two ratios of the first higher cophased type of oscillations frequencies to the main antiphased one.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multibeam microwave device of O-type comprises an electron gun, an energy input and output, a collector and an electrodynamic system, comprising input, output and intermediate active resonators, the first output passive resonator, electromagnetically connected to the output active resonator. The input, output and intermediate active resonators are made in the form of sections of wave guides with a working type of oscillations H301, in each input, output and intermediate active resonator for passage of electronic beams there are three groups of individual drift tubes. Drift tubes of each group have axial-symmetrical placement in the form of at least one circular row, and the diameter of the circumference D, which limits the external circular row of drift tubes of each group is selected on the basis of the condition D=(0.32÷0.42)λ, where λ - wave length corresponding to the central frequency of the working band of the device.
EFFECT: higher pulse and average output capacity in wide band of frequencies with sufficient electric strength, higher efficiency factor.
8 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: electronic equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electronic engineering. Cathode preheating unit for powerful klystron cathode contains several separate modules of a given size, each of which consists of a cathode block elementary cathode heater, holder, screen and are coaxially arranged drift tube klystron. Part of the cathode of each module to a height of (0.2-2.0) mm from the end opposite the working - emitting - a surface formed with a diameter greater than the diameter of the cathode module (0.2-10.0) mm. Warming cathode assembly is further provided with two cylinders - external and internal, with a given diameter, height - external, equal to the height of the cathode a separate module, or no more than two of its height, the inner - equal to the height of the cathode module, or - at least 0.5 of its height Each wall thickness (0.3-0.8) mm, the cylinders are arranged coaxially one inside the other in the working plane - emitting - cathode surface modules. Each individual cathode unit is additionally provided with a separate cylinder placed therein with a gap and secured by said holder part, with a separate barrel is diameter, which mate of cathode modules, height, at the height of the cathode module (1.0-5.0) mm, with a wall thickness equal to (0.2-0.6) mm, at the outer end face of each cylinder in the plane of the working - emitting - a surface formed monolithically fastening elements, each in the form of a circular segment with the length of its curve (4.0-8.0) the wall thickness of the individual cylinders in multiples of four and the individual cylinders with individual cathode modules are disposed between the inner and outer cylinders.
EFFECT: technical result - increase durability, power output and efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl