Method for the production of water from the air (dehumidification) and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Formed by at least one fan, the flow of moist air is cooled in the first heat exchanger intermediate heat transfer fluid in the cooling element of a refrigerating machine to a temperature below the dew point with subsequent drainage of the condensed water. Further, the air flow is heated in the second heat exchanger intermediate heat carrier and the element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation. The costs of intermediate heat carrier and moist air can be adjusted simultaneously or sequentially depending on climatic parameters of atmospheric air. Upon cooling of moist air below the freezing temperature of water flow direction moist air periodically change, directing his first element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, and then into the cooling element. The condensed water is cleaned, filtered and mineralize. The proposed invention allows to increase efficiency at the output of water by improving the performance of the refrigeration machine while reducing energy consumption and increasing the contact area of the sections of the heat exchanger, having thermodynamics of moist air more precisely, to receive water from atmospheric air and dehumidification of indoor air, and can be used for fresh water, including drinking, in different climatic zones, as well as to dry indoor air.

A device and method of air drying, carried out therein (see patent UK N 2186959, CL F 24 F 3/14, 1987), which is generated by the fan air flow is subjected to a preliminary cooling in the heat exchanger, then additional cooling in the evaporator of the refrigerating machine to a temperature below the dew point, assign the resulting condensate, after which the air stream is heated in the same heat exchanger and condenser of the refrigeration machine and absorbed into the environment.

In the above-described method and device are pre-cooling the incoming air flow goes that, on the one hand, several increases the efficiency of the cooling capacity of the refrigeration machine, but, on the other hand, may lead to a decrease in cooling capacity due to the temperature drop of the cooling element. The construction described above, the device consists of refrigeration machines and heat soprotivlenie, requires fans increased power and leads to the large size of the device. Low efficiency of heat transfer from the outgoing air to the incoming to the device causes a significant loss of cold.

A device and method for dehumidifying air in it, taken as the closest analogue (see application France N 2672970 A1, class F 25 30/02, 1992), which is generated by the fan air flow is cooled in the first heat exchanger and the evaporator of the refrigerating machine to a temperature below the dew point with subsequent drainage of the condensed water, then heated in the second heat exchanger and the condenser of the refrigeration machine and absorbed into the environment. The heat exchangers are connected intermediate heat carrier.

These method and apparatus for extracting water from the air thanks to the heat exchange process between the incoming and outgoing parts of the stream of air is provided by a discrete decrease in the air temperature to the evaporator and the same temperature rise after this element, providing at the output of the device the temperature of the air flow close to atmospheric.

In the above method and the device is more affects the efficiency of the cooling capacity of the refrigeration machine, however, this method and apparatus has the following disadvantages.

A significant reduction in temperature below the dew point will cause the formation of fog and ash part of the condensed moisture with the air flow from the device.

The temperature drops below 0oC will cause the termination of the receiving water from the air because of the freezing sections of the heat exchanger and the evaporator, reducing the heat transfer from the air, lowering the temperature of the cooling element under a layer of snow fur coat", lowering the cooling capacity of the refrigeration machine, the growth of energy consumption, the growth of aerodynamic resistance in the heat exchanger due to the reduced flow area.

The location of the heat exchanger that uses accumulated from dehydrated cold air for additional cooling of the incoming air stream just before the evaporator of the refrigerating machine will be ineffective in conditions of high relative humidity of the incoming air (above 70%).

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to develop a method of production of water from the air, as well as its drainage and the creation of a device for its implementation, in kotoroy machine while reducing energy consumption and increasing the contact area of the heat exchanger, having a temperature below the dew point, wet air.

The solution of this problem is due to the fact that the method of production of water from the air (dehumidification), namely, that form the flow of moist air containing water vapor, provide artificial cooling it in the first heat exchanger and the cooling element of a refrigerating machine to a temperature below the dew point with subsequent drainage of the condensed water, then heated in an element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, and absorbed into the environment, when this cooled dehumidified air is used for cooling intermediate heat transfer medium in the second heat exchanger and/or for performing controlled cooling process, the refrigerant in the refrigerating element machine, designed for heat dissipation.

The solution of this problem is achieved also due to the fact that the device for the production of water from the air (dehumidification), containing the first heat exchanger and sequentially arranged in the direction of flow of the air cooling element of a refrigerating machine, the second heat exchanger element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, as well as the ICOM and with the element of the refrigerating machine, designed for heat dissipation, by means of an adjustable heat.

To increase the quantity of condensed water, it is expedient to regulate the flow of air, increasing with the increase in the cooling capacity of the refrigeration machine using accumulated cold of the dehydrated air for additional cooling section of the heat of the refrigeration machine. With the aim of increasing the number of condensed water, it is advisable to adjust the intensity of heat conducted through the use of intermediate heat carrier, on the distribution of accumulated cold between parcels of air flow. By reducing the speed of the intermediate circulation of the coolant decreases the cooling sections of the heat exchanger, designed for additional condensation of water vapor, and an increasing share of cold aimed for additional cooling section of the heat of the refrigeration machine.

With increasing air flow through the device for the production of water mass flow rate over a certain threshold, for example, more than 5 kg/m2h, possible seizure passing through the heat exchanger air drops of condensed water. is to provide a device for collecting airborne water (water separator), possible design and application technique are known.

Regulation of air flow and the intermediate heat-carrier suitable to hold the values of the climatic parameters of the air inlet device and the amount of water produced, as well as maximum allowable loop parameters of the refrigeration machine. The regulation is possible both in manual and in automatic mode, through the use of flow regulators.

At higher values of air temperature at the inlet of the device (for example, 35oC) and the growth temperature section of the heat dissipation cooling capacity of the refrigeration machine may decline sharply. In this case, the entire accumulated cold it is expedient to use for the cooling section of the heat, the speed of circulation of the intermediate heat transfer medium is reduced to zero, and the airflow is not reduced at high humidity and low humidity may drop to values that ensure the temperature of the area of artificial cooling of the refrigeration machine, slightly below the dew point.

When high humidity heat exchange sections, using accumulated vicinage air flow and form to these sections for more air flow. This will increase the total flow of moist air and the area of the contact surfaces of the sections of the heat exchanger having a temperature below the dew point, wet air and increases the amount of condensed water vapor.

Dehydrated air is completely appropriate to send over a portion of the heat of the refrigeration machine (for example, the hot junction of thermoelectric generator or in the condenser the vapor compression machine). While dehydrated air is heated to a temperature above the air temperature at the inlet and at the expense of lower density, in conditions of open volume will be deleted from the formation of the input stream of moist air and will not cause possible, otherwise, reduce condensation of water vapor.

As a multi-section heat exchanger you can use a rotary regenerative heat exchanger placed in the direction of air flow, after the artificial cooling of the refrigerating machine, and this sector of the heat exchanger alternately, as it moves in a circle, play a role as sections batteries cold, and the production of additional quantities of water. Best performance by Pausa elements of one or more chillers along the surface of the heat exchanger.

When using the intermediate heat-carrier in the multi-section heat exchanger for heat transfer between sections-batteries and cold sections, using the accumulated cold for the production of additional quantities of water, it is advisable to apply well-known as an efficient heat transfer devices, heat pipes, this will reduce the power consumption of the device and its dimensions due to the exclusion of liquid pumps and paths.

The generated air stream prior to its contact with the sections of the heat exchanger, it is advisable to clean from dust, sand, etc., impurities, and contaminants (aerosols), which in the device for the production of water you want to apply the device to clean the air.

Implementation of the method and operation of the device illustrated by the drawings, which presents some of the options for the specific performance of a device designed to implement the method of production of water from the air.

In Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of one implementation options of the device for the production of water from the air (dehumidification).

In Fig. 2 shows a diagram of a device for the production of Vika.

In Fig. 3 shows a diagram of the device for the production of water from the air (dehumidification), the design of which allows to implement the refrigerating machine in the heat pump mode.

In Fig. 4 shows a diagram of a device for the production of water from the air (dehumidification), which design allows the use of a rotary regenerative heat exchanger.

Not shown blocks of automation and enclosure devices.

Channels intended for transportation of main and secondary streams of air, sealed at the perimeter.

The device (Fig. 1) includes cooling 1 and fuel 2 the elements of the refrigerating machine (HMM), accumulating cold section 3 of the heat exchanger, dust-proof device 4 and the fan 5, placed in the main channel for transporting air. Section 6 of the heat exchanger, designed for air cooling through the use of accumulated cold placed in the canal for transportation of primary air flow, and channel for transporting additional air flow. Section 6 may be incorporated into the work by means of regulating valve 7, which directs the flow prasouda liquid, from accumulating cold section 3 and sections 6, together or selectively.

Also the structure of the device includes pumps with adjustable flow 8 and pipe 9 (which circulate the intermediate fluid between the sections 3 of the heat exchanger and the heat generating element 2 HM and sections 6 of the heat exchanger), as well as the elements 10 HMM, sump 11, the filtering unit and the salinity of the water 12 and the water drain valve 13.

Heat exchange sections 6 (Fig. 2) located in the secondary air flow, are designed to enable them to move into the main air flow in the case of reducing the relative humidity of the air entering the device. Among accumulating cold sections 3 of the heat exchanger can be distinguished section, the coldness with which target only the fuel elements 2 HMM.

Under certain conditions the device it is advisable to apply HMM, can operate in heat pump mode. The device (Fig. 3) includes cooling 1 and 2 fuel elements accumulating cold section 3 and using the cold sections 14, 15 of the heat exchanger, and the fan 5, located in the duct for transporting air. Also part of the mouth of the si 8 with adjustable flow and piping 9 for circulating intermediate fluid between sections 3 and 14, 15 of the heat exchanger, and between the sections 3 of the heat exchanger and the elements 1, 2 HMM.

The structure of the device may include a rotating regenerative heat exchanger. The device (Fig. 4) includes a cooling element 1 and the heat-generating element 2 HMM placed between the rotating regenerative heat exchanger 16, made in the form of the section with heat nozzle, dust filter 4 and the fan 5, placed in the duct for transporting air. Also the structure of the device includes a water tank 11, the filtering unit and the salinity of the water 12, the elements 10 UM and the water drain valve 13.

The device (Fig. 1) works as follows.

Depending on the climatic conditions of the air entering the device, the device performance on the water and settings cycle HMM, are brought into operation of section 6 of the heat exchanger, located either in the main stream of air, or additionally formed in the air flow, it is also possible to include all of the sections 6 at the same time. Formed the main stream of air is directed into the channel of the device, where it passes the anti-dust filter 4. The air passes section 6 of the heat exchanger and enters the cooling element 1 is surrounding element 1 HM and section 6 of the heat exchanger (if they work) in the sump 11 and then to block filtration and mineralization of water 12, after passing which the water quality meets the standards for drinking water. After cooling element 1 dehydrated air gets in section 3 of the heat exchanger accumulating cold, which gives off part of the cold intermediate fluid, and fed into a fuel element 2 HMM, cools it and negresses to a temperature above the ambient temperature, removed from the installation.

In the case of the introduction of the sections 6 of the heat exchanger located outside the main flow of air is formed, the additional flow of air that passes through these sections, where it is cooled to a temperature slightly lower than the dew point and fed into a fuel element 2 HMM. Condensed on the sections 6 of the heat exchanger the water is diverted into the sump 11.

With the help of pumps 8 is a control flow of intermediate heat carrier circulating between accumulating cold sections 3 of the heat exchanger and the heat generating element 2 HM, and between sections 3 and sections 6 of the heat exchanger. Share of accumulated cold allocated for cooling heat-generating element 2, the CHILLER and the cooling air in the sections 6 of the heat exchanger is determined by the cores is.

The device, which is shown in Fig. 2, is generally similar to device, scheme of which is shown in Fig. 1. The structural difference between these devices is that the device (Fig. 2) there is no regulating valve 7, and uses the accumulated cold of section 6 of the heat exchanger is made moving so that there is a possibility of their placement in the primary or secondary air flow. The placement section 6 is determined depending on the climatic conditions of the air entering the device. When the humidity and temperature of air at the inlet of the device are relatively high ( 70-80%, T 30-35%), section 6 of the heat exchanger is placed in the generated additional air flow. At relatively high values of humidity and temperature of air entering the device, the section 6 is placed in the main air flow.

In order to ensure optimal from a performance perspective on water, air flow, it is expedient to regulate fan operation 5 (Fig. 3).

The device, which is shown in Fig. 3, operates as follows. At relatively high values of humidity and temperature servant who cnym coolant connecting the storage section 3 of the heat exchanger and the section of the heat exchanger located in the air stream after heat-generating element 2, HMM, and a circuit connecting accumulating cold section 3 of the heat exchanger with cooling element 1 HMM. It is believed that the air flow is directed according to the scheme in section 14.

At relatively low values of humidity and temperature, the appropriate use of numerazione moisture for receiving water from the air. The air flow also form in the forward direction (section 14). The air passing through the fan 5 and gets in section 14, using the cold for pre-cooling the air, and then goes to the cooling element 1 HM, where its temperature is reduced to values below the 0oC. on the design of the cooling element 1 and possibly part of the structure of the sections 14 of the heat exchanger is the freezing of moisture. Next, the cooled partially dehydrated air is directed in section 3 of the heat exchanger where it gives part of the cold intermediate fluid. Then dehydrated air enters the fuel element 2 HMM, cools it and negresses to a temperature above the ambient temperature goes untapped scacciati 14 of the heat exchanger, and between sections 3 of the heat exchanger and the heat generating element 2 HMM. The intermediate consumption of the coolant is regulated by the pump 8.

After some time of operation of the device in this mode is frosting "coats" and decrease the "living" sections of the heat exchanger and the cooling element 1. Upon reaching coats of a certain thickness HMM starts to operate in the "heat pump" (elements 1 and 2 are changed by the function). Off paths with intermediate heat carrier connecting section 3 of the heat exchanger with sections 14 and element 2 HMM. To speed up the defrost can be applied and the flow of heated air and heating Elements. Coat melted and the resulting water is diverted into the sump 11.

The device, which is shown in Fig. 4, operates as follows. The generated air flow passes dustproof device 4 and the air flow is split, with one part goes to the cooling element 1 HMM. Passing the cooling element 1 HMM, the air flow is cooled in the design of a cooling element of the condensed moisture. Next, the cooled dehydrated air enters the section of the rotary regenerative heat exchanger 16 located n the nozzle rotating regenerative heat exchanger 16 and is directed to the fuel element 2 HMM cool it and negresses to a temperature above ambient temperature, is removed from the device. When rotating regenerative heat exchanger 16 sections with cooling nozzle is moved from the cooling elements 1 XM in another part of the stream of air passing through the cooling element 1 HMM. When this happens the cooling and condensation of an additional amount of moisture. The resulting moisture is removed from the cooling element 1 HM and sections of the regenerative heat exchanger 16 in the sump 21. If numerazione moisture on the design of the cooling element 1 HM, and possibly accumulating on the nozzle section of the regenerative heat exchanger 16 to defrost the "fur" can be used CHILLER operation in heat pump mode, and the flow of heated air and heating Elements. With the aim of obtaining the maximum performance of the device it is advisable to apply the regulation of air flow and the speed control of the regenerative heat exchanger 16.

An experimental study of the characteristics of the device for the production of water from the air, carried out using a refrigerating machine with a nominal cooling capacity of 7.0 kW and nominal need to change the military air for cooling the condenser may increase by 30-40% in the temperature interval of the atmospheric air above the 0oC to ~ 50oC, while reducing power consumption energy production water using the above devices can be up to ~ 5 liters per hour at an ambient temperature of 10 - 20oC and relative humidity from 20 to 60%, respectively, up to 10 l per hour or more at an ambient temperature of 25 - 30oC and relative humidity up to 80% and above.

1. A way of separating water from air comprising forming a stream of moist air, consistent, cooling it in the first heat exchanger and the cooling element of a refrigerating machine to a temperature below the dew point with subsequent drainage of the condensed water, the heated element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, and discharge into the environment, characterized in that the cooled dehumidified air is used for cooling intermediate heat transfer medium in the second heat exchanger and/or for performing controlled cooling process, the refrigerant in the refrigerating element machine, designed for heat dissipation.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein forming at least one additional stream of moist air and direct it to the third heat exchanger, cooled it to t acency for heat dissipation.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when using absorbed from the dried stream of air cold, the ratio of its shares allocated to the cooling intermediate heat transfer medium in the second heat exchanger to reduce the temperature of the refrigerant in the refrigerating element machine, designed for heat dissipation, set depending on the values of the climatic parameters of the atmospheric air and the intensity of the process of condensation of water vapor in manual or automatic mode.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the heat exchange between the wet and dry parts of the air flows carry out and regulate by means of an intermediate heat carrier supplied with a variable rate.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the coolant flow is regulated depending on climatic parameters of atmospheric air and the intensity of the process of condensation of water vapor.

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the flow rate of humid air adjusted depending on the values of the climatic parameters of the atmospheric air and the intensity of the process of condensation of water vapor.

7. The method according to PP. 5 and 6, characterized in that the flow of lainehti flow of moist air and coolant regulate consistently.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cooling of a stream of moist air below the freezing temperature of water periodically change the direction of flow of moist air so that instead of a cooling element of a refrigerating machine wet air flow is directed into the element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, with a cooling element of a refrigerating machine is used as an element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, and the element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, the cooling element of a refrigerating machine.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the flow of dry air is removed from the place of formation of the vapor flow.

11. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the condensed water is cleaned, filtered and mineralize.

12. Device for separation of water from air containing the first heat exchanger and sequentially arranged in the direction of flow of the air cooling element of a refrigerating machine, the second heat exchanger element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, as well as collection of water and at least one fan, wherein the second heat exchanger is connected to the first to the third heat transfer.

13. The device according to p. 12, wherein the at least one heat exchanger fitted in the direction of flow of air before the cooling element of a refrigerating machine.

14. The device according to p. 12, characterized in that it is provided with at least one heat exchanger designed to cool at least one additional stream of moist air directed into the bypass cooling element of a refrigerating machine on the element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation.

15. The device according to p. 12, wherein the first and second heat exchangers made in the form of a single rotating variable speed heat exchanger located after the cooling element of a refrigerating machine in the direction of air flow.

16. The device according to PP.12 and 15, characterized in that it is equipped with multiple chillers, cooling elements or parts of one cooling element of a refrigerating machine evenly distributed over the surface of the rotating heat exchanger.

17. The device according to PP. 15 and 16, characterized in that passed through the rotary heat exchanger air flow is fully directed to the elements of the refrigerating mA exchangers, the cooling element of a refrigerating machine and an element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, made as a single unit with a conductive-convective heat transfer.

19. The device under item 18, characterized in that the first and second heat exchangers, a cooling element of a refrigerating machine and an element of the refrigeration machine, designed for heat dissipation, made as a single unit, the heat exchange which is realized by means of heat pipes.

20. The device according to p. 12, wherein the refrigerating machine is operating in heat pump mode.

21. The device according to p. 12, characterized in that it is provided with at least one device for collecting airborne droplet of water set for the cooling element of a refrigerating machine in the direction of air flow.

22. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that it is provided with at least one device for collecting airborne droplet of water set for the additional heat exchanger in the direction of additional air flow

23. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that after an additional heat exchanger in the flow direction of air the size of the C of heat exchangers connected by means of a heat element of the refrigerating machine, designed for heat dissipation.

25. The device according to PP.12-15, characterized in that the heat exchanger in the form of multiple designs.

 

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FIELD: heat-power engineering; manufacture of cheat multi-functional cold and heat generating plants.

SUBSTANCE: according to first version, proposed method includes heating the air in heat exchanger by burning fuel in furnace, preliminary heating of air at mixing with cold air and humidification of air before delivery of it to consumer. Preliminary heating of air is performed in air elevator; humidification of air is performed in circulating line; condensed moisture is removed from furnace, ash pan and humidifier by means of drainage units; for delivery of air to furnace, use is made of fan. According to second version, in summer season water or dry ice is placed in tubular heat exchanger; then air is fed to furnace by means of fan and to consumer through heat exchanger; moisture from furnace and ash pan is removed by means of drainage units. Plant for forming the microclimate includes casing, furnace with fire grate, gas-and-air heat exchanger, gas duct, exhaust branch pipes and fan; it is provided with receiving collector, lower air chamber, tubular heat exchangers, recirculating line with filter and air elevator made in form of passages taking the heat from external lateral surfaces of casing; vertical tubular heat exchangers provided with swirlers are mounted on inner sides of furnace wall forming crown portion of furnace heat exchanger and connecting the lower air chamber located under ash pan bottom with collector and exhaust branch pipes; recirculating line is provided with air humidifier and is used for coupling the air elevator with heated air receiving collector. Volume of lower air chamber exceeds that of upper air chamber of heated air receiving collector by two times. Swirler is made in form of metal band with cuts on edges of lateral sides at swirling pitch relative to tube diameter equal to 4-7. Furnace, ash pan and humidifier are provided with drainage units for removal of moisture.

EFFECT: possibility of creating and maintaining required climate in room in winter and in summer.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: systems for ventilation and air conditioning.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes housing having pan, inlet and outlet branch pipes, heat exchanging plates of capillary-porous material partially immersed into pan with water. Converging insert is arranged in cylindrical housing of apparatus. Ejection windows are cut out on surface of housing in front of walls of converging insert. Plates of capillary-porous material are arranged vertically and they overlap ejection windows; upper ends of said plates are mounted higher than said windows, their lower ends are immersed into pan with water. Outlet branch pipe of apparatus having diffuser shape at air outlet and cylinder shape of the remaining part is arranged coaxially with housing and it has diameter slightly less than inner diameter of housing. It provides minimum gap between inner surface of housing and outer surface of outlet branch pipe and possibility of motion of branch pipe inside housing along its axis by action of light effort of hand of operator for partially or completely overlapping ejection windows. Flow rate of air is controlled in apparatus by means of flap-type valve arranged in inlet branch pipe. Air distribution is realized by means of diffusers concentrically arranged in diffuser part of outlet branch pipe and having less diameters. Partitions are placed diametrically between less -diameter diffusers. Ducts restricted by diffusers and partitions are provided with air swirlers. All constructional members of apparatus except capillary-porous plate are made of corrosion-proof material.

EFFECT: possibility for controlling air humidity at outlet of humidifying device and distributing humidified air in room.

1 dwg

FIELD: gas-turbine plants.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises overexpanding air in a gas-expansion turbine and compressing it in a compressor. Downstream of the turbine the ambient air is cooled by cool air, and moisture is withdrawn. The compressor is actuated from the turbine. The cooling of the ambient air by cool air downstream of the turbine is performed before its supplying to the letter. The moisture is additionally withdrawn from the overexpanded air, and additional compression of the overexpanded air downstream of the compressor up to the pressure of the ambient air is performed in an individual plant.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: air conditioning aids.

SUBSTANCE: method of air conditioning is based upon mixing internal and external air, cleaning, heating and moisturizing. Moisturizing and cleaning is performed simultaneously with mixing in twisted flux. Mixing is made in proportion being necessary for achieving required temperature. Method includes cleaning, moisturizing, cooling, drying and heating of air. Before putting thermal parameters in balance the twisted flux is created where cleaning and moisturizing is made; drying is conducted by means of cooling till getting due point. Air conditioning system has fan, mixing chamber, regulating valves, control devices provided with detectors, air cooler, air heater and sprinkling system. Mixing chamber is made in form of cyclone-type mixer and is matched with sprinkling system. Efficiency of heat and mass exchange is improved due to sprinkling air by fluid inside twisted flux together with reduction in aerodynamic resistance of system.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

6 cl, 2 dwg

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