The way of centralized heat and power, and equipment for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a fuel and energy complex and can be used for centralized heat and power, mainly consumers domestic sphere. According to the method in the process of burning fuel at the same time carry out forward and reverse thermodynamic cycle energy conversion, and for vaporization in the reverse thermodynamic cycle and as energy for its implementation uses the waste heat loop condensation of the working fluid and mechanical or electrical energy direct thermodynamic cycle, respectively. The complex contains the path of steam equipment with circulation loop condensation of the working fluid, the heating system and the heat consumers. The equipment is equipped with heat pumps with the layout of the main elements of the latter, defined the specific requirements of various systems of centralized heat and power. The technical result is to increase economic efficiency, environmental friendliness and reliability of centralized heat and power, and by a more complete conversion of vnutrennie consumers. 2 S. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to a power system and can be used for centralized heat and heat and power, mainly consumers domestic sphere.

Known methods and systems (equipment) district heating domestic consumers, including processing - the burning of any fuel in boilers that are built residential houses, industrial buildings and structures, or in the heating boiler, placed in the immediate vicinity of heat energy consumers (residential districts and so on) [1].

However, the efficiency of the internal energy of the fuel consumption and environmental friendliness of the production of heat, especially when used as a primary source of energy solid fuel of low quality in General remains very low, and operating costs are quite high.

Closest to the proposed invention is a method for the combined production and delivery to consumers and heat, and electrical energy using complexes of steam equipment talose is giving equipment CHP direct thermodynamic power conversion cycle, in the upper part of the temperature range is used to produce electrical energy, and then fully or partially exhaust the water vapor as an intermediate energy carrier (working body direct thermodynamic cycle) serves for district heating or other consumers of low-grade heat [2].

However, the heat from combined heat and power plants requires not only a large initial capital cost of construction of the power plant, but also due to the necessity of laying (construction) and expensive operation sufficiently long and extensive heat networks, which lost a noticeable share of heat in the process of its transmission and distribution to consumers in the form of inevitable losses in the surrounding space. In addition, in thermodynamic terms, this process is not economical, because in themselves CHP significant fraction of the internal energy of the processed fuel must be dissipated as waste heat in the circuit of water vapor condensation, which is an intermediate energy carrier - a working body in the implementation of CHP direct thermodynamic cycle into and ecological purity of the centralized heat and power, and by a more complete conversion of internal energy in the low-potential heat consumers and reduce losses during delivery and distribution.

This object is achieved in that in the way of centralized heat and power, involving the processing - fuel combustion and implementation of direct thermodynamic power conversion cycle, simultaneously engaged in forward and reverse thermodynamic cycle energy conversion, high temperature products of combustion is converted into a direct thermodynamic cycle into mechanical or electrical energy, which is then served on the implementation of the reverse thermodynamic cycle, and for vaporization in the last use waste heat from the path of direct condensation of steam thermodynamic cycle.

The problem is solved also by the fact that the complex of equipment for centralized heat and power, containing the path of steam equipment to burn fuel and produce mechanical or electrical energy circulation loop condensation of the working fluid, the heating system and the consumers of low-grade thermal energy, provided with at least one heat pump in the secondary circuit, including the input heat exchanger, the compressor, the output heat exchanger and the reactor or turbine, the input heat exchanger included in clucene consumers low-grade thermal energy.

The proposed method and equipment illustrated by the illustration shown in Fig. 1 - 7.

In Fig. 1 presents the proposed scheme is the simplest, so-called single-stage district heating system of one group relative to isolated consumers remote from the boiler at a fairly similar in terms of warmth transport distance from the inlet in a reverse thermodynamic cycle of the mechanical energy obtained with the aid of a steam turbine in direct thermodynamic cycle. In Fig. 1 shows: 1, 2 - heating boiler; 3 - group (aggregate) consumer of thermal energy; 4 - pipe heating; 5, 6 - steam boiler with a water economizer; 7 - feeding pump; 8, 9 - cumulative-compensating tank; 10 - steam turbine; 16 (11) - compressor; 12 - condenser; 13 - circulation pump; 14 - tank circulating water; 15 - input heat exchanger of the heat pump; 17 - output heat exchanger of the heat pump; 18 - expansion valve (choke) or turbine; 19 - feed (feed) pump consumers and 20 - heat network devices consumers.

In Fig. 2 is a diagram of a single-stage district heating systems with and denoted by the same objects, that, and Fig. 1.

In Fig. 3 presents a diagram of the proposed multi-stage system of centralized heat and power, and a large number of consumers, where is depicted and denoted by respectively the same elements of the system are the same digital positions, as in Fig. 1, 2, except for the following minor differences. Position 1 in Fig. 3 is indicated a conventional thermal power plant (TPP), positions 21- 2ndesignated group of heat exchange points, which is their purpose as would a similar heating boiler 1, 2 (Fig. 1, 2). In addition, cumulative-compensating reservoir, marked in Fig. 1, 2 positions 8, 9, Fig. 3 shows in the form of two separate tanks, namely: 8 - drive make-up water and 9 - drain tank intermediate stages of the steam turbine. Finally the position 11 in Fig. 3 indicate an electric generator mounted on the same shaft with a steam turbine, respectively, which positions 161- 16nthis figure marked a heat pump compressors.

In Fig. 4 - 7 show embodiments of the method and the proposed complex equipment with certain specific features and private requirements marked with the same elements objects, respectively, as in Fig. 1-3.

The proposed method can be implemented by a different main routes and is as follows.

Example 1. You may want to provide district heating to a relatively small group of consumers of heat energy just as is done with conventional heating boiler located in residential neighborhoods, providing significant improvements in economic efficiency and environmental friendliness of the production. For this purpose, in accordance with the proposed method of heating boiler, indicated conventionally by the numbers 1, 2 (Fig. 1) as usual, and connect with the consumer group 3 pipeline heating, 4, with forward and reverse pipelines.

The building has a boiler 1, 2 set the steam circuit of the power equipment connected in the usual manner and intended for processing-the combustion of any fuel. Steam power equipment includes steam boiler 5 with a water economizer 6, pump 7, the drive make-up water and drain the tanks 8, 9 (represented by one rectangle), and steam turbine 10. However, to output vallance, and the compressor, for example, screw-type, indicated conventionally by a set of figures 16 (11), which is one of the main elements of the heat pump. In addition, in the boiler 1, 2 set the condenser 12, the circulation pump 13 with the tank circulating water 14. As the last when required a sufficiently large heat capacity of the heating boiler 1, 2 must be used and one or another external source of circulating cooling water 14 (pond-cooler, cooling tower, etc).

Later in the boiler 1, 2 set the input heat exchanger 15, and directly on the object - set of consumers of heat 3 place the output heat exchanger 17, a closed circuit through the compressor 16 (11) and the valve 18 located in the boiler house, direct and return piping heating 4. When the compressor (16) 11 included in direct pipeline heating, and expansion valve 18 is included in the return pipe. Finally, the input Teploobmennik 15 heat pump connected to the outlet of the condenser 12 in the coolant water, and to the output heat exchanger 17 through the feed pump 19 is connected to the heat network devices 20 consumers of thermal energy 3.

For the given efficiency and generally described using steam power boiler perform a direct thermodynamic cycle conversion internal chemical energy of fuel into mechanical work - the rotation of the steam turbine 10, on the same shaft to which is mounted a compressor 16 (11), which is one of the main elements of the heat pump.

Further, since the coolant water 12 includes the input heat exchanger 15, the latter due to the waste heat loop condensation of water vapor due to heat transferred from the working fluid in the process of direct thermodynamic power conversion cycle is evaporation (evaporation) of the working fluid of a heat pump having a low boiling point, such as ammonia, carbonic acid, etc., So the steam is diverted from the heat exchanger 15 by the compressor 16 (11) and due to the mechanical energy of the steam turbine 10 is compressed. The temperature is raised to a specified level and it is delivered by direct pipeline heating 4 to the output heat exchanger 17, which from this working body warmth selects and she feed pump 19 is sent to the heat network devices consumer 20, and the working fluid of the heat pump in the return line heating is returned to the boiler. After the expansion valve or turbine 18 pairs of this working fluid is condensed and routed back to the stage preopelooge power equipment direct thermodynamic power conversion cycle in the boiler room there is a simultaneous and reverse thermodynamic cycle using equipment heat pump device 15 - 16 (11) - 17 -18). At the same time the evaporation in the reverse cycle, and supply the external energy, is carried out directly from the direct thermodynamic cycle, namely at the stage of vaporization in the heat of the circulation path of water vapor condensation on the stage of compression of the working fluid in the form of mechanical energy from the steam turbine, i.e. from the stage of expansion of the working fluid direct thermodynamic cycle.

It should be emphasized that the effectiveness of direct thermodynamic power conversion cycle is, as you know, higher than the above temperature range in which it is carried out, in particular, the higher is the temperature at which the working body (in this case to water vapor) is supplied heat. Therefore, unlike the existing boiler house heat energy of the combustion products having a temperature of 1000oC and even more, and therefore has a sufficiently high energy, as the primary measure of the "health" of thermal energy is not lost useless, and in the most favorable energy is transformed into mechanical energy, which then enters the arr is of energy in it, as you know, is a great unit. Thus, the proposed so-called thermodynamic heating boiler provides the most economical and the most complete conversion of the fuel energy in low-grade heat required for household consumers, and thus increase economic efficiency and environmental friendliness of the district heating in General.

Example 2. It is known that in existing district heating systems one of the weakest links are the heating and heat networks. This is because, as with water and steam heating, heating at the same time are under the influence and elevated temperatures, and under positive pressure relative to the environment. These parameters in the General case are the higher, the large amount of heat must be supplied to heat consumers. Accordingly, with the increase of these parameters is increasingly growing and loss of heat in them, and the resulting defects here are like self-developing progressive in nature. The proposed method provides a new way to solve this serious problem that until plooy energy so far, that heat losses in heating 4 become invalid, regardless of how it is produced. Then according to the proposed method as before (example 1), in the heating process at the same time carry out the direct and inverse thermodynamic cycles of power conversion. However, on the shaft of the steam turbine set conventional electric generator 11, and the compressor 16, the output heat exchanger 17 and the expansion valve or turbine 18 are placed together at the end of the heating-4 - in the immediate vicinity of heat consumers 3. When the compressor 16 is additionally provided with a drive, which is connected to the electric generator 11 of the boiler 1, 2 using varying transmission line (Fig. 2, it is conventionally not shown).

As a result, in the boiler 1, 2, as in the previous example, with a high thermodynamic efficiency of the internal chemical energy of the fuel in the direct cycle is converted into electricity, which in this case, with the minimum loss is transferred to the location of the heat consumers 3, and the waste heat from the circulating loop water vapor condensation is collected by the input heat exchanger 15 heat on the I heat consumers 3 the energy of the direct thermodynamic cycle (from the boiler 1, 2) low-loss flows through two independent channels, namely in the form of heat with temperatures not much different from the ambient temperature by direct pipeline heating 4 and in the form of electrical energy over the air or cable lines. Directly from consumers both energy with high thermodynamic efficiency equipment reverse thermodynamic cycle heat pump (heat exchanger 15 to the compressor with the electric motor 16 to the heat exchanger 17 - expansion valve or turbine 18, Fig. 2) turn into a low-potential heat consumers 3. The consequence of this implementation of the reverse thermodynamic cycle and is shown in Fig. 2 equipment location heat pump is the fact that the pipelines of heating 4 are performed not only at a much lower bandwidth warm and have a temperature close to ambient temperature, but constantly are not under pressure, and have a depression created by the compressor 16.

Therefore, the operational reliability of heating 4 in this case is significantly increased, while the need arises to use etiologi the working fluid (gas or liquid), having a low boiling point. The very same boiler 1, 2 turns actually in thermal power station.

It should also be emphasized that in both the examples, the implementation of method complexity and capital equipment of the boiler 1, 2 is substantially increased. However, higher efficiency primary energy source - fuel, reducing heat losses in the heat, up to 10-15% and even more, increasing the reliability of district heating consumers ultimately will quickly recoup the corresponding increase in capital expenditures.

Considered in examples 1, 2 systems that implement the proposed method in comparison with district heating from a conventional boiler plants are, as noted earlier, protozoa (conventionally called) single-stage systems. They certainly have not only the importance of self-importance, but being in something even fundamentally different from each other, creating essentially a new Foundation to build a relatively large, high-efficiency, so-called multi-stage (from the point of view of the process is relevant for the example implementation of the proposed method.

Example 3. You may want to create a highly effective system of centralized heat and power, and for quite a large city, the population of districts or small towns and villages, scattered and distant from each other from the point of view of the transport of thermal energy at considerable distances. According to the proposed method solves this problem by using so-called multi-stage system of centralized heat and power, technological scheme of which is shown in Fig. 3. The system includes a Central thermal power station (TPS) 1, the location of which is chosen on the basis of providing the most suitable conditions of work first of all the stations and on the basis, in particular, minimizing the cost of delivery and storage of fuel reserves, such as coal. It is clear that the latter will occur when the coal will be processed only in one place. At the selected location construct powerful enough thermal power plant (TPP) 1 (Fig. 3), which is actually described in example 2 (Fig. 2) thermodynamic boiler, generating direct thermodynamic cycle energy and nitrosoamines location of groups of consumers of thermal energy 31- 3nequip Central (group) heat exchanger paragraphs 21- 2nthat connect individually with TPP 1 group by heating 41- 4n.

The drain pipe (channel) circulation cooling water circuit exhaust condensation of water vapor on thermal power plants are in the form of n parallel branches of piping (according to the number n of separate groups of consumers of heat energy), each of which set (include) input heat exchanger 151- 15nthe heat pumps. On each of 21-2ngroup of heat transfer points place the compressors 161- 16nwith the actuators, the output heat exchangers 171-17nand the expansion valve (choke) or turbine 181-18nthat are respectively coupled with the input heat exchanger 151- 15nform n schemes of heat pumps. To the group of heat exchanger paragraphs 21- 2nthrough the supply pump 191- 19nconnect respectively the group of consumers of thermal energy 31- 3nwith these or other networks, heating and other heat appliances. Electric compressors 161- 16nin typically the Torah 11 Central TPP 1.

The entire energy technological equipment of this system of centralized heat and power, and is almost identical to the one set forth in example 1 and in particular to the statement of example 2. However, it is worth stressing that in purely spatial terms there is not two, but three distinct hierarchical levels of production, delivery and distribution of thermal energy in various stages, starting from the stage of processing-burning primary source of energy fuel. The first level is the level of the Central TPP, the second level is the level of the group of heat exchanger paragraphs 21-2nand the third level - heat appliances consumer groups 31- 3nThe presence of these three levels and allows, in fact, be attributed to the system of centralized heat and power, and to multi-class. It is clear that the system in the above examples 1, 2, conventionally called single-stage, have only two levels, since the first and second, and second and third levels in the specified sense, how would coincide, shifting in one direction or another.

Further, in comparison with the existing combined heat and power plants (CHP) in Predela energy conversion, what gives rise to attribute them to a new class, let's call conventionally, the class of thermodynamic heat (ttac) by analogy with those used in examples 1, 2 the term "thermodynamic boiler room". The validity of this emphasis is quite obvious, because the existing heating boilers thermodynamic cycles as a circular process with one or another working fluid to obtain a particular energy (mechanical or electrical), in contrast to the offer, are not used. The proposed method of centralized heat and power, and allows a number of other ways of its implementation, discussed below.

Example 4. You may want to provide district heating consumer groups in terms of when the shipping and processing-fuel combustion in the zone immediately adjacent to the location of heat consumers are undesirable or simply unacceptable, for whatever reasons. Then according to the proposed method direct thermodynamic cycle conversion internal energy of the fuel is carried out far beyond the limits of this zone, and to the boiler 1, 2 (Fig. 4, and down the line on which electric El, performed in the heat transfer point of the boiler. In the past as an energy source input heat exchanger of the heat pump can be used electric heater type "Titan" identified by conventional position 22 fed from the same electrical network (Fig. 4, a) or, as in examples 1-3, the actual input heat exchanger, if there is any external source (Fig. 4, b) low-grade heat (river, well, waste heat of any process, and so on).

Finally, if there is a possibility of recycling-incineration of a relatively small quantity of fuel as a primary energy source, the input heat exchanger of the heat pump perform in the form of a heater-evaporator of the low-boiling working fluid used in the reverse thermodynamic cycle (Fig. 4). Work on the compression of the vapor of the working fluid in all of these cases is carried out by the compressor due to the electrical energy received from the network. Otherwise, implementation of the proposed method and operation of the equipment used are the same as in the previous examples.

As follows from the above, ensuring effective is sportimage heat to consumers by pipe network 4, special liquid or gas with a low temperature of vaporization (boiling) and acceptable performance characteristics (high heat of vaporization, low cost, inert, harmless, and so on). The most preferred would be the use of volatile liquids (e.g., ethylchloride C2H2Cl with a boiling point of 12.5oC), which are practically harmless, do not form explosive mixtures with air and does not react with metals.

You can also use other cooling fluids (ammonia, methylamine, ethylene oxide, and so on), the temperature of vaporization which is in a particular temperature range, both negative and positive temperatures Celsius, and freons, which are now very widely used in refrigeration. However, the use of water domestic heating fundamentally new coolant will require, of course, a certain period of time, improve their operations, quality of materials etc., However, the proposed method allows a number of implementations discussed below, although, perhaps, with some loss of efficiency, in the framework of the centralized heat supply, that is, without using any special coolant.

Example 5. The simplest example of such an implementation of the proposed method is when all the equipment heat pump (input heat exchanger compressor - output heat exchanger throttle valve) is concentrated in the boiler 1, 2 (Fig. 5), and consumers 3 are connected to the output heat exchanger directly, but through the heating pipe 4. In fact, in this case the proposed district heating system differs from existing only by the fact that the boiler room is not as usual, and is more complex thermodynamic, because it is not just fuel combustion, and is the simultaneous flow of forward and reverse thermodynamic cycles of power conversion with all the ensuing consequences (examples 1, 2). However, this is the simplest implementation of the method proposed district heating is not possible to achieve improved performance and thermal networks, which was mentioned earlier. In particular, the heat loss in the heat will be virtually unchanged since heat is transported exactly as is and has proposed a way of centralized heat and power, provide however a number of other high-performance implementations and examples of building heating systems, discussed below, which eliminates the need to use special heat working phone

Example 6. Let the consumers of heat energy 3 removed from the boiler 1, 2 significant under the terms of warmth transport distance, due to the fact that heat losses in heating 4 become unacceptable. Then the proposed method and equipment are implemented as shown in Fig. 6. Equipment heat pump is also installed (linked) in a fully concentrated form, but a heat pump is installed in the immediate vicinity of heat consumers 3. Energy to the heat pump, as in example 2 (Fig. 2), it also offers two independent channels, namely by heating 4 and transmission lines. However, by heating 4 to consumers 3 from the direct thermodynamic cycle (from the boiler) energy heat serves not using a special working body, and due to the circulation of normal cooling water circuit water vapor condensation thermodynamic boiler 1, 2. This is achieved by the fact that the input heat exchange is howl an energy of 3 and is enabled using the heating pipelines 4 in the circulation path of cooling water for condensing water vapor boiler. Therefore, as in the above examples 1-4, the location of heat consumers 3 from the boiler 1, 2 is very low-grade waste heat from direct thermodynamic cycle, and therefore have negligible heat losses in heating. In this case, as required, it is necessary to use special low-boiling working body simply does not occur, and the heating pipe 4 is actually no different from a regular mains existing systems Central water heating.

A similar scheme is being considered positions, as shown in Fig. 7, and has a multi-stage system of centralized heat and power (system type "thermodynamic heat" - ttac) that implements the proposed method and equipment. Here, by analogy with the last case all the elements of heat pumps installed concentrated in the group of heat exchanger paragraphs 21-2nand their input exchangers 151- 15npipelines group of heating 41- 4nincluded in the circulation path of cooling water for condensation of water vapor on the Central thermal power station (Teratoma (low-grade) cooling water, and the special working body with low temperature steam - boiling is used only in the fully closed and sealed heat pump systems.

It should however be emphasized again that the use of a special working fluids for the transport of heat by heating 4 (examples 1-4) is the most promising, because, as previously noted, can be enhanced operational reliability of heating and minimized energy costs for pumping the coolant.

Offer a range of equipment centralized heat and power, and for the implementation of the described method includes the contour of steam power, arranged in the boiler plant 1, 2 (Fig. 1, 2) or in a Central thermal power station 1 (Fig. 3, 7), equipped with heat pumps that heat 4 are connected with relatively distinct groups of consumers of thermal energy 3 or other suitable integrated in the structure of one or another of the district heating system (Fig. 4-6). Steam power complex has a common structure and layout as the main elements includes ProEngineer 12, the circulation pump 13 and the cooling pond or cooling tower 14 (Fig. 1, 2).

Heat pumps are made in the form of the input heat exchanger 15 and the output of the heat exchangers 17, closed through the compressor 16 and expansion valve or turbine 18 direct and return piping mains 4, respectively. The input heat 15 heat pumps included in the circulation path of cooling water for condensing water vapor heating boilers 1, 2 (Fig. 1, 2, 5, 6) or Central TPP (Fig. 3, 7), or made some other appropriate under the terms of the implementation of the reverse thermodynamic power conversion cycle follows (Fig. 4), for example in the form of electrical immersion heaters type "Titan".

Weekend heat 18 heat pumps installed directly from the consumers of heat energy, and their output is connected via a supply pump 19 network heat of the heating devices 20.

The compressor 16 is connected to the output shaft of the steam turbine 10 (Fig. 1) or have the drive and connected to the electrical generator 11 steam turbine (Fig. 2, 3). Set the compressor 16 in the boiler 1, 2 (Fig. 1) or in group heat exchanger (Fig. 3, 7). Input Teploobmennik or in one of the combinations on one or the other end of the heating pipes 4, connecting in a closed loop in the latter case, direct and reverse pipelines of heating.

Operation of the proposed equipment for centralized heat and power, that implements the above method, described in detail previously (examples 1-6) and further explanation is not required.

In General, the practical implementation in one form or another of the proposed method and complex equipment provides better utilization for heat generation internal (chemical) energy consumption (source of energy), reducing power losses, as in the production of heat and electricity, and in the process of delivery and distribution of heat consumers. All this creates opportunities for a substantial increase of economic efficiency, environmental friendliness and reliability of centralized heat and power, and, as a relatively small and isolated, and a fairly large regional consumer groups.

Literature

1. Heating and ventilation, 2nd ed., part 1. M.: Stroiizdat. 1965, S. 380.

2. Energy of the USSR in the period 1986-1990. Ed. by A. A. Trinity. M, Energoatomizdat. 1987, S. 127-156 (prototype).

1. The way centralizing cycle energy conversion, characterized in that simultaneously carry out the direct and inverse thermodynamic cycles of power conversion, high temperature products of combustion is converted into a direct thermodynamic cycle into mechanical or electrical energy, which is then served on the implementation of the reverse thermodynamic cycle, and for vaporization in the last use waste heat from the path of direct condensation of steam thermodynamic cycle.

2. Complex equipment for district heating circuit containing steam equipment to burn fuel and produce mechanical or electrical energy circulation loop condensation of the working fluid, the heating system and the consumers of low-grade thermal energy, characterized in that the complex is equipped with at least one heat pump in the secondary circuit, including the input heat exchanger, the compressor, the output heat exchanger and the reactor or turbine, the input heat exchanger included in the circulation loop condensation of the working fluid steam equipment, and to the output heat exchanger connected consumers low-grade thermal energy.

3. Complex p. 1, oterom.

4. Complex p. 1, characterized in that the heating is placed between the input heat exchanger and the compressor and the reactor or turbine.

5. Complex p. 1, characterized in that the heating is placed between the output of the heat exchanger and the heat consumer.

6. Complex p. 1, characterized in that the heating is placed between the input coil and the circuit condensation of the working fluid.

 

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6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: ventilation.

SUBSTANCE: wall split air conditioner has a binary compressor consisting of an electric motor with a shaft and mechanical transmissions installed on its ends in the form of crankshafts, a piston compressor and a pneumatic actuator with a possibility of operation in anti-phase mode, and bypass valve system which is implemented in the form of cylindrical housing electric motor installed on a shaft with the bypass branch pipes rowed on its surface and along the longitudinal axis, one of end branch pipes is interconnected with the heating air heat exchanger, another end one - with the cooling air heat exchanger, and the middle branch pipe is interconnected with the pneumatic actuator. On the electric motor shaft the bushing is installed with a possibility of rotation which has cross grooves arranged symmetrically with reference to the longitudinal axis of the bushing and shifted with reference to each other with a possibility of bypass of working reagent for providing of operation of the piston compressor and the pneumatic actuator in anti-phase mode.

EFFECT: consumption decrease and design simplification.

3 dwg

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