The polymerization reactor

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to equipment for carrying out continuous chemical processes, in particular for reactors of the polymerization in solution and the material for thermoplastic high-molecular compounds of the optical destination. The polymerization reactor contains arranged one above the other and United by a Central pipe with two cameras, one of which is made in the form of a vertical cylindrical body with a bottom with a discharge pipe and a shirt with a socket for input and output of fluid and a nozzle for supplying reagents. The bottom chamber of the reactor is pear-shaped, narrowed part of which is located a partition with a hole for the stirrer. Over the wall is the final fitting, and under the wall - socket for sensor viscosity. The mixer passes through all the chambers, the upper part of the agitator in the upper chamber is a tube, inside which is placed the axis of the actuator, causing the stirrer in motion. Part of the mixer, located in the upper and lower chambers have blades for mixing, as part of the agitator, located in the Central pipe and the constricted portion of the lower chamber made in the form of the screw. The stirrer as the x cameras. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to equipment for carrying out continuous chemical processes, in particular for reactors of the polymerization in solution and the material for thermoplastic high-molecular compounds of the optical destination.

Thermoplastic high-purity polymers used to produce the polymer optical fibres, lenses, optical connectors and splitters, etc.

The polymerization reactors can be of two types: the reactor mixing and reactor eviction.

Reactors displacement are tubular with straight and spiral shape of a tube or column type cylindrical or spherical shape, heated electric coil or liquid coolant (Butakov A. A., Maksimov, E. I., 5th all-Union conference on modelling of chemical processes "chemical reactors-5", Ufa, so 3, S. 14, 1974).

The disadvantages of reactors of this type is the heterogeneity of the obtained polymer, a high content of dimers, "breakdown" of the reactor and low productivity.

The reactor mixture are varied in design, vertical and horizontal vessels, equipped with various peremeshivanii. 895). Use mixers with Salnikov seal leads to additional pollution mechanical trace.

The aim of the invention is to protect the reaction mixture from dirt and intensification of the polymerization process.

For this purpose it is necessary to use advantages of reactors displacement and reactor mixing.

Closest to the proposed invention is a polymerization reactor containing spaced one above the other and United by a Central pipe with two cameras, each of which is made in the form of a vertical cylindrical body with a shirt and bottom with a socket for input and output of fluid and a nozzle for supplying reagents and concentric coil carrier located coaxially inside the housing (EN 2085281 C1, 27.07.1997).

The disadvantages of this invention is the inability to achieve the necessary degree of conversion of monomer during polymerization in mass due to the short path of movement of the reaction mass in the reactor, a high content of dimers in the polymer due to the oscillatory nature of the achievement of steady state process may exit the reaction zone of the reactor, the inability ispolzovanie located one above the other and United by a Central pipe with two cameras, one of which is made in the form of a vertical cylindrical body with a bottom with a discharge pipe and a shirt with a socket for input and output of fluid and a nozzle for supplying reagents made with the lower chamber, which is pear-shaped, narrowed part of which is located a partition with a hole for the mixer, and on the wall is the final fitting, and under the wall-socket for sensor viscosity, and the reactor has one mixer, passing through all the chambers, consisting of several parts, the upper part of the agitator in the upper chamber is a tube, inside which is placed the drive spindle, leading the stirrer in motion, and part of the mixer, located in the upper and lower chambers have blades for mixing, as part of the agitator, located in the Central pipe and the constricted portion of the lower chamber made in the form of a screw, while the stirrer is rigidly center with a bearing located after fitting the sensor viscosity. In addition, the reactor can have a modular design and can contain more than two cameras. The number of cells (modules) depends on the desired performance of the reactor and can reach several tens. The reactor can the learn the described reactor, consisting of two chambers arranged vertically one above the other and connected by a Central pipe through which coaxially relative to each camera passes stirrer, and according to the invention, the mixer has a complex configuration and consists of several parts. The top is a cylindrical hollow tube, connected with a protruding from the cover axis of the actuator. Part of the agitator, which passes through the Central pipe, made in the form of the screw, then the mixer passes through the lower chamber, and this part of the agitator has a blade the same configuration as the agitator top of the camera.

The presence of several cameras in the polymerization apparatus with a sensor to determine the viscosity of the reaction mass and is coaxially located stirrer allows uniform supply and removal of heat exothermic reactions and facilitate the process in a hospital. The introduction of the initiator and regulator in the polymerization process in each of the chambers allows to support the conversion of monomer at an optimal level.

The device and the action of the polymerization reactor can be understood from the drawing, which schematically shows a reactor section, and the following OPI the head pipe 3. Each of the chambers are made in the form of a vertical cylinder, with the camera 1 has a heat-exchange jacket 4 with fittings for input 5 and output 6 of the coolant, and the camera 2 has a heat-exchange jacket 7 with fittings for input 8 and output 9 of the heat carrier. The reactor has a vertically disposed agitator 10, the cover 11 with the nozzle 12 for supplying inert gas, which is located inside the false cover 13 and a nozzle 14 for supplying reagents, and at the end of the fitting 14 is the distributor 15 reagents, located at the level of the lower edge of the false cover 13, the fitting 16 for additional submission of the initiator and regulator of the molecular weight, the discharge pipe 17 to output the prepolymer with a closing valve 18 and pipe 19 with the valve 20, the viscosity sensor 21, the pressure sensors 22 and 23, the temperature sensors 24 and 25.

The mixer 10 includes an upper portion 26 in the form of a hollow tube within which is located the axis 27 of the drive with the gasket 28, and the upper part of the agitator is in the chamber 1 and is provided with blades 29. Part of the agitator 30 passes through the Central pipe 3, and is made in the form of the screw, the part of the agitator 31 located in the chamber 2 has a blade 32, bottom 33 is unloading auger, which is located in the constricted part cat part of the mixer 33 in the form of a screw, and in the compartment 35 is part of the agitator 37 without screw cutting and bearing 38, which is rigidly centers mixer 10. The partition wall 36 forms a part of the stirrer 37 is a narrow gap, which limits the movement of the polymer mass.

The reactor is designed to perform the polymerization in bulk or solvent and works as follows.

Through the pipe 14 and the valve 15 in the camera 1 with closed valves 18 and 20 download the prepared reaction mixture, representing the monomer with the addition of the initiator and regulator of the molecular weight. The reaction mixture fills the camera 1 2/3 height, and the camera 2 completely.

Heating of the reactor are using the heat transfer shirts 4 and 7 with a closed pipe 14 in the inert atmosphere conditions. When the temperature of decomposition of the polymerization initiator is emitting heat and control process carried out by the viscosity of the prepolymer with the help of the sensor 21, periodically opening the valve 20. Upon reaching the desired viscosity open the control valves 18 and 20 and the start time of the prepolymer in a continuous mode. The prepolymer by pipe 17 to the extruder. The pipe 17 is connected with the vacuum zone of the extruder, where the destruction of ostatok removal of microparticles, which are formed when the bearing 38, and the amount of prepolymer does not exceed 0.5% of the total mass.

If necessary, through the fitting 16 enter the additional amount of initiator and regulator of the molecular weight, which contributes to the depolymerization of the prepolymer. Thanks to the additional amount of initiator and regulator of the molecular weight in the reactor reaches a high degree of conversion. Sustainable modes of curing support regulation of heat transfer and output product desired viscosity of the reactor.

In the reactor, polymerization carried out the synthesis of polymers by radical mechanism in the bulk and in solution in an atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, helium with a high degree of conversion. The reactor allows for the design to obtain highly pure polymer and to increase the productivity by increasing the number of cameras that allows to use it in industrial production.

1. The polymerization reactor containing the located one above the other and United by a Central pipe with two cameras, one of which is made in the form of a vertical cylindrical body with a bottom with a discharge pipe and a shirt with a socket for input and output coolant military part of which is located a partition with a hole for mixer and on the wall is the final fitting, and under the bulkhead fitting for the sensor viscosity, and the reactor has a stirrer, passing through all the chambers, consisting of several parts, the upper part of the agitator in the upper chamber is a tube, inside which is placed the axis of the actuator, causing the stirrer in motion, and part of the mixer, located in the upper and lower chambers have blades for mixing, as part of the agitator, located in the Central pipe and the constricted portion of the lower chamber made in the form of a screw, while the stirrer is rigidly center with a bearing located after fitting the sensor viscosity.

2. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that it has a modular construction and includes an additional camera.

 

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