Casings

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to food industry, in particular to the technology of production of sausage casings and resource-saving technologies of production of healthy food products with extended shelf life while using it. Casings are obtained by the manufacture of wood forming the raw material mixture containing collagen or viscose mass and subsequent drying. The resulting workpiece is treated with antimicrobial agent, which is an aqueous solution of dehydracetic acid, or sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, or mixtures thereof, which additionally contains sodium benzoate, or sodium citrate in the amount of 2-6%, and the processing of the workpiece is carried out in one or two stages by soaking in the antimicrobial agent or by spraying or immersion in it filled with minced meat preparations. Preferably the antimicrobial agent contains sodium salt dehydracetic acid in the amount of 0.25 to 5%, or dehydrator acid in the amount of 0.5-5%, or a mixture of dehydracetic acid and its sodium salt in their total content in the solution of 0.25-5%. As salts of sorbic, benzoic, propionic, citric acid magnoli irrigation filled with minced meat preparations carried out in the first stage, the above formulation, and at the second stage, if necessary, in a concentrated salt solution with a content of from 10 % to saturated, optionally containing 0.5-2% sodium salt of dehydracetic acid. Soaking the workpiece is carried out for 3-40 minutes at a temperature of antimicrobial drugs is not below 15C. the result casings, providing the most complete and long-term retention of the original properties into the product. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table.

The invention relates to food industry, in particular, to the technology of production of sausage casings and resource-saving technologies of production of healthy food products with extended shelf life when using it, which is achieved by obtaining membranes with special properties, warning damage to the products and provide the most complete and long-term preservation of its original properties.

It is known that at the present time in the manufacture of meat products, in particular sausages, sausages, used traditionally sausage casings of protein or viscose material. The resulting product is used as a material of the workpiece in the manufacture of sausages, the sausage is nedosmotreli ND for each type of sausages and sausage products.

In particular, in the production of cooked sausages, produced according to GOST 23670-79 "Sausages, hot dogs and sausages. Bread meat", the basic operations are the following:

- roasting procurement with minced meat in the form of sticks of sausage (the temperature of 50-120oC, time: 60-100 minutes depending on the type of sausage;

- cooking (temperature 75oC - 85oC, time 60-180 minutes);

- cooling of the loaves with cold air or cold water shower and subsequent storage of products at the 8oC for 48-72 hours depending on the type of product. (L. P. Lavrov, In. A. Krylov. Technology sausages. - M the Food industry, 1975, S. 343.; N. A. The horns. Technology of meat and meat products //Textbook for University students. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1988, S. 575).

The basic technological operations on obtaining procurement sausage casings are preparing the raw materials supply, filtering, molding prepared by mass, drying, cutting and packaging.

Additional characteristics (increase of deformation and strength characteristics, reduction of swelling of the material in water) to give the tanning, and this operation is mainly carried out at the stage of preparation of raw mass (L. Antipova Century, Glotova I. A. fundamentals of judging. the other protein Production of sausage casings. - M: Light and food industry, 1981 - 144 S. Handbook technologist sausage production /I. A. Rogov, A. A., subasta, B. E. Gutnik and others-M.: Kolos, 1993. S. 431).

It is also known that the actual problem in the technology of sausage products is to protect from microbial surface spoilage and extending shelf life (implementation while maintaining their quality).

One of the main reasons for the decrease in quality and nutritional value of meat products is the defeat of their surface mold fungi, yeasts and other toxinogenesis products that are harmful to human health. Contaminating microorganisms not only worsen the appearance of products, reduce its taste, cause changes in proteins and fats, but also due to the ability to produce a variety of toxins can cause food poisoning, dysbacteriosis, allergic reactions, metabolic disorders in humans. In addition, many species of mold even at low temperatures storage form mycotoxins, which penetrate into the product; removing the mold from its surface does not exclude the presence of hazardous metabolites. (C. M. Gorbatov. M. P. Agan. New Is P, 1990 - 32 S.; D. Director, X. Saupe, M. Schreiter. Microbiology of animal products. - M. : Agropromizdat, 1985. S. 592; M. S. Sidorov, R. P. Cornelia. Microbiology of meat and meat products. M.: Kolos, 1996, S. 234).

It is also known that one of the most effective methods of protection of sausages from the surface destruction by unwanted microorganisms, predominantly mold fungi and yeast, is giving the harvesting of antimicrobial activity at the preparation stage, to fill stuffing or special treatment of the surface after filling with stuffing and passing the above operations for the production of sausage products. The treatment is carried out with special chemical preservatives, antibiotics with a view to their distribution on the surface of the workpiece and make it antimicrobial activity.

For this purpose, use organic and food acids, their salts, volatile, and the workpiece is soaked in their solutions, for example, in a 0.25% aqueous solution of the antibiotic pimaricin (drug Delvocid) or process the workpiece, filled with minced meat and past certain manufacturing operations by immersion in a solution of the drug; use for the purposes mentioned above Konz is Oli, a mixture of antibiotic pimaricin and salt (C. Y. Belov, V. C. Vagin, L. C. Zimin, T. N. Kuznetsov, S. C. Nacalai, A. N. Shankerman. The use of drugs that prevent plesnevelae product in the production of smoked sausage. - M.: institution, 1990, S. 27.)

The proposed solutions have provided some reduction in lesions with/to sausage undesirable microflora, however, a single treatment is not preserved sausage from mold or yeast plaque at the first stage of drying sausages (up to 5-7 days).

It is also known that additional antimicrobial properties attached by two workpieces, namely by soaking in a solution of antimicrobial agent before filling in the blanks with stuffing on the stage "training", and then on the second stage of its process by immersing the finished product in an aqueous solution or aqueous suspension of antimicrobial drugs; as a final use of multicomponent water-alcohol solution of piperine and asikuma-biologically-active natural substances isolated from plant extracts, and mixtures thereof; adding to such a composition of 10% vol. dissolved in alcohol vegetable oil lowers the volatility of the solvent and sposobstvuet the local use of two-stage processing of the workpiece and sausage products using as antibacterial agents - based antibiotics pimaricin (drug Delvocid"), nisin.

However, although the above compositions and method of their use give the harvesting and production in General sufficient antimicrobial properties, but they are complex in structure and require specific and expensive ingredients, hygienic and medical conditions in recent times due to the sharp increase of allergic diseases to use antibiotics in direct contact with the food surface is impractical.

It is known that to increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs it many times put on a securable object (RF Patent N 95119476 priority 22.06.93 publ. 10.08.97, BI N 23 the Way of protection sausage long term storage of mould").

The essence of it: the workpiece sausage casings treated with an aqueous solution of the sorbate sodium in two stages, the first stage by soaking or immersion during its preparation or by spraying or immersion of the workpiece, filled with sausage meat. Re-treatment is carried out in 8-10 days after the first, by spraying or dipping bread.

When soaking or immersing the workpieces in the first stage we use 8% to the provides about making the harvesting of certain antimicrobial properties (first stage) and maintaining them during the production cycle the sausages and storage (implementation). However, it has disadvantages. Disadvantages it is the following:

- the use of large quantities of expensive components;

- negative impact of aqueous solutions of the solutes on the mechanical properties of processed them workpiece, resulting in an increase in the size of defects in the content processed 8%-governmental solutions sorbate sodium blanks when they are filled with minced meat or breakage filled with minced workpiece after processing 10%-governmental solutions sorbate sodium at the second stage;

- inadequate antimicrobial protection, including long-term storage, because the effect of sorbate sodium non-generic with respect to microorganisms that can accumulate on the membrane, and some of the species can persist (for example, some pathogenic bacteria).

It is also known that in recent years, dramatically increased the probability of hitting a food yeast due to re-contamination of the surface from the air, places of serum from the bakeries, which are available in many meat processing plants.

Set that to combat the yeast is advisable to use protective measures, the new tools of a wide spectrum of d is there (R. I., Ramanauskas, G. A. Alenaalena. On the evils of cheeses, caused by yeast.//Cheese making, - N 2, 1998, S. 19-20).

Therefore, developing new solutions must take into account the new situation at the present time.

However, although the above solutions and how to implement them give the harvesting and production in General, certain antimicrobial properties, but they are primarily designed to protect against fungi and pathogenic microflora and may not have a significant action in real conditions, when the surface of the product, the materials develop a whole "Union" of microorganisms, so-called biofilms (Karpen B., bond, A. C. L., Surf.About. Biofilms on the surface. J. Dairy industry, 1998, No. 3, S. 33-34).

Closest to the claimed is getting sausage casings by the manufacture of wood forming the raw material mixture of collagen or viscose mass, followed by drying (prototype) (monographs: L. C. Antipova, I. A. Glotov. Fundamentals of rational use of secondary raw material containing collagen in the meat industry. Voronezh, 1997, S. 102-109, 248 S.).

Receiving casings precedes the transformation of heterogeneous components and collegeboston the liming, within 30 days, then it is washed, sorted, crushed, by razvlechenie, picking mixture and cooling to obtain a homogeneous mass, which additionally before forming, the workpiece is filtered and Gutermuth, for which the mass is passed through a special sieve filter press, and then maintained at a temperature of 11oC for 2-5 days to obtain a uniform composition and properties of the raw mix.

Then, the thus prepared raw material mixture on the basis of collagen (viscose) mass in the form of bundles sent to the moulding machine, from which it goes after molding in the form of a tube and fed to the drying, subsequent wound or cut into pieces if necessary.

Thus obtained preform is then used in the production of sausage products by filling stuffing, education sticks with meat and subsequent operations, provided technical documentation on the process of obtaining products in sausage casing.

Known and significant drawback of this sausage casings (prototype) is the lack of antimicrobial properties against undesirable microflora, KTA, causing food poisoning, infections.

The technical result of the claimed invention is a sausage casing with a guaranteed protection of sausage products obtained with its use, from the defeat of undesirable microflora wide range and receipt of sausages and sausage products with extended shelf life.

This is achieved by the fact that the casings are produced by the manufacture of wood forming the raw material mixture containing collagen or viscose mass, drying and processing of the received workpiece antimicrobial agent, which is an aqueous solution of dehydracetic acid, or sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, or mixtures thereof, which additionally contains sodium benzoate or sodium citrate in the amount of 2 - 6%, and the processing of the workpiece is carried out in one or two stages by soaking in the antimicrobial agent, or by spraying, or immersion in it filled with minced meat preparations.

Antimicrobial agent contains sodium salt dehydracetic acid in the amount of 0.25 to 5%, or dehydrator acid in the amount of 0.5-5%, or a mixture of sodium salts and dehydracetic acid at their total content in the solution of 0.25-5%. As a researcher is Oli.

Soaking the blank in the antimicrobial agent, or dive into it, or irrigation filled with minced meat preparations carried out at the first stage in the antimicrobial agent of the aforementioned formulations, and in the second stage, if necessary, in a concentrated solution of common salt content of salt from a saturated to 10%, optionally containing 0.5-2% sodium salt of dehydracetic acid.

Soaking the workpiece is carried out for 3-40 minutes at a temperature of antimicrobial agent not less than 15oC.

When this method of obtaining a sausage casing as the total product of the billet through its specially-microbial treatment results in an even distribution of the active substance sodium salt dehydracetic acid and dehydracetic acid and securing it into the workpiece, providing the final product with antimicrobial properties for long periods.

Sodium salt of dehydracetic acid has a bactericidal effect on fungi, yeast cells and bacteria that are present in the room and on the product surface. The combination of the sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, dehydracetic acid and shallow and prolonged action at fixing this complex in the layers of the workpiece. In addition, the combination of the sodium salt of dehydracetic acid with concentrated saturated solution of common salt can be directed to affect the structure of supramolecular structures containing collagen or viscose mass of the polymer components of the workpiece and provide it the fixing of the active substance (DV), which ensures that the new material with significant antimicrobial activity and minimal migration of the active ingredient of the sausage casing during its contact with water, sausage meat or modeling environments, and long persistence of antimicrobial activity of the shell in the real world.

For guaranteed and long-term preservation of these properties is additional processing of the workpiece after the filling stuffing, heat treatment and cooling, mainly cold water, aqueous solution of antimicrobial agent.

Below are examples of implementations of the claimed solution (table).

Example 1. In advance prepare the workpiece obtained by the molding of the raw material mixture, based on the collagen containing raw material, followed by drying. Stage forming sequentially carried out by the following operations: training is Tracie, cooling and subsequent molding on a special device in the form of a sleeve, drying, giving the commodity form.

In advance, prepare a solution containing 1.5 g of sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, 2.0 g of the sorbate sodium and 96.5 g of water, mix and soak in it procurement for 20 minutes at 15oC, then remove the material, allowed to stand for 1 minute to allow excess solution and transfer the workpiece to fill it with stuffing. Filling the blanks stuffing is performed on the syringe machine according to the standard modes. Privjazannye filled loaves hang on poles and frames subjected to upsetting for 3-5 days at a temperature of 4oC and relative humidity (873oC) and then carry out the treatment according to standard processing conditions for obtaining the sausages.

Example 2. Carried out as in example 1, characterized in that the solution for processing the workpiece is prepared by dissolving 1 g of sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, 0.5 g of dehydracetic acid and 3.0 g of sorbate sodium, with 95.5 g of water, the solution is stirred, and then soaked in it procurement for 20 minutes at room temperature. Then the workpiece is directed to the operation of filling with stuffing, and then the wire/P> Example 3. Is carried out according to examples 1 and 2, differs from them in that the solution for soaking the preform contains 2.0 g sodium benzoate.

Example 4. Is carried out according to examples 1, 2, 3, characterized in that the workpiece is processed in two stages: in the first stage, soaked for 20 minutes at a temperature of (15oC1oC) in an aqueous solution containing 1 g of sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, 0.5 g of dehydracetic acid, 3.0 g sodium benzoate, and then removed from this solution, maintain on it for 1-2 minutes to allow excess solution and then placed in an aqueous saturated solution of common salt, soaked it for 10 minutes, removed, allowed to drain the excess solution and guide the workpiece to fill it with stuffing recipes cooked sausages. Then carry out all the operations for the preparation of cooked sausages, provided documentation for this product.

Example 5. Provide examples of 1.3 differs in that the solution for processing the workpiece contains 2.0 g of sodium propionate, and preparation of the collagen mass is treated in two stages, first soaked in this solution for 30 minutes, and then fill in the blank with minced meat, prepared from filled with minced meat procurement loaves and process them within the acid and 88 g of water, then the thus treated loaves directed to undertake all operations required by the regulatory documentation for the production of smoked sausage.

Example 6. Carried out analogously to example 1, characterized in that use preparation of the viscose mass, and antimicrobial agent sodium sorbate enter in the amount of 2.0 g

Example 7. Carried out analogously to examples 1 and 2, characterized in that use preparation of the viscose mass, and then after the processed workpiece and filled with stuffing them further treated irrigation water solution obtained by dissolving in 89 g of water and 10 g of sodium chloride and 1 g of sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, and then processed loaves sent for processing in accordance with the technological documentation for the production of cooked sausages.

Example 8. Carried out as in example 1, characterized in that the solution for soaking the workpiece contains at 95.5 g of water, 1.5 g of sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, which is added 3.0 g of potassium sorbate.

After the completion of the technological cycle of production of sausages and storage of finished product samples for the stated examples of sploitation indicators obtained sausage casings; the summary data presented in the table.

Tasting the Commission found that all experienced sausages had normal levels, deviations in color, odor, taste, consistency of standards for a specific type of product not found. The surface experienced loaves brilliant, RAID fungistatic missing, salt and moisture in the product complies with regulatory requirements.

In all investigated test samples were no pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.

Analysis of the data presented in the table shows that the stated sausage casing receiving the expected technical result, but also gives the harvesting new signs - increased deformation-strength characteristics, very high antimicrobial activity against mold fungi, yeast, and this made the new sign sausage casings for a long time.

We found a nonadditive effect of increasing antimicrobial activity of compositions containing sodium salt of dehydracetic acid (dehydrator acid) and solutes sodium (benzoate, propionate), is connected, apparently, with the synergetic effect of the eat on the structure of the polymer component of shell, contributing to the conformational transition in the state, ensuring implementation of the necessary features of the proposed sausage casings. We also identified that, in addition to broadening the spectrum of antimicrobial action, from the workpieces to a decrease in the magnitude of broken shells on the stage fill them with stuffing.

1. Casings are obtained by the manufacture of wood forming the raw material mixture, followed by drying, characterized in that the quality of the raw mix use collagen or viscose mass, the obtained preparation is treated with antimicrobial agent, which is an aqueous solution of dehydracetic acid, or sodium salt of dehydracetic acid, or mixtures thereof, which additionally contains sodium benzoate, or sodium sorbate or sodium propionate or sodium citrate in the amount of 2 - 6%, moreover, the processing of the workpiece is carried out in one or two stages by soaking in the antimicrobial agent or by spraying or immersion in it filled with minced meat preparations.

2. Casings under item 1, wherein the antimicrobial agent includes sodium salt dehydracetic acid in the amount of 0.25 to 5%, or dehydrator content in a solution of 0.25 - 5%.

3. Sausage casing according to any one of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that the soaking of the workpiece is carried out for 3 to 40 minutes at a temperature of antimicrobial agent not less than 15oC.

4. Sausage casing according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the second processing step using an aqueous solution of table salt with its contents from saturated to 10%, or above a salt solution, optionally containing 0.5 to 3.0% of sodium salt of dehydracetic acid.

5. Sausage casing according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that salts of benzoic, sorbic, propionic acid use their potassium salt.

 

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