Converter

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a device for cleaning and decontamination of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines by catalytic conversion of toxic components of exhaust, different design of catalytic reactors. It allows to increase the reliability and efficiency of the Converter at his small size, simple design and low complexity of the manufacturing process. The Converter includes a housing with a catalytic unit. The longitudinal channels of the block is formed of corrugated and flat strips, the initial ends of which are welded to each other and to the rod. The tape is wound in a spiral around the rod, placed on the axis of the housing, and is fixed in the housing by a pin. The inner end of the pin is directed towards the axis. With the rod connected to the jumper attached to the casing. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to engine, in particular to devices for cleaning and decontamination of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines by catalytic conversion of toxic components of exhaust, different design of catalytic reactors.

Prior art

Shirokshina active catalytic layer, deposited on the inert body of the vehicle. The greatest distribution was received block and catalytic metal carriers.

Block ceramic substrates are sintered from a refractory ceramic material compact body, pierced by a large number of concurrent end-to-end channels. Block structure of the media significantly reduces the aerodynamic resistance as compared with equivalent efficiency of granular media, received a certain distribution in the catalyst of the previous generation ( Jahalin O. I., Lapaev P. D. Reduction of toxicity automobile engines. - Transport, 1985, S. 65).

Catalytic Converter with a cylindrical monolithic ceramic carrier is described, for example, in patent N 4115071 issued by the United States in 1978, this Converter provides made in the form of thin flat rings fixing elements fixing the carrier with the catalyst in a cylindrical casing in the axial direction due to the effect of the increased thermal and mechanical loads. In the issued U.S. patent N 4004887 used one elastic locking ring to compensate for differences in axial extension of the of materials, namely, low impact properties and heat conductivity, significantly reduce the reliability of the Converter and the catalytic effect. Therefore, a more promising catalysts with a metal carrier. One of these converters is described in application N 0121174 for the grant of the European patent. In this Converter the media, or the catalytic unit is made in the form of a cylindrical drum, consisting of alternating wound in a spiral smooth and corrugated thin metal sheets, the surface of which is covered with a thin layer of catalytically active material. When the internal combustion engine, especially on modes warm-up, acceleration and stopping, in the catalytic unit are very large local gradients of temperature accompanied by high thermal stresses and cause premature fatigue failure. To resolve this unit several through slits falls in the cross-section into several sectors or segments.

In converters of this type, in which the channels for supplying the exhaust gas formed is wound spirally corrugated and smooth steel linen is th "effect of film", or "telescoping effect", i.e. the extrusion of the Central area of the spiral block the flow of exhaust gases. This effect reduces the reliability and efficiency of the Converter. The proposal N 0121174 technical solution though and promotes reduction of the axial component of the pressure of exhaust gases, but not completely eliminates the above-mentioned effect. In addition, because of the presence of the unit end-to-end slits additionally decreases the efficiency of the catalytic purification of exhaust gases in it.

To prevent "telescoping effect" in converters of this type could be more efficient to technical solution proposed in the patent N 1452982 issued in 1976 in the UK. The catalytic unit according to this patent consists of alternating flat and corrugated strips of stainless steel, which is rolled in a roll or stacked in a pile. The outer edge of the rolled double-layer sheet is cut obliquely, so that when the longitudinal pressing in a steel sleeve roll crimped. Inside liners catalytic unit is fixed elastic petals or using wire mesh. In the known Converter is not only Ungogo flow in the channels of the catalytic unit, but the latter has a large size.

The increase in size of the catalytic unit takes place when using the technical solutions according to the European application N 0243952 priority from 1986 to the application filed in Finland, providing fixed to the ends of the axis, on which is wound a smooth and corrugated ribbon, end supports, preventing the displacement of the tape relative to each other, but causing thus a decrease in the cross-flow area for the gas flow.

The use of catalytic converters with increased dimensions is not always possible in terms of their placement, such as neutralizers, combined with small mufflers and exhaust designed in particular for mopeds, motorcycles, mini farm equipment.

To reduce the size of the catalytic unit with providing necessary rigidity in the technical solution, with priority from 1987, patented in many countries (for example, patents Finland N 78161, France N 2623244, USSR N 1837962) proposed after the formation of spiral block of corrugated and flat belts to pass through it at least one caliper or by forcing it h the ez block or pressing it into the drilled in the block hole prevents unwinding of the tape unit and rubbing them against each other, but ethnologica in the manufacture, it is possible deformation of the tape, the partial destruction of their catalytic coating and inevitable in this regard, reducing the efficiency of the Converter. Using a caliper, breakable through each cross-section unit, causes and increased thermal deformation of the block when the Converter due to increased heating sections of the caliper in the Central zone of the cross-section of the unit compared to its peripheral areas.

Varieties considered technical solutions can be considered technical solutions contained in the Federal Republic of Germany patent N2438092, patent N 4795616 issued by the United States, and others Use the calipers thin pins does not provide the desired effect to increase the rigidity of the block, and the use of calipers complex shape complicates the design and causes the increase of the aerodynamic resistance to gas flow.

Another known technical solution for the application N 4112354 filed in 1991 in Germany, is that to increase the rigidity of the catalytic unit comprising a package of smooth and corrugated sheets, each smooth and corrugated sheet has extended the in the housing and the shell drill the holes, that being, connecting the housing with the outer layers of the block. The disadvantage of neuralizer is the complexity of its design and the increasing complexity of manufacturing.

Among the known technical solutions aimed at addressing the "telescoping" effect in the catalytic blocks neutralizers, often this effect is trying to fix that or other fastening unit in the housing of the Converter on the ends using one or more clamping plates, a circular or noncircular cross section, spaced from one or both ends of the catalytic unit (see ed. mon. USSR N 1657684, the United Kingdom patent N 1591191, application N 0558064 on the grant of European patent and others ). However, the use of these technical solutions, especially those in which the mounting of jumpers with the case made by its forming, due to the increase of dimensions of the Converter, the complexity of its design, the increase in aerodynamic resistance to the flow of exhaust gases and reduce the efficiency of the work.

The same disadvantages inherent in the group neutralizers, created by Japanese authors and implemented in accordance with the patents NN 5130100, nom cylindrical casing, one inside the other two rolls, thumbnail of smooth and corrugated ribbons. Between these rolls, there is a metal cylinder with a wall thickness the same as the outer casing or cylinder made of metal mesh. To further increase the rigidity of the catalytic unit and avoid falling in the axial direction of the inner part in these neutralizers are also provided locking ribs placed on the ends of the block. In known converters significantly reduced the size of the working surface of the block is covered with a catalyst and, as a consequence, the effectiveness of their work.

Known also published 27.09.98, the technical solution according to the patent N 2119585, 6 IPC F 01 N 3/28 issued in the Russian Federation, which describes Converter, comprising a housing with a catalytic unit, the tape which is placed from the axis to the periphery of the housing and fixed therein at least one pin, the axis of which is offset from the axis of the housing. Tape wound around the rod, fixed bridge. The case comes out on one of the ends of the block and forms a zone that hosts the jumper. The middle part of the jumper is attached to the rod, the axis of which is offset relative activities the Jena on its forming their bent ends.

The disadvantage of this Converter is that due to the displacement of one or several axes of the pins relative to the axis of the housing have an uneven distribution over the cross section of the catalytic unit of mechanical and thermal loads and increased deformation of the ribbon and detachment of the coating, and the violation of traffic gas flow therein and increase the resistance to this movement. The consequence is a reduction in the reliability and efficiency of the Converter.

In addition, a known catalyst has an increased size and a more complex design and manufacturing technology, while maintaining the dimensions decrease its useful working surface and, as a consequence, the efficiency of exhaust gas purification. The efficiency of the Converter is reduced also because of the additional violations traffic gas flow therein in connection with the displacement axis of the housing and a rod.

Disclosure of the invention

The objective of the invention is to provide a Converter of the exhaust gas for an internal combustion engine having improved reliability and efficiency of gas purification at small dimensions, simple design comprising a housing, which is installed inside the catalytic unit with longitudinal channels formed corrugated and flat strips, the initial ends of which are welded to each other and to the pivot around which the tape is spirally wound tape is fixed in the housing by a pin which is placed with a gap between its inner end and a rod, the rod is placed along the axis of the shell, and the inner end of the pin is directed towards the axis.

Preferably, the Converter is placed along the axis of the rod was connected to the jumper attached to the end of the body.

Preferably also, to mount the jumpers were carried out on flat surfaces.

It is desirable that the surface mount jumper to the chassis would be essentially perpendicular to the surface mount jumper to the terminal.

The catalytic unit is essentially the same size with the case.

The Converter made in accordance with the present invention, it is possible to significantly reduce the deformation of the tape catalytic unit under mechanical and thermal loads and delamination of the coating, to eliminate the "telescoping effect" in the catalytic unit, to reduce the resistance to movement of alistore. This is achieved while simplifying its design and manufacturing technology.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is further explained in the description of specific variants of its implementation and the accompanying drawings, which depict:

in Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the neutralizer;

in Fig. 2 - section a-a of Fig.1;

in Fig. C - view B of Fig. 1;

in Fig. 4 shows the installation of the Converter inside the muffler exhaust.

The best option of carrying out the invention

The Converter depicted in Fig.1, comprises a cylindrical housing 1 in which is tightly installed catalytic unit 2 with longitudinal channels formed inner corrugated steel tape 3 and the outer smooth steel tape 4. The surface of the tape is covered with a layer of the substrate with porous structure coated with a catalyst, for example platinum. The initial ends 3 corrugated and smooth 4 tapes contact welding welded to each other and to the Central rod 5, around which the tapes 3 and 4 are spirally wound. Tapes 3 and 4 are placed from the axis 6 of the housing to its periphery and secured therein by pins round cross-section, in the described example, two pairs of pins 8 and 9 to each other and placed with a gap between their inner ends 12 and the rod 5. Peripheral ends 13 of pins rigidly, for example by welding, is connected to the housing 1.

Thanks to this performance of the Converter in it sufficient resistance to the catalytic unit of axial movement relative to the housing under the pressure of the flow of exhaust gases, decreases in absolute value and more uniform distribution over the cross section of the catalytic unit of mechanical and thermal loads, reduced deformation and no delamination of the coating films, as well as reducing the aerodynamic resistance of the flow. The result is increased reliability and efficiency of the Converter at his small size, simplicity of construction and adaptability.

The rod 5 is placed on the axis 6 of the housing, and is connected, for example, by welding jumper 14 attached to the end face 15 of the housing 1 (Fig. 3). Thanks to this performance is the resistance of the catalytic unit of axial movement relative to the housing can be further enhanced without increasing the dimensions of the Converter.

Fastening crosspieces 14 with the rod 5 and the end face 15 of the housing 1 made by flat surfaces 16, 17 and 18, which increases the contact area of Perama the efficiency of operation of the Converter as a whole.

This also contributes to the running surfaces 17 and 18 of the mounting of the jumper to the chassis essentially perpendicular to the surface 16 of the mounting of the jumper to the terminal.

The catalytic unit 2 essentially coincides with the size of the housing 1, which provides the neutralizer minimum dimensions. It is located inside the muffler exhaust 19 being rigidly connected by welding with his pipe 20.

The Converter operates as follows. The exhaust gases enter the catalytic unit 2 and passing through the longitudinal channels formed by the strips 3 and 4, are released into the atmosphere. In these channels, in the presence of a catalyst, for example platinum, is flameless oxidation products of incomplete combustion, including carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The longitudinal channels of the block 2 create aerodynamic resistance to movement of exhaust gases, resulting in a force tending to move (push) the unit 2 to the outside of the rigidly installed in the exhaust system of the engine body 1. This is prevented by the pins 8,9,10 and 11. Thanks to the location of the pins is achieved extremely high resistance unit 2 axial movement relative to the housing, reduced Ter is th block. The result is less distortion of the elements of the catalytic unit increases the reliability and efficiency of the Converter as a whole.

The presence of jumpers and adopted its attachment to the rod and the casing further increase the reliability and efficiency of the Converter. The increase of the reliability of the Converter and the efficiency of cleaning it of exhaust gases is achieved by small size, simple design and low complexity of the manufacturing process.

Industrial applicability

The Converter according to this invention can be used for cleaning exhaust gases mopeds and motorcycles, preferably with two-stroke internal combustion engines. Perhaps its use in agricultural machinery and implements with two-stroke engines.

1. Converter, comprising a housing, which is installed inside the catalytic unit with longitudinal channels formed corrugated and flat strips, the initial ends of which are welded to each other and to the pivot around which the tape helix is wound, the tape is fixed in the housing by the pin, which is placed with a gap between its inner end and is SS="ptx2">

2. The neutralizer under item 1, characterized in that with placed along the axis of the rod are connected by a jumper attached to the end of the body.

3. The neutralizer on p. 2, characterized in that the fastening jumpers carried out on flat surfaces.

4. The neutralizer on p. 3, characterized in that the mounting surfaces of the jumper to the chassis, essentially perpendicular to the surface mount jumper to the terminal.

5. The neutralizer on p. 4, characterized in that the catalytic unit is essentially the same size with the case.

 

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