The process of laser drilling for the manufacture of devices forming material and film
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of laser processing and production of perforated materials and may find application in the production of non-woven materials or fabrics and perforated films. The perforated support element with a smooth surface produced by the process of laser processing. The laser beam is moved in a series of raster scans the surface of the workpiece. During each sweep of the laser include in pre-defined intervals sufficient time and intensity for drilling one or more discrete portions of each of the holes. Device for the manufacture of a perforated film contains a hollow drum having a perforated wall, which is made by laser processing. Perforated film or non-woven material is formed by using a support element with a smooth surface. The invention allows to improve the physical properties and appearance of a woven material and a perforated film. 5 C. and 13 C.p. f-crystals, 22 ill., 3 table. Background of the invention
Nonwoven materials have long been known. In one process of the production of nonwovens Bataan fiber is given some strength in Bataan. Developed many ways to handle Batanov fiber thus in an attempt to double the physical properties and appearance of woven materials.U.S. patents 5,098,764 and 5,244,711 reveal the elements of the basis to support the fibrous tissue during the production of nonwovens. Support elements disclosed in U.S. patent 5,098,764 have a pre-defined relief, as well as a pre-defined pattern of holes in the terrain. In one specific embodiment of the element of the basis is three-dimensional and includes many pyramids, located in the figure relative to the one surface of the element base. This specific element of the framework further includes a set of apertures that are arranged at intervals, referred to as "valleys" between the above pyramids. In this process, the original fiber fabric is placed on the relief support element. The support element with fibrous tissue it is passed under the streams of high-pressure fluid, usually water. Water jets cause the fibers to intertwine and entangle with each other in a specific pattern based on the configuration of the relief of the support element.Figure topography and holes in the element, the support must have sufficient structural integrity and strength to support the fibrous tissue, when a jet of liquid redistribute fiber and confuse them in their new location in order to provide a solid material. The support element should not experience any significant bending under the force of the jets of liquid. The support element must have a means for removing relatively large amounts of confusing the liquid so as to prevent "flooding" of fibrous tissue, which could hinder effective obfuscation. Typically, the support element includes drainage holes, which should be sufficiently small to maintain the integrity of fibrous tissue and prevent the loss of fibers through a forming surface. In addition, the support element should be substantially free from burrs, hooks or similar inhomogeneities, which could prevent the destruction with his intricate material. At the same time, the support element should be such that the fibers or fibrous tissue, processed it, it didn't wash off under the influence of liquid jets.Despite the fact that can be used by machining for the manufacture of such relief elements support this method of production is extremely dorogovato in the method of manufacturing the relief of the supporting elements, which is less expensive and reduces the number of scoring, leads and inhomogeneities in them.Vacuum perforated plastic films are well known in the art and have been used for many years as a billet cover for sanitary napkins, disposable towels and a variety of absorbent products for wound dressing and the like.A typical method and apparatus for vacuum punching non-perforated thermoplastic film, for example, polyethylene film, is disclosed in U.S. patent 4,806,303 issued by Bianco and others on February 21, 1989, the disclosure of which is contained here as a reference. Punching device Bianco, etc. contains mainly cylindrical metal forming a stamp that has many holes. Usually many holes in shaping stamp coincides with the pattern of perforation, which is going to provide a thermoplastic film. Such forming dies are usually made in ways that are assumed photolithography, electric plating of Nickel and mechanical perforation. This type of formative stamp has a thickness of the order of a millimeter or even less, a diameter of about 500 millirem lacked its own rigidity. Before developing Bianco and other such forming dies is maintained through the inner drum stiffness or cylinder. Among other things, these are located inside the supporting elements tended to restrict the pattern of the perforations, which could be provided in the forming die and/or impeded the flow of air through the vacuum forming device during production of perforated film. Bianco and others provide a rotating cylindrical object 4, containing a perforated tape 6, which acts as a forming die, and a pair of annular end object 5, each of which includes a circular protruding edge 9. Each circular protruding edge 9 are cut teeth, and it engages with the wheel 11, which is driven by the motor. Adjustable along the axis of the Cam elements 13, 14 at each end of the rotating cylinder 4 engages with the above-mentioned pair of protruding edges and exerts a pulling action on the cylindrical object in order to cause what is described as "dynamic rigidity of the press 6. As a result of this dynamic rigidity, stamp 6 behaves as a rigid object can rotate around its about the AET excessive bending punch 6 in the vacuum slot of the vacuum forming device. A Cam device that provides dynamic stiffness of a cylindrical object in the patent Bianco and others, requires not only the maintenance and adjustment, but significantly adds to the stress faced by forming stamp, seriously reducing its service life.Summary of invention
The present invention is directed to a method of forming supporting elements that can be used to create a nonwoven and apertured films. Such support elements can have a smooth or textured upper or outer surface. The invention is also directed to the relief of the support element, which is formed by the method of the invention, which can be used for manufacturing similar to knitting or other similar non-woven materials.In accordance with the method of the present invention, the laser beam is directed onto the workpiece. In one embodiment the laser beam is focused so that the focal point of the beam is below the top surface of the workpiece. The focus of the laser beam at a point other than the top surface of the workpiece, for example, at a point below the upper surface, place on the top surface, nastelennogo figure conical holes in the workpiece so in order to form a relief an array of peaks and valleys that surround each hole of the workpiece. The holes are tapered or cone-shaped upper part with this angle is that larger diameter holes located on the top surface of the resulting support element. Relief an array of peaks and valleys is formed by the distance from the center line to center line of adjacent holes being smaller than the larger diameter of the top hole. This distance is the result of the intersection of the cone adjacent holes inside the initial thickness of the workpiece.In another embodiment the laser beam is focused on the upper surface of the workpiece, with the result of the support element with a smooth, flat top surface with a pattern of holes.In one embodiment, the process of laser drilling with a raster scan is used to form the support element. In this embodiment the laser beam is moved in a series of raster scans the surface of the workpiece. During each scan, the laser is included in pre-defined intervals sufficient time and intensity for drilling one or more discrete portions of each of the holes. In this way Enii figure many peaks, depressions and holes configured for the manufacture of nonwoven material having a kind of knitted knitted material. In another embodiment of the perforated film is formed using a perforated support element having a smooth upper surface.Brief description of drawings
Fig. 1 depicts a perspective view of one type of relief support element of the present invention.Fig. 2 is a cross section on line 2-2 of Fig. 1.Fig. 3 - map of the distribution of bit commands laser, defining the pattern of the holes, drilled in the workpiece for forming a relief element support of Fig. 1.Fig. 4 is a schematic view of the device for forming the support element of the present invention.Fig. 5 is the smallest rectangular repeating element, with a length of 25 pixels and a width of 15 pixel pattern shown in Fig. 3.Fig. 6 is a block diagram showing the various steps of the production process of nonwovens using the support element of the present invention.Fig. 7 is a schematic partial view of a variant of implementation of the apparatus for manufacturing nonwoven materials with ispolzovanie device for the manufacture of nonwovens using the support element of the present invention.Fig. 9 is a schematic view of the preferred options for performing device for the manufacture of nonwovens using the support element of the present invention.Fig. 10 is a micrograph of a nonwoven similar to the Jersey material, increased approximately 20-fold, as seen from its upper surface formed with the relief of the support element of Fig. 1.Fig. 11 is a photomicrograph similar to Jersey nonwoven material of Fig. 9, as seen from its bottom surface.Fig. 12 - map of the distribution of bits, similar to the map shown in Fig. 3, a different set of commands of the laser.Fig. 13 is converted into digital form the support element of the present invention of the scanning electron microscope.Fig. 14 - other digital form of the support element shown in Fig. 13.Fig. 15 is a perspective view of the second variant implementation of the support element of the present invention.Fig. 16 is a cross section on line 16-16 of Fig. 15.Fig. 17 is a schematic view of the preferred options for performing device for the manufacture of a perforated film using element support">Fig. 19 is a perspective view of the third variant of execution of the support element of the present invention.Fig. 20 is a cross section on the line 20-20 of Fig. 19.Fig. 21 - repeating element distribution maps bits to determine the pattern of the holes drilled for the formation of the support element shown in Fig. 15.Fig. 22 is a micrograph of the top surface of the perforated film made in example 4.Detailed description of the invention
Relief support element of the present invention is shown in perspective in Fig. 1.The support element 2 includes a housing 1 having a top surface 3 and bottom surface 4. The array of peaks 5, separated by depressions 6, is located in a predetermined pattern through the upper surface 3. Many drainage holes 7 passing through the thickness of the support element, is located in the picture element 2. In this embodiment, each drain hole 7 is surrounded by a group of six peaks 5 and six troughs 6.Drain hole 7 includes an upper portion 7a and the lower part 7b. As can be seen in Fig. 1, the upper part 7a of the hole 7 includes a wall 10 and usually appears in the form of a bell" or "p is more closer to the upper surface of the support element 2, and the cross-sectional area which is less than at point 10a, where the bottom of the mentioned top meets the top of the lower part 7b. The lower part 7b in the specific embodiment has a partially tapered cylindrical configuration. The cross-sectional area of the lower part 7b holes 7 more in point 10a than in the lower surface 4 of the support element. Hole 7 shown in section in Fig. 2. Line 9 is drawn tangent to opposite points on the wall 10 for one full radius below the upper surface 3. The angle 11 between lines 9, must be controlled relative to the thickness 12 of the support element 2 to create the desired result. For example, if the angle is too large, the hole will be too small, and therefore will be provided with insufficient drainage. If the angle is too small, there will be very little or not will be peaks and valleys.The distance from center to center's adjacent holes (Fig. 1) in a repeated pattern is also important. Peaks 5 and trench 6 are generated by the intersection of the cone partly conical holes 7. If the distance from center to center of holes would be greater than the larger diameter of the hole 7 on the upper surface 3, the result would not have intersections, and the item would be smooth with smooth top p is A' located between the peaks 501 and 504 and is indicated by a double arrow 521. Similarly, larger diameter holes In' passes between the peaks 503 and 512 and is indicated by a double arrow 522. Larger diameter of this hole is equal to the greatest distance from peak to peak, measured on the top surface of the support element between a pair of peaks defining the upper part of the hole. When the distance from center to center of adjacent holes is smaller than the diameters of the holes measured along this line from center to center, conical intersect the surface, forming a cavity.Now, referring to Fig. 3, the holes 7 are depicted as hexagons in a honeycomb matrix, but the invention is not limited to the hexagons. Can be used in other forms, such as circles, squares, octagons and irregularly shaped (Fig. 12), or a combination, depending on the desired relief configuration.Each row of the rows 13 and 14, parallel to the arrow a direction in Fig. 3 contains many hexagons 150. These hexagons width of 7 pixels, length 11 pixel and within each row are arranged at intervals of 8 pixels. The number 13 hexagons is located with a gap close to the row 14 of hexagons. Specifically, as seen in Fig. 3, ndogo hexagon in row 14. Rows 15 and 16 of the copy image and the span of the rows 13 and 14. The space between rows 15 and 16 corresponds mainly to the aforementioned gap between rows 13 and 14. However, the number 15 is separated by a gap from the number 14. As can be seen in Fig. 3, the bottom-most vertices of the hexagons in the series 14 touch line 18, while the top vertices of the hexagons in the range of 15 described later, the cylindrical shape is consistent with the preferred device for the manufacture of nonwovens.Pipes manufactured today for use in the formation of the supporting elements, are from 2 to 6 feet in diameter and have a length in the range from 2 to 16 feet. Wall thickness is nominally 1 inch. These sizes are a matter of design choice.The original pure tubular workpiece mounted on a suitable shaft or spindle 21, which fixes it in a cylindrical form and allows rotation around its longitudinal axis in bearings 22. The rotary actuator 23 is used to rotate the spindle 21 with controlled speed. Rotary pulse generator 24 is connected to the spindle 21 and controls its rotation so that its exact radial position is always known.In parallel and to ascertain what TKE 26 to move along the length of the spindle 21, at the same time maintaining a constant gap with the top surface 3 of the pipe 2. The actuator 33 of the carriage moves the carriage along the guides 25, while the pulse generator 34 of the carriage celebrates the transverse position of the carriage relative to the support element 2. On the carriage is mounted a focusing area 27. Focusing Playground 27 is installed in the focal rails 28 and allows movement perpendicular to the movement of the carriage 26 and provides a means of focusing lens 29 relative to the upper surface 3. Focal actuator 32 is provided for installation in a certain position of the focusing platform 27 and providing focusing lens 29.To a focusing area 27 is attached lens 29, is fixed in the nozzle 30. The nozzle 30 has a means 31 for inputting compressed gas to the nozzle 30 for cooling and maintaining the cleanliness of the lens 29.On the carriage 26 also installed the final routing mirror 35, which directs the laser beam 36 in pickup lens 29. The laser 37 is located at a distance with optional rails mirrors 38 beam for directing the beam in the final routing mirror 35 of the beam. Although it would be possible to set the laser 37 directly on the carriage 26 and coverage of the legislative mounted laser is greatly preferred.When the laser 37 is energized, the emitted beam 36 is reflected from the first guide mirror 38 of the beam, then from the end of the sending mirror beam 35, which directs it to the lens 29. The path of the laser beam is configured so that if the lens 29 has been removed, the beam would pass through the longitudinal center line of the spindle 21.When the lens 29 is in place, the beam is focused below, but near the upper surface 3. As mentioned above, the focus of the beam below the top surface is identified as "defocusimage" of the laser beam relative to the surface of the pipe.Although this invention could be used with many lasers, the preferred laser is a laser rapid flow of CO2able to create a beam nominally up to 2500 watts. This process is in no way dependent on such high-power laser, when the surface of the support successfully drilled by the laser slow stream of CO2nominally at 50 watts.When the focusing lens 29 transmits a beam of 36, he concentrates the energy near the center of the beam. Rays do not go through a single point, but rather through the small spot diameter. The point of the smallest diameter is referred to as the focus s bigger or smaller, than the focal length, the measured spot size will be larger than the minimum.Sensitivity to the position of focus is inversely proportional to the focal length. The minimum spot size is directly proportional to the focal length. Therefore, a lens with a short focal length can achieve a smaller spot size, but should be more accurately located and it is strongly affected by surface wear. Lenses with longer focal length is more lenient to the target location, but can only reach a pretty large spot size. Thus, in addition to the contribution of the power distribution in a conical upper part of the holes are defocusimage beam below the surface also invests in angle and length of the cone and, therefore, the shape and size of peaks and troughs.In order to make the support element should be made of the initial focusing step. When the net tubular workpiece is placed on the spindle 21, the laser emits a short pulse, and the spindle is slightly rotated between pulses so that a number of small holes. Focal area 27 is then moved relative to the center line of the spindle to essentialine. Deepening examined under a microscope, and the column recesses of the smallest diameter identifies the position of the focal areas, which focuses the beam on the upper surface 3 net tubular piece.Selects the desired pattern, as for example, an image shown in Fig. 3. The figure is examined to determine the number of repetitions that will be needed to cover the circumference of the workpiece and to complete the surface without obvious seam. Similarly installed along the longitudinal axis of the tubular workpiece to repeat and complete the number of repetitions. These data are entered into the computer program to control the laser drilling machine.When working spindle with a pre-installed tubular workpiece rotates in front of the lens. The carriage is moved so that the position of the first hole corresponds to the focal point of the lens 29. Focal Playground moves inward, placing the focal point within the inner part of the drilled material. Then, the laser generates a pulse with a certain combination of power level and pulse duration. As can be seen in Fig. 2, the diameter of the hole on the top surface 3 is significantly greater than the diameter of the hole on the bottom surface 4. For the e l e C with which the lens is focused in the inner part of the workpiece increases the angle 11 of the cone, and second, increase the power level or the pulse duration increases the depth and diameter. When there is a hole of suitable diameter and taper, the rotational actuator and the actuator carriage can be specified to change the position of the support element so that the next estimated position of the holes corresponds to the focal point. The process then repeats until then, until it is drilled all the harvesting. This method is known as drilling "blow".If the selected laser is powerful enough, no need to stop the spindle and the carriage during the laser pulse. The pulse may be of such short duration that any movement of the workpiece during the drilling process is insignificant. It is professionally known as drilling by treating the-fly.If the laser can regenerate fast enough, the workpiece can rotate at a fixed speed, and the laser may emit one pulse to create each hole. In the figure, as for example shown in Fig. 3, the laser usually gave momentum to create a full column, the carriage of mouth is RSTI.One problem that can occur depending on the type of material and the density of the pattern of the holes is the introduction of a large amount of heat in a small area of the surface of the formation. The result can be a strong curvature and loss of alignment of the drawing. Under certain conditions result in large changes in size and the surface is neither cylindrical nor the correct size. In extreme cases, the pipe may crack.The preferred embodiment of the present invention, which eliminates this problem uses a process called drilling with a raster scan.In this approach, the figure is reduced to the smallest rectangular repeating element 41, as shown in Fig. 5.This repetitive element contains all the information required for the manufacture of the drawing in Fig. 3. In the big picture is obtained when using the form of a puzzle and place end to end and side to side.This repetitive element further divided into a grid of smaller rectangular units or pixel 42. Although they are usually square, for some purposes it is more convenient to use pixels Nerija laser. This column is repeated as many times as necessary to achieve fully around the support element 2. Each pixel, where the laser is going to create a hole is black. Those pixels where the laser is switched off are white.In order to begin drilling at the top of the first column of the pixel of Fig. 5, while the spindle rotates at a fixed speed, the laser is activated, supported at a constant power level for 11 of the pixel, and then turns off. These pixels are considered as rotary pulse generator 24 in Fig. 4. The laser remains off for the following 14 units. This sequence off/inclusions laser is repeated for the next turn, at this point, the spindle returns to the initial position, the actuator 33 of the carriage moves the carriage by one unit, and the computer is ready to make the articles 43a.Within the column number 43a laser has a shorter "time on" (now 9 units) and a longer "time off" (now 16 units). The total number of times on and off is a constant based on the height of the graphic.This process is repeated until then, until you have used all columns, each relative to the lead the ASS="ptx2">Note that in this approach, each pass creates a series of narrow slits in the material, rather than a large hole. Because these incisions are exactly the same for laning near and partly overlap, the combined effect is a hole. In the illustration of Fig. 5 each hexagonal hole 44 in fact requires 7 passes, each separated by a complete revolution, spreading the energy around the pipe and minimize local heating.If during this drilling operation, the lens is focused on the upper surface of the material, the result would be hexagonal hole with enough parallel walls. However, the combination of drilling with a raster scan approach defocusing lens creates a forming surface Fig. 1.In the present invention, the holes 7 are sufficiently small and numerous. The normal range of drawings from 800 to 1400 holes per square inch.Process for producing non-woven material using the support element of the present invention has been described in U.S. patents 5,098,764 and 5,244,711, both of which are incorporated here by reference.Fig. 6 is a block diagram showing the various steps in the process of zhodani fibre relief on the support element (block 1). Fibrous tissue pre promahivaetsya or namasivaya while on the support element (block 2) to ensure that when it is processed, it will remain on the support element. The support element with fibrous tissue it is skipped under the nozzles eject the liquid under high pressure (block 3). The preferred liquid is water. Water is diverted from the support element preferably using vacuum (block 4). Fibrous tissue is dehydrated (block 5). Dehydrated formed material is removed from the support element (block 6). The formed material is passed through a series of drying drums for drying material (block 7). Then the material can be finished or otherwise processed as required (block 8). Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram of one type of device for performing the process and creation of materials of the present invention. In this device the passing conveyor belt 70 moves continuously around the two separated periods of rotating shafts 71 and 72. The belt is controlled so that it can perform reciprocating motion or move either clockwise or anti clockwise direction of screwback 74. This pipe has many holes of very small diameter, about 7/1000 of an inch in diameter, with approximately 30 holes per inch. Water under pressure supplied through these holes. At the top of the strap is placed relief element 75 of the support, and at the top of this relief element is added to form the fabric fibers. Directly below the water pipe, but below the upper reach of a belt is a suction nozzle 77 to facilitate removal of water and prevent flooding of the fiber fabric. The water from the nozzle collides with a cloth fiber, passes through the relief support element and removes the suction inlet. As you can see, the relief element support with fibrous tissue it can be passed under the pipe many times as required for the manufacture of materials in accordance with the present invention.In Fig. 8 shows a device for the continuous manufacture of materials in accordance with the present invention. This is a schematic representation of a device includes passing the conveyor belt 80, which actually serves as a relief support element in accordance with the present invention. The belt is continuously moving in the direction of the field of technology. Above this belt is located the outlet 79 of the fluid connecting multiple nozzles. Each group has one or more rows of holes of very small diameter, with 30 or more holes per inch. The nozzle is equipped with a pressure gauge 88 and pressure control valves 87 for regulating the fluid pressure in each or group of nozzles. At the bottom of each line of nozzles or group is suction element 82 to remove excess water and to keep the area from flooding. Fabric 83 fiber to be formed in the nonwoven material of the present invention is served on a conveyor belt relief support element. Water is sprayed through the nozzle 84 on fiber cloth for pre-wetting the fabric and to make a contribution in the management of the fibers as they pass under the nozzle pressure. Suction slot 85 is located below the water jets to remove excess water. Fibrous fabric passes under the nozzle of the fluid, and the nozzle preferably has an increasing pressure. For example, the first line of holes or nozzles can apply fluid under pressure 100 psi, at that time, as the following line of nozzles can apply fluid under pressure 300 psi, and the word lines or rows of nozzles is not critical, but will depend on the fabric weight, the speed, the fluid pressure, the number of rows of holes in each line, and so on, After passing between the nozzles of the fluid supply and suction forming material passes through the additional suction slot 86 for removing excess water from the cloth.The preferred device for the manufacture of a material in accordance with the present invention is schematically depicted in Fig. 9. In this device a relief support element is a rotating drum 90. The drum rotates in the counterclockwise direction. The drum 90 may be a solid cylindrical drum or may be made from a variety of curved plates 91, arranged so as to form the outer surface of the drum. In any case, the outer surface of the drum 90, and the outer surface of the curved plates 91 contain the desired configuration of the relief support. Around part of the circumference of the drum is a pipe 89, which connects many of the bands 92 nozzles for supplying water or other liquid into the fibrous fabric 93 placed on the upper surface of the curved plates. Each band of the nozzle may contain one or more rows of holes are very small di is required. Water or other fluid is directed through a series of nozzles. The pressure in each group of nozzles is increased from the first group, under which passes fibrous tissue to the last group. The pressure is controlled by respective control valves 97 and monitored by gauges 98 pressure. The drum is connected with the sump 94, which can be created in a vacuum to facilitate removal of water and to keep the area from flooding. When working fibrous fabric 93 is placed on the upper surface relief support element before the pipe 89 water discharge. Fibrous tissue is held under the bands of nozzles is formed in a similar knitted non-woven material. Formed material then passes through a section 95 of the device, where there are no bands nozzles, but continues to be made vacuum. After dehydration, the material is removed from the drum and passes a series of drying drums 96 for drying the material.As noted above, the support element shown in Fig. 1, will create similar to a knitted non-woven material. Fig. 10 is a copy of a photomicrograph similar to a knitted non-woven material with increasing approximately 20 times. The material is made of many fibers. As you can see in ICRI is Erste include loop 120, formed from strands of fiber. Each loop is executed from a variety of essentially parallel fiber segments. Loops are represented by U-shaped with the closed end of the U directed upwards towards the upper surface of the material, as seen in the micrograph. Fig. 11 is a copy of a photomicrograph of the opposite, i.e., the lower surface of the material 100 of Fig. 10 when the increase of about 20 times. The fibers are intertwined and entangled to form the pattern of the holes 110 in the material. In some of these holes are loops 120 U-shaped, formed of essentially parallel fiber segments. When viewed from this lower surface of the material, the open end of the loop in a U-shape is directed toward the surface of the material seen in this photomicrograph.As noted here previously, the support element having a smooth, flat top surface with holes located everywhere can also be made by laser processing. Such a support element 700 is illustrated in Fig. 15 and 16. As shown in Fig. 15 and 16, item 700 support includes a housing 701, having a top surface 703 and the bottom surface 704. Across the top surface in a pre-determine the UNT 700 support may be formed by processes defocusing" laser drilling, described above. In devoluciones case, the hole 707 will have a tapered cylindrical configuration. The cross-sectional area of the hole 707 in the bottom surface 704 is less than the cross-sectional area of the hole 707 in the upper surface 703.The distance from center to center's adjacent holes 707 is especially important. If the distance from center to center is less than the diameter of the holes 707 on the upper surface 703, conical or partially conical holes 707 will be crossed, with the result of the hole, surrounded by a matrix of peaks and troughs. Such a matrix peaks and troughs would create similar peaks and irregularities in the final of the perforated film. In order to form the perforated support element with a smooth, flat top surface, the distance from center to center should be larger than the larger diameter holes 707 at the upper surface 703. Smooth, flat upper surface of the support element can be used to produce a smooth flat end of a perforated film or a nonwoven material.In the preferred embodiment the support element with a smooth, flat top surface is formed "focused" laser drill surface of a tubular workpiece. The workpiece can be made of polymer material, preferably acetal. Acrylic will also perform satisfactorily. During the focused laser drilling with use of the device (Fig. 4) the spindle with a pre-installed tubular workpiece rotates in front of the lens. The carriage is moved so that the position of the first hole coincides with the focal point of the lens 29. Focal Playground moves inward to the position of the focal point of the lens 29 on the surface of the bore through the tubular workpiece at the reference diameter, the established procedure of focus mentioned above. The processes of drilling may be the same process described earlier, namely, drilling impact drilling with the rest of the RAID and drilling with the raster scan. Drilling with a raster scan, as described relative to Fig. 3 - 5 above, is the preferred embodiment.Element 800 support illustrated in Fig. 19 and 20, is made by a process focused laser drilling. As shown in Fig. 19 and 20, the element 800 support includes a housing 801, having a top surface 803 and the lower surface 804. Across the top surface 803 in a predetermined pattern is a matrix CTE upper surface of the workpiece, holes 807 will be almost parallel to the wall. When a small cone at the top of the hole 807, it is required that the distance from center to center S was of sufficient magnitude to prevent the formation of peaks and troughs. However, the distance S may be less than in the process defocusing" laser drilling, thus creating a support element with a smaller area of the upper surface and with a large number of holes, which results in a film with a large number of holes and, consequently, a greater percentage of open area.The preferred device for creating perforated film in accordance with the present invention is schematically depicted in Fig. 17. In this device, the support element is a rotating drum 753. The drum rotates in the counterclockwise direction. On the outside of the drum 753 located nozzle 759 hot air aimed to provide a curtain of hot air for colliding directly with the film, supported by the external surface of the drum 753, which contains many holes 753a. Provides a means for removal of the nozzle 759 hot air to avoid excessive heating of the film when stopping the sludge is in the nozzle 759.Inside the drum 753, directly inside the nozzle, there is a vacuum tip 760. The vacuum tip 760 is radially adjustable and is set so as to contact with the inner surface of the drum 753. Vacuum pump 761 is provided for continuous vacuum vacuum tip 760.In addition, in the inner part of the drum 753 and in contact with the inner surface of the drum 753, is the cooling zone 762, which is provided with cooling vacuum pump 763. In the cooling zone 762 this vacuum pump 763 pulls ambient air through the holes made in a hot film for hardening of the film, and the job of drawing that was created in the area of perforation. It is important to ensure that the cooled before attempting to remove the film from the support element in order to avoid distortion. Vacuum pump 763 also provides a means of holding the film in place in the cooling zone 762 drum 753 and provides a means to isolate hot film from the action of the tension in the film created by the winding device.Also in Fig. 17 shows the shaft 750 feeding of the film and the shaft 756 processed film.On top of the element 64 bases fit t shall be a vapor or vapor-permeable; it may be corrugated or not; it can, if necessary, treated by corona discharge on one or both of its large surfaces or she may not be processed in corona. Stretched film may contain any thermoplastic polymeric materials, including, for example, polyolefins, such as polyethylene (high, linear low / low density) and polypropylene; copolymers of olefins and vinyl monomers, such as copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate or vinyl chloride; polyamides; polyesters; polyvinyl alcohol and copolymers of olefin and acrylate monomers, such as copolymers of ethylene and ethyl acrylate and ethylenemethacrylic. You can also use the film containing a mixture of two or more such polymeric materials. Elongation in the longitudinal (processed) direction and the transverse direction of the original film, subject to the perforations should be at least 100%, as determined in accordance with test N ASTM D-882 performed on a test machine Instron, the rotating speed of the Cam 50 inches per minute (127 cm per minute). The thickness of the initial film (i.e. the film to be perforated) is preferably uniform and can be 0.005 inch (0,076 cm). Laminated film can be used as packaging films, which are modified, for example, processing of surface-active substance. The original film can be manufactured by any known method, such as casting, molding or blowing.The increase in the area enclosed by the circle in Fig. 17 shown in Fig. 18. The vacuum tip 760 has two vacuum slots 764, 765, passing across the width of the film. The vacuum slot 764 provides a holding area for the original film, when she's coming to the air knife 758. The vacuum slot 765 connected with a source of vacuum orifice 766. It provides reliable fastening of the incoming film 751 to the drum 753 and isolation from the actions of curvature of the incoming film created by the winding device. It also aligns the film 751 on the outer surface of the drum 753. The second vacuum slot 765 determines the vacuum area of the perforation. Directly between the slots 764 and 765 is located intermediate support rod 768.The vacuum tip 760 is located so that the point of collision of the veil 767 hot air directly above the intermediate supports is Lenka above its softening point.The geometry of the device ensures that the film 751, when softened by a veil 767 hot air is isolated from the effects of stretching the retaining slot 764 and cooling area 762. Vacuum the area 765 perforation directly adjacent the veil 767 hot air, which minimizes the time in which the film is hot and prevents the transmission of excessive heat in supporting the drum 753.Example 1.A support element having peaks and valleys and made of acetal with an average thickness of 6 mm, was fabricated using the process defocusing laser drilling with a raster scan under the following conditions:
The focus position = 2.5 mm below the surface of the material
Lens type = positive meniscus (convex)
Focal length of lens = 5 inches
The laser power = 1300 watt
The speed of the pipe surface on the spindle = 20,3 m/min
Longitudinal advancement/reverse carriage = 0.05 mm
Size pixels = 0.05 mm
Linear distance from center to center inside number = 0.75 mm (15 pixels)
The support element is made in example 1 shown in Fig. 13 and 14. Fig. 12 is a pixel image on/off laser, sapros the aforesaid A1B1, A2IN2and so on, the Holes in each row And have the first irregular shape, and the holes in each row have a second irregular shape. The tubular blank is approximately 3 feet in diameter, 12 feet long and 6 mm thickness were swirlies laser using device (Fig. 4) working in accordance with instructions contained in Fig. 12 to provide support element shown in Fig. 13 and 14. The process of laser drilling took about 7 days to complete.In Fig. 13 illustrated the support element contains the first row And holes (visible in the upper part of Fig. 13), the next adjacent row of holes and a second row And below the row of holes In the hole. The first row And holes includes a hole A. the Next adjacent row of holes includes a hole In which is adjacent to the hole A. the Upper part of the hole And is surrounded and defined peaks 501, 502, 503, 504 and 505. The upper part of the openings surrounded and defined peaks 510, 511, 512, 513, 504 and 503. You can see that the peaks 504 and 503 are common to both holes a and B. Line 521 (double arrow), extending between the peaks 501 and 504, is a larger diameter upper part of the hole A, and referred to a larger diameter equal set larger diameter upper part of the hole, and referred to the larger diameter of 0.075 inch in the described support element.Different distances from peak to peak, associated with the hole And discussed in the support element, are presented in table I. Different distances from peak to peak, associated with the hole In discussing the element of support shown in table II.Fig. 14 is the same digital image, as the invention shown in Fig. 13, but it is marked and numbered to show the distance between the bottom of the trough between adjacent peaks and the line connecting the same two peaks. For example, line 530 in Fig. 14 connects the peaks 503 and 504 associated with the hole A. the depth of the troughs between the peaks 501-506 associated with a hole As shown in the upper part of table III. Depth 2 troughs associated with the hole, i.e., the troughs between the peaks 510 and 511 and valleys between the peaks 504 and 513 shown in the lower part of table III. Depression between the other peaks associated with a hole In the depression between the peaks 511 and 512 and between 512 and 513 are structural analogues of table III the depressions between the peaks 501 and 506 and 501 and 502, respectively.Example 2.A support element having a smooth, flat top surface and lasernogo drilling with a raster scan under the following conditions:
The focus position = 2.5 mm below the surface of the material
Lens type = positive meniscus (convex)
Focal length of lens = 5 inches
The laser power = 1300 watt
The speed of the pipe surface on the spindle = 20.4 ft/min
Longitudinal advancement/reverse carriage = 0.05 mm
Size pixels = 0.05 mm
Linear distance from center to center inside series = 1.5 mm (30 pixel)
The support element in example 2 shown in Fig. 15 and 16, was made by the process defocusing laser drilling with a raster scan of example 1, except with a different picture of the raster scan. Figure raster scan used in example 2 shown in Fig. 21, where each pixel 710, for which the laser is going to create the hole is black, and each pixel 712, where the laser is off white.Example 3.A support element having peaks and valleys and made of acetal with an average thickness of 6 mm, was manufactured using the process of the focused laser drilling with rastvorah sweep under the following conditions:
The focus position = (top surface)
Lens type = positive meniscus (convex)
Focal length l of the longitudinal advancement/reverse carriage = 0.05 mm
Size pixels = 0.05 mm
Linear distance from center to center inside number = 0.75 mm (15 pixels)
The support element in example 3 of the type shown in Fig. 19 and 20, and was manufactured using drawings, shown in Fig. 3 and 5, and the drilling process with the raster scan, as described above, using the holes Fig. 4.Example 4.The perforated film was manufactured using the support element manufactured in example 3, in combination with the device shown in Fig. 17. This device is similar to device, opened in U.S. patent N 4,806,303, issued Bianco, etc.The original roll film 750, 1 mm polyethylene cast film of low density, was located on the stand unwinding with a controlled tension, usually used in the production of diapers and sanitary napkins. Then the film was wound around an item 753 support of Fig. 17 and sent to a winding device with a controlled tension, where the finished product was assembled in the roll 756.Nozzle 759 was allocated to avoid heating the film up until you have not installed the operating mode. Was running air fan 757 and powered on narrow Celsius.Was running the vacuum pump 761 and was regulated to keep the film attached to the support element. Then was running the drive system and the support element is rotated with the speed of the surface 25 meters per minute.Then the nozzle 759 was summed up so that the hot air blown from the nozzle 759 directly collided with the surface of the film between area 764 holding and vacuum 765 area of perforation.The temperature of the hot air 767 then increased until, until there was obtained the desired degree of perforation. The final temperature was 305 degrees C.The vacuum tip 760 was measured at an operating mode and showed the absorption 365 mm Hg.Hot, now perforated film was stretched on the support element 753 in the cooling zone 762, where ambient air was drawn through the holes in the film, the holes in the support element and cooling the vacuum pump 763.By the time when the film has reached the end of the cooling zone, it was cooled enough to be removed from the support element and is wound on the shaft 756.The upper surface of the perforated film, made in primario of the invention are described in detail here, it should be obvious that the description and examples of the present invention suggest many alternative designs, obvious to experts in the given field of technology. 1. The method of forming a perforated element with a smooth surface, including the manufacturing of the workpiece, the laser beam toward the workpiece, and moving the laser beam relative to the surface of the workpiece for drilling with a laser beam holes in the workpiece, characterized in that for forming the perforated element in the form of a support element, intended for the manufacture of flat perforated film or a nonwoven material, moving the laser beam is carried out in a series of raster scans and in the process of drilling receive a pre-defined pattern of holes with a smooth surface surrounding each hole on the upper surface of the support element.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that exercise focusing a laser beam having a focal point on the top surface of the workpiece.3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that in each raster scan laser include in pre-defined intervals sufficient time and intense is audica fact, each hole will, in General, with parallel side walls.5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that exercise focusing a laser beam having a focal point below the upper surface of the workpiece.6. The method according to any of paragraphs.2 and 5, characterized in that the drilling is carried out by issuing pulses of the laser beam in a predetermined sequence of States on and off.7. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that in each raster scan laser include in pre-defined intervals sufficient time and intensity for drilling one or more discrete portions of each hole.8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1, 2 and 5, characterized in that the movement of the laser beam is carried out by rotation of the workpiece around the longitudinal axis and the laser beam along the longitudinal axis after each rotation of the workpiece.9. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that each hole perform converging on a cone and includes a tapered upper portion.10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the larger diameter of the conical upper portion of each adjacent holes perform less than the distance containing a rotating hollow drum having an outer wall with many holes, means for placing the stretched thermoplastic film on the upper surface of the wall, means for directing hot air onto the film on the upper surface of the wall to raise the temperature of the film above its thermoplastic temperature, means to rotate the drum in the direction of the hot air on the top surface, means for cooling the perforated film to a temperature below its thermoplastic temperature, and means for removing the perforated tape with the drum, characterized in that the external wall of the drum is made of a polymeric material, and the device is equipped with a vacuum facility, located inside the drum, to create sufficient pressure to cause the formation of holes in the film, corresponding to the many holes in the wall.12. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the wall is made of a thermoplastic material.13. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the wall is made of acetal or acrylic.14. Device for manufacturing flat perforated tape containing a rotating hollow b is some film on the upper surface of the drum, means for directing hot air onto the film located on the upper surface of the drum to raise the temperature of the film above the softening temperature, the means of rotation of the drum when the direction of the hot air on the top surface, means for cooling the perforated film to a temperature below the softening temperature and a means for removal of the perforated tape with the drum, characterized in that the rotating hollow drum formed by the method according to p. 1 and is made with smooth, flat upper surface, and the device is equipped with a vacuum facility, located inside the drum, to create sufficient pressure to cause the formation of holes in the film, the corresponding set of holes in the drum.15. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that the drum is made of a polymeric material.16. The device according to p. 15, characterized in that the drum is made of acetal or acrylic.17. A method of manufacturing a perforated film comprising placing the stretched thermoplastic film on the upper surface of the rotating hollow drum having an outer wall with many holes, the direction of the hot air is ahcene, the rotation of the drum when the direction of the hot air on the top surface, the formation of holes in the film which corresponds to the set of holes in the drum, by creating pressure, cooled perforated film to a temperature below its softening temperature and removal of the perforated tape with the drum, characterized in that the outer wall of the rotating drum is made from a polymeric material, and in the formation of holes in the film create pressure inside the drum.18. A method of manufacturing a flat perforated film, including accommodation stretched thermoplastic film on the upper surface of the rotating hollow drum having a top surface with many holes, the direction of hot air to the film, placed on the upper surface of the drum to raise the temperature of the film above its softening temperature, the rotation of the drum when the direction of the hot air on the top surface, the formation of holes in the film which corresponds to the set of holes in the drum, by creating pressure, cooled perforated film to a temperature below its softening temperature and removal of the perforated tape drum distinguish who and the formation of holes in the film create pressure inside the drum.
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises optical quantum generator, system for focusing the laser beam with the unmovable lens, and movable base for securing the object to be cut. The movable base is made of rotating platform mounted on the driving shaft of the mechanism for discrete control of the speed of rotation. The mechanism is made of an assembly of driven and driving pulleys connected by means of the driving belt. The rotating platform is provided with the model of the object to be cut. The driving belt that connects the driven and driving pulleys is made of a vibration insulation material. The driven shaft of the rotating platform is set in bearings, is provided with a mechanism for control of tension of the driving belt, and is mounted on the traverse gear.
EFFECT: decreased time and reduced power consumption of testing.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: method and apparatus for forming weakening lines in member of automobile lining covering devices with safety cushions in order to create one or more hinged flaps of window for spreading out pneumatic safety cushion when the last is pumped.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making notch in surface of lining member by means of cutting beam directed from source 12 onto said surface at moving lining member relative to source 12 according to predetermined pattern of notch; tracking cutting result by means of measuring beams irradiated by first pickup 26 and second outer pickup respectively placed in opposite sides relative to lining member 16; combining measuring beam of pickup 26 with cutting beam in such a way that to provide collinear combined segments on surface of lining member and to direct them constantly to the same points of notch pattern; controlling quantity of material removed by means of cutting beam in each point along pattern due to controlling notch cutting process with use of feedback signals generated by first 26 and second 20 pickups. Apparatus for performing the method includes source of cutting beam for making notch on surface of one side of lining member at directing cutting beam to said surface; drive unit imparting mutual relative motion of cutting beam source and lining member according to predetermined pattern; sensor unit for tracking thickness of remained material of lining member; device for combining beams; control unit for tracking process of cutting notch in each point along predetermined pattern and regulating cutting intensity of cutting beam for providing predetermined thickness of material of lining member. Sensor unit includes first inner pickup 26 and second outer pickup 20 arranged at mutually opposite sides of lining member 16 and directed towards each point of lining member to be notched. Inner pickup and cutting beam source are arranged at the same side relative to lining member.
EFFECT: possibility for making weakening lines during one pass at accurate reproducibility regardless of variation of cutting depth, cutting angle, patterns of notch, non-uniformity and color of material, texture of material surface and so on.
41 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: different branches of machine engineering and metallurgy, possibly working products for modifying or preparing topography of article surface or raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of relatively moving article and powerful beam in crossing direction in order to act upon several positions on article by means of said beam; at each position moving beam relative to article according to predetermined way; melting material of article and moving it by action of powerful beam for forming recesses or openings; joining article having prepared surface with target part. Product formed by such process has predetermined surface roughness.
EFFECT: possibility for producing article with predetermined surface roughness.
46 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: laser working, namely laser cutting, possibly in machine engineering for effective and high-accuracy manufacture of complex-contour parts from sheet blank.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of measuring mean statistic value of limit bending of blank 7; then fastening and tensioning blank at providing tension stresses determined by relation: σtχ ≤ σe GV, where σt - tension stresses created in blank, MPa; χ - thermal conductivity of blank material, mm2/s; σe - elastic limit of blank material, MPa; G - mean statistic value of limit bending of blank, mm; V - cutting speed, mm/s. Focused laser irradiation 1 with preset focal length and gas flow 6 are fed onto sheet blank 7 through nozzle of cutter 5 for moving blank along predetermined contour. Apparatus includes source of laser irradiation 1, mirror 3, cutter 5, platform 8 with clamp 9 for blank 7. Platform 8 is mounted on coordinate table 11 and it includes threaded guides 10 for tensioning blank; said guides are in the form of screw gages with left- and right-hand threads. Coordinate table is number program controlled by system 12 connected with laser irradiation source 1 and with information-computing system 13 through program module 14 correcting contour of cutting in proportion to deformations created in material.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of laser cutting due to stable position (on the whole surface of sheet blank) of plane of focusing lens of cutter at cutting process, practically constant gap value between nozzle of cutter and blank surface.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: processes and equipment for gas-laser cutting of titanium and its alloys, possibly in different branches of power engineering and machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized due to using technological gas being mixture of argon and oxygen and containing 15 -25% of oxygen. In order to cut metal of predetermined thickness, oxygen content in technological gas is determined depending upon cutting speed and quality of metal surface according to technological demands for cutting quality at maximally admissible cutting speed.
EFFECT: improved quality of cutting as oxygen content of technological gas in preset range completely prevents occurring of type-metal or makes it rare and small.
1 dwg, 1 ex