Responsible system for signal processing and the method for calculating the maximum execution time for process automation by answering system

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a corresponding system, that is able to work in real time and is tolerant to errors system for signal processing, with many blocks of data that are connected to each other through blocks of data. The technical result is to determine the maximum run-time processing state of the output signal. On the blocks of data are implemented in computer programs, which are made from a variety of modular functional modules. Meet the system determines the state of the input signal according to a comprehensive specification of the processing state of the output signal. It contains the first data Bank, which saved the maximum processing time of each functional block, and the maximum transmission time of each block data, the second data Bank, which saved the coordination of blocks of data, blocks of data and computer programs with each other and the sequence of operations of the signal processing according to the specification of the processing, and the third data Bank, which memorized settings blocks of data, blodet determine the maximum execution time to obtain the status of the output signal. This happens even before putting the system into operation so that its ability to work in real time can be proven in advance. 2 S. and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to responsible (responsive) system for processing signals from multiple blocks of data that are connected to each other through the blocks of data and are implemented in a computer program and computer program is modular. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a responsible system for signal processing in the automation process.

From the document "Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL'93, Munich, pages 825 - 839, known by the measured and memorized processing times for modules software meets the system to estimate the maximum processing time and propagation time.

Responsible, that is tolerant to errors and is able to work in real-time system for signal processing finds many uses in industrial process automation. Of particular importance answering system is in the process of automation, which requires compliance with specified time limits shall arise in manufacturing processes, the regulation and management and control processes, for example, in the safety of nuclear power plants. Compliance with time limits or time intervals depends to a decisive extent on the performance of individual components, both hardware-specific and program-specific components. In complex systems, in which blocks of data are connected to each other in a large network of data errors in software-specific components, in particular errors in computer programs are of particular importance. These errors can be up to 60% of errors throughout the system. These program-specific errors can be divided into three groups, and the so-called error specification with 55% are common. Error service with a share of about 25% have approximately the same meaning and implementation bugs, which have a share of around 20%. The specification error, for example, occurs when wrong is coordination between computational program used for computing program hardware-specific component that when there is insufficient processing power may result in too slow the fishing. This is indicated as being based on a synchronization failure reporting system.

To ensure compliance with time limits or time intervals respectively, regulate the coordination and control of the data exchange between separate blocks of data, and processing data in blocks of data. This is often referred to as schedule "Scheduling". In answering systems distinguish between normal schedule during run-time processing of signals in the form meets the system blocks of the data processing and preliminary schedule (Pre-Runtime Scheduling). When planning a relatively run-time provides control module to comply with time limits or time intervals, which determines the sequence of computer program in the processor of the data processing unit. Each of these programs can, while being developed in the processor after processing interval with a given duration, premature end of calculation or running outside again be removed from the processor. When it comes to jerky managed (Interrupt) mode meeting system. In another izvestnosti development of certain routines in the processor of the data processing unit occur taking into account the dependencies between the individual routines. According to clearly defined so-called graphs. Routines thus presented in the form of nodal points connected by directed line segments. The subroutine is executed when the conditions of all directed line segments, leading to the nodal point. The dependence between the individual routines can be determined before execution of the process automation, and for the execution of each subroutine can be specified the maximum length of time. This length of time is divided into many time slots of equal length, in which work out routine in the processor. During the execution of process automation control module after the expiration of a time interval, check to see what routines meet the criteria for testing. After checking in accordance with predetermined priorities run the appropriate subroutine. Despite the preliminary determination of lead times and dependencies routines among themselves, as explained above, when the periodic divided into time intervals processing, in which respectively one subroutine is processed in the processor, is required openeuphoria information for processing, and management choose a subroutine with respectively the highest priority for processing in the processor during a subsequent time interval. Because of the complexity and unpredictability of border control and management predictions about compliance with time limits or time intervals for process automation are possible and are obtained only during, in particular, periodic process automation.

The objective of the invention is therefore to specify a corresponding system for processing signals, in particular for digital signal processing, which from the state of the input signal produces the state of the output signal before processing state of the input signal allows to determine the maximum run time for the production of state of the output signal. A further task is to specify the method for manufacturing a responsible system for signal processing in the automation process.

According to the invention named the first task is solved by the responsible system for signal processing, which has many blocks of data which are interconnected through the blocks of data and to the lei. The system produces to each state of the input signal according to a comprehensive specification processing, containing coordination and requests blocks of data, blocks of data and computer programs, the state of the output signal and provides further

a) a first database in which the stored maximum processing time of each functional module in dependence given in accordance to the functional module of the data processing unit, and the maximum transmission time of each block data,

b) a second database in which the stored coordinate blocks data blocks, data and computing programs between themselves and the sequence of operations of the signal processing according to the specification processing,

c) a third database in which the stored parameters block data block data and computer programs, in particular the type of construction, number of variants, technical specifications, and

d) synchronizing module from the data stored in data banks, defines the maximum time to get the status of the signal output from the input.

Getting sostoyaniya and decide the amount of subtasks in real time through a comprehensive specification processing. Specification processing includes dividing each subtask in real time on different structural levels. To form a functional circuit, which divides the sub-task in real-time on partial tasks up to the level where the corresponding partial tasks can be solved with elementary functions. For each of these elementary functions, for example 30-50 elementary functions, there is a corresponding functional module. For each functional module is automatically created uniquely given to it in accordance computational program. The functional module may of course also be implemented in the form of a schema with a rigid mounting. Due to the modular structure of functional schemes specified for solving subproblems in real time automatically from the functional modules get a computer program to solve each subtask in real-time. Through the use of small quantities of various functional modules with known processing time is possible not only to evaluate but also to measure the processing time for requiring the most time and is not homogeneous part of each is meyda accurate statements about the maximum processing time. Analysis of the source text of each computer program is no longer required, moreover, the maximum processing time of each functional module is measured depending on the data processing unit, in particular a processing functional unit of the processor. This is the maximum processing time remember in the first data Bank. For each dimension, remember relating to the third Bank of the parameters of the data processing unit that identifies the exact type of data processing unit. They are, among other things, processor type, clock frequency, the amount of available intermediate storage (Cache), the access time of the drive, the number of wait States. Additionally, there may be the option used level of optimization when converting a functional module in a programming language. To determine the maximum processing time of the function module is, in particular, a number of measurements, for example, of the order of magnitude of 104up to 107, the processing time of the function module in every possible form. Further, the measurement can be performed not only on a single function module, but also on the set of functionality is estu functional modules in the functional diagram. Functional modules in the measurement have access to the same values, which, however, delayed in other areas of the drive. For this purpose, during the measurement prepare the vicinity of the measurement, which is not more favorable than at run during the actual signal processing. Obtained from here the maximum processing time of the function module, therefore, can be taken as a reliable upper bound for the processing time of the function module. The maximum processing time is, for example, various functional modules on the processor 80486 company 33 Intel with a clock frequency of 33 MHz value between 3 MS and 1.5 MS.

Because in addition to the call to a separate functional module within the functional scheme for solving the subproblems in real time additionally need only copy and denial, the maximum processing time which can be determined simply, taking into account the coordination of blocks of data between itself and the maximum transmission time between the processing units of the data obtained maximum run time to create state of the output signal, which is determined by sinhronna data Bank.

For each functional module can distinguish between three modes of operation, namely initialization, parameterization and current work. During the parameterization by the way is the definition of the given parameters and the computation required for the function module drives status. During initialization, the initialize function module. For complex functional module that can last longer than the maximum processing time during the current work. Since the initialization precedes the signal processing, the maximum execution time corresponding system during the operation phase it has no effect.

Preferably meets the system contains a module schedule for plan-schedule, which sets the start time for the periodic testing of individual units of the data processing and the time for transmission of data telegrams so that the maximum run time of the entire system is less than a preset length of time. The establishment of the time transfer is made with the account stored in data banks and data, in particular the times of transmission and processing, as well as coordinating the tion, periodic interval data telegrams that contain signals required for other blocks of data. Coming in one block of data signals periodically work out. To ensure that transferred from one block of data signals in a timely manner get to the next periodic testing in the receiving data processing unit, the processing blocks of data are synchronized with each other. Synchronization may, for example, be performed via an external sensor time, which are connecting all the blocks of data. Synchronization can also be done directly between two blocks of data in such a way that constantly compare and equate to each other the time of transmission of the transmitting data processing unit with the time of the failover host data processing unit.

Due to the accumulated data banks and data transmission behavior of the responding system is it possible to establish a plan-schedule before commissioning the answering system. The time of the transfer and testing of individual blocks of data can be set in such a way that achieves high is put with each other in their times of transmission and reception so that that collisions do not occur and the network is not loaded above a given interest rate. This ensures a fully deterministicly the responsible behavior of the system, and system components can be spatially distributed over large distances. In addition, responsible for systems with distributed components, as, for example, in the safety of nuclear power plants, with the emergence of many essential for safety signals reliably excluded invalid conclusions many signals to the data processing unit, which slows down processing, or leads to erroneous processing. In contrast to the known meets the systems in which both the plan-schedule, and the measurement of the load formed by the components of the network occurs only during operation, declared responsible system that is already before you begin. For this purpose, we first make the choice of the appropriate equipment, in particular processors and blocks of data, coaxial lines, amplifiers, repeaters, bridges, and so on adherence to the time limits and time intervals due to this is guaranteed with Reenie answering system with complex specifications, which contains the corresponding modular deterministicly division into functional circuits, which in turn are composed of elementary functional modules.

Preferably meets the system includes a control module, which sum up all the changes of time processing and transmission, in particular by changing the block data, block data or function modules. These changes, as well as changes to the comprehensive specification of the processing and, thus, also in the coordination of the individual components meet the system to each other, the control module leads to a synchronization module to determine an updated lead times. With these changes in a comprehensive specification of the processing by the processing units of the data blocks of the data and the functional modules in the module plan-schedule is also a new finding time transmission of data telegrams and time testing of incoming signals. Due to this, the ability to work in real time and the tolerance to error reporting system is largely provided further also changes.

The responder I is the Management system contains elements generate signals and regulatory elements and/or controls, moreover, the elements generate signals connected via processing blocks and data blocks of the data with the regulatory elements and/or controls. Created elements generate signals the state of the input signal is processed using the answering system in real time, and the state of the output signal corresponding system supplies the input signals for control and/or regulatory elements. The elements generate signals may be electrical, optical or mechanical sensors, which create a state of the input signal. This state of the input signal preferably periodically ask. Controls and/or regulatory elements may include valves, actuators, pumps, and electrical levels of governance and regulation. Particularly suitable is a responsible system in the control system of nuclear power plants to control components that are essential for safety.

Preferably the functional modules of the data processing unit, which are processed with the same period in the data processing unit, United in the group functionalitywith there without interruption for as, what is provided by periodic testing of each functional module. Priority management or control interrupts for mining functional modules, thus, is not required, due to which development can be realized particularly simply.

Functional modules with different periodic times of testing may be indicated by different groups of functional circuits, which have respectively different time period. As the reference period is the shortest period for testing the function module. During this reference period every time is the development of functional modules with a shorter duration period, as well as identifying functional modules, which have a longer duration of period. For example, the duration of the period of rapid functional group schemes is 5 MS, and the duration of the period of the slow group of functional circuits is 50 MS. During the period of 5 MS each time handle a fast group of functional circuits and respectively one-tenth of the slow group funktsioon tested ten times, slow the group of functional circuits in contrast, is exactly once, as it corresponds to its duration period. Due to this, moreover, is achieved in that the functional modules slow group of functional circuits can have access to the latest values of the fast group of functional circuits, if necessary. Preferably the processing of the data telegrams received from the data processing unit, and sent him telegrams data occurs through the slow group of functional circuits, since it is decisive for the processing time of the data processing unit and, thus, determines the time of transmission and reception.

A separate group of functional circuits in the processing time of the slowest group of functional circuits can handle input and output are directly connected to the data processing unit of the peripheral blocks. Such peripheral units are, for example, analog and digital input modules, and a processor for collecting and pre-processing and filtering of signals. As such peripheral blocks in the sequence of testing of the corresponding data processing unit is clonally schemes can for example, to contain between 50 and 100 is composed of individual functional modules functional diagrams so that available during the reference period, the computation time can be used substantially completely. By identifying and separating groups of functional circuits for processing during the slowest duration of the period you can discard priority controlled processing on each data processing unit. This definition and separation is possible prior to commissioning of the responding system. Under certain conditions, requires only released by a processor of the data processing unit command to self-control with low priority. The responder performs, thus, the requirement of a minimum number of commands interrupt (interrupts). It allows, moreover, to use the automatically developed computational program.

Directed to a method of manufacturing a responsible system for signal processing in the automation task is solved according to the invention due to the fact that many blocks of data are connected to each other through the blocks of data and provide computational programs, Priceline specificeret and automatically modularly from a variety of functional modules,

b) for each functional module in dependence given him the data processing unit determines the maximum processing time,

(C) for each block of data determines the maximum transmission time,

d) remember the times of transmission and processing of data and

e) from the saved time transmission and processing of data with regard to the networking of blocks of data, as well as modular construction of computer programs determine the maximum execution time for process automation.

For manufactured thus meet the maximum system run time is determined prior to commissioning. Due to this, it is possible to make a reliable statement as to whether the process automation made feasible thus answering system with the required speed under all circumstances. By changing a comprehensive specification of processing, in particular the type and number of the blocks of the data blocks of the data processing and module executed computer programs, they can make responsible system that securely adheres to the specified execution time for process automation.

This is facilitated by the x and setting times for transmission of data telegrams, transferred from one data processing unit to the next data processing unit. Preferably the processing units synchronize data between an external sensor time so that the shift start time and time of transmission, i.e., the drift is eliminated. It is preferable to register and pre-process changes in line with these changes redefine the maximum execution time or, for example, to reinstall it by changing the time of transmission and the initial moments of time for periodic testing. This is before the new commissioning responsible system to ensure that the process of automation and further is made within the specified duration of time, which is of particular importance, in particular for process automation within the safety of nuclear power plants.

Examples of the responding system, and method for its production are explained in more detail using the drawings on which is shown:

Fig. 1 is a schematic construction meets the system without explaining local location of the individual data components of computer programs.

Schematically shown in Fig. 1 answering system 1 contains many blocks of data 3, which are connected to each other through the blocks of data 2. Blocks of data 2 are standard transmission lines, such as coaxial Ethernet cable, and also a standard transmission elements as amplifiers, repeaters or bridges. To blocks of data 3 down through the elements of the signal generation 6, which are, for example, the measuring sensors of the state of the input signal. In Fig. 1 shows, for clarity, only three such elements generate a signal 6. In the framework of the management system, namely the system of safety of nuclear power plants, many of these elements generate a signal 6 are different, if necessary, far remote from each other places, for example, in the reactor vessel. Blocks of data 3 are connected with blocks of data 2 in a computer network connected to the synchronization module 5, module schedule 4, the control module 9, as well as databases D1, D2 and D3. The answering system 1, which is a computer network that is connected with elements of regulation 7, as well as elements pranoto control of engine valves, which in an open condition lead to discharge from the pressure of the pipeline, which runs any environment. Elements of regulation 7 and controls 8, which, for clarity, there is only one that meets the system is transferred to the state of the output signal. Elements of signal generation 6 issue with the hard period of the current state of the input signal to the answering system 1, which is the latest after a maximum run-time defines hence the state of the output signal and transmits it to the regulatory elements 7, and controls 8. At each data processing unit 3 are implemented in computer programs SW, which are made from a variety of modular functional modules.

To determine the maximum execution time is in sync module 5, which evaluates thus stored in databases D1, D2 and D3 values. Bank data D1 contains the maximum processing time of each functional module depending on given to it according to the data processing unit 3, and the maximum transmission time of each data transfer module 2. Bank data D2 contains a coordination of blocks of data 3, transfer units given the complex specification processing. Bank data D3 contains the parameters of the blocks of data 3, block data 2 and computer programs, in particular the type of construction, number of options, technical specification, processor type, and more. The BOM processing, which specifies the path of the decision to determine a desired state of the output signal when the presence state of the input signal with regard to used computer programs and units of the data 3, and blocks of data, produce a definition of the maximum execution time. Databases D1, D2 and D3 may also be implemented as a single data Bank with the relevant areas of accumulation.

Fig. 2 shows schematically a temporary practice implemented on the data processing unit of the computing programs. These computer program is modular from a variety of different functional modules, and are used in the order of 30-50 different functional modules. Each computing program, which in the following is designated as the functional scheme, solved one subtask of the process automation. The automation process consists of subtasks, which are again subdivided the th installation is specified up to 70 subtasks. They include, for example, to a rapid shutdown of the reactor, a fast shutdown of the turbine or discharge from the pressure reactor under the conditions evaluated as significant from the point of view of safety. Testing of individual functional circuits is specific for the corresponding functional circuit period. Functional scheme with the same processing periods are combined into the so-called group of functional circuits. Shown here for clarity, only two functional FPGa circuits and FPGb. The processing period of more rapid functional FPGa circuits is 5 MS, and the processing period of the slower group functional diagram FPGb is 50 MS. As each group of functional circuits contains up to 50 - 100 individual functional circuits is a possible subdivision of the group of functional circuits on different parts with the same treatment without separation of individual functional circuits. It provided a processing of each functional circuit without interruption, i.e. without unloading and a new download to the processor of the data processing unit. Since the period of the slow group of functional circuits is 50 MS, it is divided into ten parts, which have the R thus, respectively, in the processor load faster group of functional circuits FPGa and part of the slower group of functional circuits FPGb process and there.

Fig. 3 shows, for example, the separation of the slower group of functional circuits FPGb into three parts, the first part contains the first functional circuit FP1, the second part of the second functional circuit FP2 and the fourth functional circuit FP4, which respectively have access to the values of the first functional circuit FP1. The third part contains a third functional circuit FP3 and fifth functional diagram FP5, and the third is a functional diagram of the FP3 has access to the values of the second functional circuit FP2, and the fifth functional diagram FP5 has access to the values of the fourth functional circuit FP4. After downloading fast group of functional circuits FPGa and the corresponding part of the slow group of functional circuits FPGb is accordingly call input or output drivers and then enter the data necessary for a quick group of functional circuits FPGa, fast processing of the group of functional circuits, and the output values generated by the fast group of functional circuits FPGa. In conclusion, is practicing sootwetstwu is how fast the group of functional circuits FPGa is being tested ten times and a slower group of functional circuits FPGb in accordance with its duration - exactly once. By the beginning of this duration period is, in addition, practicing received from the data processing unit of the data telegrams, and at the end of the slower period of the transmission of telegrams-data with the results of the group of functional circuits to the next data processing unit. The slowest group of functional circuits, thus, specifies the start time for processing and receiving telegrams, data and time of transmission for sending data telegrams. With the help of Fig. 2 and 3 have been described for the separation and testing of computer programs in two groups of functional circuits with different time period. The division and development of computer programs happen analog in more than two groups of functional diagrams.

The invention is characterized by the responsible system for processing signals, in which before putting the system in operation can be determined the maximum run time to create state of the output signal of the state of the input signal and can be set as the preset run time. Due to this, you can already before commissioning securely to ensure adherence to the time limits and time integration is Abe time and tolerant to errors. To determine the maximum execution time takes into account the modular construction of computer programs from elementary functional modules, and accordingly the maximum processing time of each functional module. As further known networking form meets the blocks of data, which are implemented in computer programs, and blocks of data linking blocks of data are standard and well known, is provided to determine the maximum execution time. When the periodic assessment of the state of the input signal, except when the setting time transmission of data telegrams and the initial moments of time for processing computer programs on the respective processing units of the data set by network congestion, as well as the maximum run time. This process is termed as the global schedule. By local schedule, i.e. establishing processing computer programs implemented on the data processing unit, may be substantially continuous processing. Due to this, the responder is additionally less than podrabotka data (3), which are connected to each other through the blocks of data (2) and are implemented in computer programs (SW) made of modular set of functional modules, and the system (1) is arranged to determine the state of the output signal state of the input signal according to a comprehensive specification processing, containing coordination and requests blocks of data (3), blocks of data (2) and computer software (SW), the system (1) contains the first data Bank (D1), in which stored maximum processing time of each functional module in dependence given in accordance to the functional module of the data processing unit (3) and the maximum transmission time of each data transfer module (2), the second Bank data (D2) in which the memorized coordinate blocks of data (3), blocks of data (2) and computer programs (SW) between themselves and the sequence of operations of the signal processing according to the specification processing, the third Bank data (D3), which is memorized settings blocks of data (3), blocks of data (2) and computer software (SW), in the particular type of construction, number of options and technical specifics of the La state of the output signal of the state of the input signal from the data stored in data banks (D1, D2, D3).

2. Meet the system (1) under item 1, characterized in that it contains a module schedule (4) made with the possibility of developing such a plan - a schedule containing the initial moments of time for periodic processing of individual blocks of data (3) and the time for transmission of data telegrams to the run time was less than a preset length of time.

3. Meet the system (1) according to any one of p. 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains a control module (9), made with the possibility of registration and to supply the clock to the module (5) to determine the updated run-time each time change processing and transmission, in particular, by changing the block data (3), blocks of data (2) and the functional modules.

4. Meet the system (1) according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that it is made in the form of a control system (1A) for controlling and/or regulating industrial installations, which contains elements of signal generation (6) and regulatory elements (7) and/or controls (8), and the elements of signal generation (6) through the processing units of the data (3) and blocks surrounding the system (1) according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that attached to the data processing unit (3) functional modules combined for periodic processing in the group of functional circuits (FPG).

6. The answering system on p. 5, characterized in that the functional blocks are assigned in accordance with the data processing unit (3), distributed in a fast group of functional circuits (FBGa), short duration of the processing period toand slowly the group of functional circuits (FBGb) with the duration of the processing period tnthat is an integer multiple of the duration of the processing period to.

7. The method of determining the maximum run-time process automation through answering system (1), which processes the signals in process automation in many blocks of data (3) connected to each other through the blocks of data (2) and are implemented in computer program, characterized in that following a comprehensive specification process automation computing program formally specificeret and automatically modularly from a variety of functional modules, each functional module depending on the given options the ACI data (2) determine the maximum transmission time, remember the times of transmission and processing of data and the stored time data transmission and processing with regard to networking blocks of data (3), as well as modular construction of computer programs determine the maximum execution time for process automation.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the initial moments of time for periodic processing of individual blocks of data (3) and the time for transferring data to determine so that the execution time for process automation was less than a preset length of time.

 

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SUBSTANCE: method includes estimation of quality coefficients of electric energy in electric energy system, determining degree of matching of these coefficients to normal values, forming of control signal for correcting devices and predicting electric energy characteristics expected after effect of these devices. On basis of analysis of predicted characteristics quality coefficients are newly estimated and if necessary control signals for correction devices are formed. Estimation of not only voltage and frequency is provided, but also current. Whole cycle is repeated for each node of electric energy system.

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1 dwg

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