The method of forming monodisperse stream of droplets from a liquid stream

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of spheroids given size of the electrically conductive solutions of the corresponding substances in various industries, including nuclear, where it can be used in the manufacture of fuel elements for reactors of nuclear power plants. The objective of the invention is to create a stream of droplets of a given size with the same trajectories and distances between them. The proposed method is that undecayed part of the stream of solution flowing from the nozzle, deflect in opposite directions, perpendicular to the jet axis, with the resonant frequency fr= Vs/2towhere Vs- speed jets; to- the length of the capillary wave. Thus deflect carry out local electric field with an amplitude value of tension within (1 to 1.5) 104V/cm, varying with frequency fron the opposite perpendicular to its axis directions. Formed in this way, the flow drops have the same diameter, their trajectories and distances between them are equal. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of technologies, and in other industries.

Typically, the stream of droplets is produced by atomization of the corresponding solution.

Known various methods of atomization of the liquid: mechanical, electrical, gas, ultrasonic, considered, for example, in the work of the Squires, D. , Koryagina A. A., Lamm, E. L. "the Spray device in the chemical industry", M. , "Chemistry", 1975. 199 C. they All have a common drawback: the resulting drops in varying degrees, have a considerable range of sizes and trajectories.

Most similar in its essence and the achieved result of the method of atomization fluid nozzle with a nozzle having a cylindrical hole running the axisymmetric collapse of the jet. (Y. F. Gitarkin, L. A. Klyachko, B. C. Novikov, V. I. Yagodkin. "The atomization of liquids, M., "mechanical engineering". 1997. 208 S.).

In this mode of operation of the injector, you can get the lowest compared to other known methods, the sheer size and trajectories formed drops.

This method is taken as a prototype, implemented, for example, in the device of the generator drops described in EN and.with. N 764729, class B 05 B 1/02, 1980.

A significant drawback of the prototype method is that Ni in the beginning of their trajectory, i.e. near undecayed part of the jet, as the distance from the nozzle leads to a more and more chaotic distribution of these droplets in space.

Due to the superposition of the individual drops, including multiple, leading to their merger, there is a considerable number of drops, sizes and trajectories which differ significantly from the original.

The situation is exacerbated when the horizontal direction of the jet, when the trajectory of the drops stronger influence of gravity. Therefore, already at relatively small distances from the nozzle of the injector and axisymmetric collapse of the jet flow is scattered in the space drops of various sizes.

The aim of the invention is to provide a method of forming droplets, which provides a constant size and trajectory and maximum distance between them that allows you to get the maximum possible output of the required structures spheroids in subsequent production stages.

This objective is achieved in that the undecayed part of the liquid stream flowing from the nozzle of the injector in the axially symmetric mode decomposition deflect in opposite directions, perpendicular to the jet axis, with perarnau waves.

In this case, the diameter of all of the formed droplets (Dsthe same and equal to Ds= 1,9 Dwithand the distance between them as much as possible (Dwith- diameter nozzle).

Of all possible ways of deflection of the jet is the easiest to implement is a method based on the influence of the local electric field acting alternately on opposite perpendicular to its axis directions at the above frequency.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that it uses not described in the known literature, the phenomenon of resonance waves of capillary origin, formed on the surface of undecayed part of the jet, and the transverse waves of forced oscillations with frequency fr.

When the deviation undecayed part of the jet of the local electric field is used, the effect of the interaction of electric fields induced them in the electrically conductive medium charge (in this case, the charge induced in the surface layer of undecayed part of the jet).

The deviation of the local area of the jet occurs in the direction of the electrode, to which is attached the potential of creating electric is americna located with respect to the jet axis of the electrode, on which frequency fralternately served potentials of any sign, forming a deflecting electric field.

When the amplitude value of intensity of the deflecting electric fieldais within (1-1,5)104In/see the upper and lower limits are determined by the following factors:

- whena< 1104V/cm amplitude of forced oscillations is insufficient for reliable synchronization of the process of formation, as a result, you may receive the spread of the trajectories of individual drops;

- when a> 1,5104In/cm drops appear non-standard sizes.

If these conditions after the collapse of the jet produces a stream of droplets of the same diameter Ds. The distance between the drops is the same and equal to the length of the capillary waves.

The length of the capillary waves can be determined, for example, by the method of ultra-fast (with exposure of 10-4- 10-5(C) photography.

Thus, the formation method with the specified resonant frequency and amplitude values of the electric field allows you to receive a stream of droplets of a given size with the same distances between the realizatsii.

The proposed method was tested on the installation, designed to disperse an aqueous salt solution. Jet solution flowed through a steel capillary with a length of 12 mm diameter 0.35 mm with a speed of 0.39 l/h Electric field created by means of two electrodes made of steel wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, are located symmetrically with respect to the jet axis at a distance of 1 mm from the surface of the stream and at 1 mm from the edge of the outlet capillary.

The voltage on each of the electrodes was supplied through the diodes connected in opposite directions from a source of alternating voltage with a maximum amplitude equal to 1000 C. At the indicated values of the velocity of the expiry of the solution and the hole diameter of the capillary, the resonant frequency of oscillation equal to 350 Hz. The stream consisted of droplets, whose diameter was the same and equal to the design value (0.66 mm).

In case of horizontal arrangement of nozzles nozzle flow drops due to gravitational forces at a distance of 100 mm from its end being deflected downwards by 30 mm, While the deviation of the trajectories of individual drops flow from the average value at a specified distance does not exceed 1,5 mm

The output of drops of a given diameter was effect from the application of the proposed method is expected when it is used in the manufacture of cores of nuclear materials for the manufacture of fuel for nuclear reactors.

In Fig. 1 to illustrate the proposed method of forming drops below photos acquired using a digital camera with an exposure time of less than 10-4C.

On the frame 1A shows a portion of undecayed part of the jet and the initial spatial distribution of the stream of droplets in the absence of a transverse electric field. On the surface of the jet is visible capillary waves whose length is equal to the distance between peaks thickening spray.

On the frame 1B shows the spatial distribution of droplets at a distance of 10 cm from the nozzle in the absence of an electric field. Visible chaotic spatial distribution of drops.

On the frame 1B is shown obtained by the proposed method, the spatial distribution of the stream of droplets at a distance of 10 cm from the nozzle under the action of electric fields with the resonant frequency fr. The diameters and the trajectory of the droplets in the stream and the distance between them in this case are the same.

1. The method of forming monodisperse stream of droplets of the liquid stream flowing from the nozzle, characterized in that adjacent to the nozzle section undecayed part of the jet deflect in opposite directions, perpendicu and;to- length of capillary waves.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the deviation of undecayed part of the jet exercise, alternately applying a local electric field varying with frequency frwith an amplitude value of tension within (1 to 1.5) 104V/cm with the opposite perpendicular to its axis directions.

 

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