The method of forming monodisperse stream of droplets from a liquid stream
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the production of spheroids given size of the electrically conductive solutions of the corresponding substances in various industries, including nuclear, where it can be used in the manufacture of fuel elements for reactors of nuclear power plants. The objective of the invention is to create a stream of droplets of a given size with the same trajectories and distances between them. The proposed method is that undecayed part of the stream of solution flowing from the nozzle, deflect in opposite directions, perpendicular to the jet axis, with the resonant frequency fr= Vs/2towhere Vs- speed jets; to- the length of the capillary wave. Thus deflect carry out local electric field with an amplitude value of tension within (1 to 1.5) 104V/cm, varying with frequency fron the opposite perpendicular to its axis directions. Formed in this way, the flow drops have the same diameter, their trajectories and distances between them are equal. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of technologies, and in other industries.Typically, the stream of droplets is produced by atomization of the corresponding solution.Known various methods of atomization of the liquid: mechanical, electrical, gas, ultrasonic, considered, for example, in the work of the Squires, D. , Koryagina A. A., Lamm, E. L. "the Spray device in the chemical industry", M. , "Chemistry", 1975. 199 C. they All have a common drawback: the resulting drops in varying degrees, have a considerable range of sizes and trajectories.Most similar in its essence and the achieved result of the method of atomization fluid nozzle with a nozzle having a cylindrical hole running the axisymmetric collapse of the jet. (Y. F. Gitarkin, L. A. Klyachko, B. C. Novikov, V. I. Yagodkin. "The atomization of liquids, M., "mechanical engineering". 1997. 208 S.).In this mode of operation of the injector, you can get the lowest compared to other known methods, the sheer size and trajectories formed drops.This method is taken as a prototype, implemented, for example, in the device of the generator drops described in EN and.with. N 764729, class B 05 B 1/02, 1980.A significant drawback of the prototype method is that Ni in the beginning of their trajectory, i.e. near undecayed part of the jet, as the distance from the nozzle leads to a more and more chaotic distribution of these droplets in space.Due to the superposition of the individual drops, including multiple, leading to their merger, there is a considerable number of drops, sizes and trajectories which differ significantly from the original.The situation is exacerbated when the horizontal direction of the jet, when the trajectory of the drops stronger influence of gravity. Therefore, already at relatively small distances from the nozzle of the injector and axisymmetric collapse of the jet flow is scattered in the space drops of various sizes.The aim of the invention is to provide a method of forming droplets, which provides a constant size and trajectory and maximum distance between them that allows you to get the maximum possible output of the required structures spheroids in subsequent production stages.This objective is achieved in that the undecayed part of the liquid stream flowing from the nozzle of the injector in the axially symmetric mode decomposition deflect in opposite directions, perpendicular to the jet axis, with perarnau waves.In this case, the diameter of all of the formed droplets (Dsthe same and equal to Ds= 1,9 Dwithand the distance between them as much as possible (Dwith- diameter nozzle).Of all possible ways of deflection of the jet is the easiest to implement is a method based on the influence of the local electric field acting alternately on opposite perpendicular to its axis directions at the above frequency.A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that it uses not described in the known literature, the phenomenon of resonance waves of capillary origin, formed on the surface of undecayed part of the jet, and the transverse waves of forced oscillations with frequency fr.When the deviation undecayed part of the jet of the local electric field is used, the effect of the interaction of electric fields induced them in the electrically conductive medium charge (in this case, the charge induced in the surface layer of undecayed part of the jet).The deviation of the local area of the jet occurs in the direction of the electrode, to which is attached the potential of creating electric is americna located with respect to the jet axis of the electrode, on which frequency fralternately served potentials of any sign, forming a deflecting electric field.When the amplitude value of intensity of the deflecting electric fieldais within (1-1,5)104In/see the upper and lower limits are determined by the following factors:
- whena< 1104V/cm amplitude of forced oscillations is insufficient for reliable synchronization of the process of formation, as a result, you may receive the spread of the trajectories of individual drops;
- when a> 1,5104In/cm drops appear non-standard sizes.If these conditions after the collapse of the jet produces a stream of droplets of the same diameter Ds. The distance between the drops is the same and equal to the length of the capillary waves.The length of the capillary waves can be determined, for example, by the method of ultra-fast (with exposure of 10-4- 10-5(C) photography.Thus, the formation method with the specified resonant frequency and amplitude values of the electric field allows you to receive a stream of droplets of a given size with the same distances between the realizatsii.The proposed method was tested on the installation, designed to disperse an aqueous salt solution. Jet solution flowed through a steel capillary with a length of 12 mm diameter 0.35 mm with a speed of 0.39 l/h Electric field created by means of two electrodes made of steel wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, are located symmetrically with respect to the jet axis at a distance of 1 mm from the surface of the stream and at 1 mm from the edge of the outlet capillary.The voltage on each of the electrodes was supplied through the diodes connected in opposite directions from a source of alternating voltage with a maximum amplitude equal to 1000 C. At the indicated values of the velocity of the expiry of the solution and the hole diameter of the capillary, the resonant frequency of oscillation equal to 350 Hz. The stream consisted of droplets, whose diameter was the same and equal to the design value (0.66 mm).In case of horizontal arrangement of nozzles nozzle flow drops due to gravitational forces at a distance of 100 mm from its end being deflected downwards by 30 mm, While the deviation of the trajectories of individual drops flow from the average value at a specified distance does not exceed 1,5 mmThe output of drops of a given diameter was effect from the application of the proposed method is expected when it is used in the manufacture of cores of nuclear materials for the manufacture of fuel for nuclear reactors.In Fig. 1 to illustrate the proposed method of forming drops below photos acquired using a digital camera with an exposure time of less than 10-4C.On the frame 1A shows a portion of undecayed part of the jet and the initial spatial distribution of the stream of droplets in the absence of a transverse electric field. On the surface of the jet is visible capillary waves whose length is equal to the distance between peaks thickening spray.On the frame 1B shows the spatial distribution of droplets at a distance of 10 cm from the nozzle in the absence of an electric field. Visible chaotic spatial distribution of drops.On the frame 1B is shown obtained by the proposed method, the spatial distribution of the stream of droplets at a distance of 10 cm from the nozzle under the action of electric fields with the resonant frequency fr. The diameters and the trajectory of the droplets in the stream and the distance between them in this case are the same. 1. The method of forming monodisperse stream of droplets of the liquid stream flowing from the nozzle, characterized in that adjacent to the nozzle section undecayed part of the jet deflect in opposite directions, perpendicu and;to- length of capillary waves.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the deviation of undecayed part of the jet exercise, alternately applying a local electric field varying with frequency frwith an amplitude value of tension within (1 to 1.5) 104V/cm with the opposite perpendicular to its axis directions.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: in end piece, flow conic slit-like channel of variable section is made screwed with rotation of longitudinal axis for angle 20-60°. Section at output is decreased in comparison to input in 1.5-3 times.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: sanitary equipment, particularly for domestic, medical and transport use.
SUBSTANCE: device includes lavatory pan with hinged seat, flushing tank, composite tube with operating handle to supply water from water source to pouring head, namely to shower head. Operating handle includes L-shaped connection pipe arranged in depression formed in seat and having short and long parts. L-shaped connection pipe rotates around long part axis during water pouring out process and may be longitudinally displaced. L-shaped connection pipe is freely arranged on lavatory pan and freely detached from it. Connection pipe is secured to pouring head. Short part of connection pipe is attached from below with water source by means of flexible hose. Short part axis is always parallel to pouring direction of pouring head. Operating handle includes two mutually perpendicular arms provided with seating areas for L-shaped connection pipe installation in different positions is socket of wall holder. Shower head made in accordance with the first embodiment comprises hollow body with outlet cavity, outlet net for water pouring and inlet L-shaped connection pipe. Connection pipe includes seating areas for shower head installation in wall holder socket formed in transition area between short and long parts of connection pipe. Shower head may perform mechanical rotation inside wall holder socket. Shower head made in accordance with the second embodiment comprises body with outlet cavity, outlet net for water pouring and handle. Arranged inside body are relief valve, shutoff member and operating lever connected to relief valve by the first lever arm and kinematically linked with control member of shower head handle by another, free, end. L-shaped connection pipe is used as shower head handle. Shower head handle has inner water hose. Connection pipe includes seating areas for shower head installation in wall holder socket formed in transition area between short and long parts of connection pipe. Shower head may perform mechanical rotation inside wall holder socket.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced number of supply pipeline branches, elimination of hinge and sealing connections usage, improved ability of device detachment.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: nozzles, particularly for cleaning reservoir bottom from residual viscous, high-viscous and hardening liquids and for removing deposits near connection pipes of fire-extinguishing systems adapted for extinguishing fire in reservoirs.
SUBSTANCE: device bottom is provided with radial eccentrically located distributors formed as plates having chamfers on the first plate sides. Plate length is less than device bottom radius. Plate height exceeds width of gap defined by device body and bottom.
EFFECT: increased efficiency along with maintaining design effective volume of the reservoir, reduced reservoir damage due to corrosive action.
FIELD: heat-and-power engineering, particularly for medium and deep water spraying in cooling towers, scrubbers, gas and steam condensing plants, gas-cleaning systems, for spraying high-viscous liquids or liquids with considerable content of impurities.
SUBSTANCE: nozzle comprises connection pipe and deflecting members formed so that cone angle of each next deflecting member is less than that of previous one. Nozzle has conical body. Deflecting members made as deflecting washers are arranged along vertical axis between at least two fixing posts. Deflecting washers have inner orifices decreasing in direction away from inlet connection pipe. Each deflecting washer is made as truncated cone. Outermost deflecting washer is of hemispheric shape and adapted for water spraying into area located under nozzle connected with pipeline by straight and adapter couplings. To increase hydraulic capacity and system flexibility cascade nozzles with lesser inlet connection pipe diameters are substituted for ones with greater diameters.
EFFECT: increased cooling efficiency, simplified structure, improved flexibility, minimizing of nozzle clogging.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: furnace comprises combustion chamber whose bottom section is provided with the igniter and branch pipe for supplying fuel, intermediate section is provided with the branch pipe for supplying waste, and top section is provided with the exhaust branch pipe connected with the duct for discharging flue gases. The casing is mounted around the chamber to define the air passage between the casing and outer side of the chamber. The passage is in communication with the bottom section of the combustion chamber and branch pipe for supplying fuel. The casing is provided with the air supply branch pipe. The branch pipe for supplying fuel receives at least one pair of vortex cyclonic chambers whose openings for air supply are made in opposite tangential directions.
EFFECT: enhanced environmental safety.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: irrigation equipment, in particular, fine-dispersion or drop sprinkling equipment used in mobile and stationary sprinkler units for producing of sprays with droplet sizes admissible for irrigation of wide range of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has hollow cylindrical casing with partition wall, wherein guiding rod is rigidly fixed centrally of partition wall. Conical deflector with curved grooves is fixed on guiding rod for displacement along it. Location of conical deflector in predetermined position on guiding rod is provided by means of adjustment nut which may is fixed by lock nut. In order to form uniform liquid film around perimeter of conical deflector, grooves are provided in such a manner that they do not reach edge by distance equal to width of casing outlet opening ring, when conical deflector is lifted to maximal extent. Fluoroplastic layer is built in friction surface of conical deflector.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in producing of finely dispersed uniform spray, simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment for carrying out health-improving and curing hydrothermal treatment. Proposed contrast sprays set has sprays panel made of two non-communicating tubular systems consisting of collecting and operating pipes installed parallel to each other at preset angle to sides of sprays panel. Operating pipes are provided with great number of holes pointed to side of operating zone. Panel is installed on supports for reciprocating in plane of panel under action of drive.
EFFECT: provision of convenience in treatment of patient, and accurately checking of main parameters.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: spraying equipment, particularly hydrodynamics of delivery pipeline adapted to be used in different industries.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises pump, liquid vessel, barrel with control arm and flexible hoses. Barrel includes valve with grooves to provide working liquid jet bypass in reverse direction to pump inlet. Device also has means aimed at reduction of losses and minimization of force to be applied to valve control arm. More particularly, valve grooves are inclined at 60° angle one to another, device comprises collars for valve securing having outer and inner packing members with seats and providing free valve rotation about valve axis. The rotation is performed around pin with packing member. Pin diameter is considerably lesser than valve diameter.
EFFECT: simplified structure, improved performance and increased safety.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: liquid spraying equipment, particularly used in fire-fighting, sanitary and watering facilities, for liquid fuel combustion, etc.
SUBSTANCE: sprayer has body with channels for liquid jets forming and liquid supply nipple. The channels are directed so that axes thereof cross beyond channel outlets in sprayed liquid flow generation space. Minimal distance between crossing axes does not exceed hydraulic channel radius Rh value. Distance between outlet channel sections and sprayed liquid flow generation space defined by plane with minimal distance between crossing channel axes preferably does not exceed 80Rh. Sprayer body may be provided with chamber shaped as solid of revolution and installed beyond outlet channel sections. Axial channel may be formed in the sprayer body. Channels may have equal cross-sections. Sprayer in accordance with the second embodiment has one channel with cross-sectional area, which is not more than 2 times greater than that of another one.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of droplet intensity and dispersion over flow section, reduced energy consumption.
1 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: spraying or atomizing.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises housing with the lid provided with even number of nozzles and disk deflector provided with odd number of ring recesses. Each ring recess has central corner that overlaps the outlet openings of adjacent nozzles.
EFFECT: improved design.
5 cl, 8 dwg