A method of creating ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika, in particular to the creation of ice crossings on natural ice for traffic. The invention is directed to increasing the carrying capacity of the ice crossing. The technical result is achieved due to the space beneath the ice cover on the way the ice terminal insulating material. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating crossings on natural ice for traffic.The prior art known from the method of ice crossings without superstructure on natural ice, which consists in preparing a route through early clearing of the ice surface along the intended path from snow to accelerate the growth of ice (Peschansky, I. C. Lagoudera and hladotehnika. - L.: Sea transport, 1963. - 245 C. -).The disadvantage of this method is insufficient bearing capacity of the ice cover that is used as a terminal, due to the low strength of the lower layers of ice due to the temperature drop across the thickness of the ice cover from 0oC on the bottom edge to temperatute centuries, Gavrilo B. N. Ice. The physical properties. Modern methods of glaciology. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1981. - 384 S.- ).The task of the invention is to provide a reliable ice crossing.Technical result achieved when the task is to increase the strength of the ice cover.The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive: scraping ice from snow.Distinctive: in ice cover along the intended path of the ice crossing prepare a slot, through which the ice is placed a layer of insulation material and then press it to the bottom surface of the ice cover.It is known  that the temperature decrease of the ice cover leads to an increase in its strength characteristics and a more intensive growth of its thickness. If under the bottom surface of the ice cover to place a layer of insulation material, the temperature of ice on the top and bottom surfaces decreases. I.e., the temperature of the lower layer of ice will fall. This will increase the strength of the ice, and, if the insulating layer is made of water-permeable fabric and between the ice and the PSS is based on the ability of the ice crossing increases both due to the increase of the strength properties of ice, and by increasing the thickness of the ice cover.The method is as follows.Along the planned ice road ice crossing from one side of the ice tracks are produced along the entire length of the slot through which the ice is placed a layer of insulation material, for example, in the form of a strip of fabric having heat insulating properties and having a width not less than the width of the track. Then one of the edges of the layer of insulating material is fixed on the upper surface of the ice cover. On the other hand ice route along its entire length drill the holes through which using the usual cables under the ice layer of insulating material straighten under the ice and press the edge of the material, the opposite is fixed to the lower surface of the ice cover. After the time required for complete solidification of the slot and marajuana cables, wound through the holes prepared in this way ice crossing is exposed to natural low temperature for the time required to reach the minimum temperature difference at the top and bottom surfaces of the ice cover. After this ice perar is you by hardening of the ice cover.In ice cover 1 along the intended path crossing from one side of the ice track along its entire length are prepared in slot 2, through which the ice is placed a layer of insulating material 3 of a width less than the width of the ice road. Then the edge of the layer of material 4 is fixed on the upper surface of the ice cover. On the other hand ice route along its entire length drill holes 5, through which with the aid instituted under the ice 1 6 cables straighten the strip material 3 under the ice and press the edge of the material 7, opposite the fixed edge 4, to the lower surface of the ice cover 1. After complete freezing of the slot 2 and the holes 5 and the time required to reach the minimum temperature difference at the top and bottom surfaces of the ice cover, ice crossing is ready for operation. The way to create icy crossing, which consists in Stripping the ice surface from snow, characterized in that the ice cover along the intended path of the ice crossing prepare a slot, through which the ice is placed a layer of insulation material and then press it to the bottom surface of the ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.