Storage for hazardous materials in earthquake-prone regions
(57) Abstract:Usage: during the construction of the storage of environmentally hazardous materials in earthquake-prone regions to improve the reliability in seismic impact by creating mnogoseriynogo constructive efforts for efficient use of space and the provision of additional tanks for storage of materials. The inventive storage consists of a group of cylindrical tanks, around which was built toroidal composite shell on the section height of 0.8-1.0 height of the tank is divided into separate compartments of the power diaphragm. Within the Torah at different levels along the height of the cross section are lingering elements consisting of diametrically joined at the center of the torus and the arcuate covering each tank metal ties. The ends of the metal links attached to a force transverse apertures toroidal shell. The space between the tanks and the toroidal shell filled with damping material, sand or genomescan mixture. Around the toroidal shell is erected to the full height of the last compacted earthen wall. 3 Il. The invention relates to p is x materials (radioactive and toxic waste, oil and oil products, liquefied gas, etc), built in earthquake-prone regions, where the destruction of the tanks during earthquakes can lead to environmental disaster.Known earthquake resistant reinforced concrete toroidal storage tanks for hazardous materials .A disadvantage of the known design is not sufficiently full use of premises for storage of materials as is not provided for filling the space inside the torus.Known cylindrical tank for petroleum storage device on the perimeter of the reservoir compensation toroidal shell open cross section, one longitudinal edge of which is attached to the wall, and the other to the bottom of the tank. On the bottom parallel to the partition wall is equipped with the formation between the last and the toroidal shell annular gap filled with non-freezing fluid .A disadvantage of the known design is the unsuitability of the tank to use in the earthquake, because the compensation device only eliminates bending moments arising in the wall and the bottom of the reserve is skim is the storage of oil and oil products, consists of a group of cylindrical tanks, compensatory protective devices and compacted earthen shaft, protecting it from impacts resulting from displacements of the soil .The disadvantages of the known store is its lack of reliability when exposed to seismic loads, due to offsite tanks and the lack of a hard a single structural system.The technical challenge is to improve the reliability of the storage of environmentally hazardous materials in seismic impact by creating mnogoseriynogo constructive reinforcement for a rational use of space and the provision of additional tanks for storage of materials.The problem is solved in such a way that in store for environmentally hazardous materials in earthquake-prone regions, including a group of cylindrical tanks, protective compensatory device and compacted earthen shaft, according to the invention a protective compensatory device made in the form divided into compartments force transverse diaphragms composite toroidal shell built around a group of cylindrical reserve the expansion shell protracted elements, consisting of diametrically joined at the center of the torus and the arcuate covering each tank metal ties, the ends of which are anchored in the power of the transverse apertures of the shell, and the space between the tank and the shell is filled with sand or genomescan mixture, and the earth wall built around the toroidal shell to a height of the cross section of the latter.Offer vault is characterized by the fact that around a group of cylindrical tanks erected protective composite toroidal shell section height, equal to 0.8 and 1.0 times the height of the tank, provided with a forming in the internal volume of the torus separate compartments transverse force diaphragms. Within the Torah at different levels along the height of the cross section of the shell are lingering elements in the form of diametrically joined at the center of the torus and the arcuate covering each tank metal ties. The ends of the ties enshrined in law enforcement transverse apertures of the shell. Thus the space between the containers to the full height filled with sand or genomescan mixture, and around the toroidal shell erected shaft of compacted soil.The execution of the toroidal shell section height of 0.8-1.0 height-cutting with respect to the axial radius of the circle of the torus to the section height is not more than 5-7 due to its shape itself originally has a high spatial stiffness and seismic stability and greatly can reduce the force of impact within the Torah from seismic loads. With the increase in specified relationship to deform the shell grows, reducing compensation-damping effect. To increase the stiffness and seismic stability of toroidal shell and store tor the tank is provided with an internal power diaphragms, metal lingering elements of internal storage space filled with damping material, and outside storage deboned compacted soil.In Fig. 1 shows a store in plan; Fig. 2 - section a-a of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 - section b-B of Fig. 1.Storage for hazardous materials in earthquake-prone regions consists of a cylindrical tank 1, a compact group, around which was built composite toroidal shell 2 section height in the range of 0.8-1.0 height of the cylindrical tank. Toroidal shell 2 is divided into separate compartments force transverse orifice 3. At different levels along the height of the shell is placed a lingering elements 4, consisting of diametrically metal ties 5, connected to the node 6, and curved metal ties 7. The ends of the metal links 5 and 7 is fixed in a force transverse apertures 3 of the shell 2. Space is th mixture. Around the toroidal shell 2 to the full height of the cross section of the shell is formed of compacted earthen shaft 9.Store erected as follows.Around a group of tanks 1 toroidal shell 2 built in monolithic form in a double fixed steel formwork or in prefabricated form of separate elements-rings combine between a tension cable fittings (first barrier strengthening). In the wall of the torus-containers can be arranged in the required number of inlet hatches and communication inputs.To increase the stiffness and seismic stability of toroidal shell suit hard power transverse aperture 3, which divide the interior volume into separate compartments (the second barrier strengthening). The compartments are just additional capacity for storage of materials, substances, fire, ballast water, or technical areas. Aperture 3 perform the role of transverse stiffeners shell and, in addition, dividing the internal space into separate containers, allow more evenly distribute dynamic loads under seismic mass movement of the filling capacity of liquids.Tallicheskih diametrically links 5, joined at the center of the torus in node 6, and curved links 7, covering each reservoir 1. The ends of the metal ties should be fixed in the power diaphragm 3. Communication 5 different directions in each level are rigidly interconnected at node 6 in the center of the torus. Links 5 are limiters strain tor-capacity in the direction transverse to the direction of horizontal seismic effects, which significantly increases the overall rigidity of the structures and their relationship to the Central node 6 allows for a more evenly to include in the various phases of construction (the third barrier strengthening). Lingering elements 4 for each of the cylindrical tank 1 is formed of an elastic bed, lowering the horizontal displacements of the walls in different height levels due to the transmission caused by seismic impact of efforts on the adjoining plot of toroidal shell 2 (fourth barrier strengthening).Fixing links 5 and 7 to force the diaphragms 3, giving effort on the shell 2, is carried out by skipping protracted elements 4 through the body of the diaphragm 3 through the appropriate channels with end cap-stops on the outer side of the torus, or by welding the ends of metal links 5 and 7 to steel sakellari 1 and the shell 2 at the final stage of construction fills the entire height of the layer of damping material 8 - sand or genomescan mixture prepared in the form of a solution, containing clay and sand in the ratio 1:10 - 1:15, which provides sufficient viscosity for the formation of skeletal material (fifth barrier strengthening). Then make the outer obalovanie structures compacted soil 9 slope at full height toroidal shell 2 (sixth barrier fortification, than sharply reduce the amount of efforts from various problems, including seismic loads in the top shell by increasing the area of its elastic support.Thus, the proposed design of the store due to mnogoseriynogo strengthening groups cylindrical tanks for the storage of environmentally hazardous materials in earthquake-prone areas, combining a system of constructive measures, provides a high degree of operational reliability and environmental safety of these facilities.Sources of information:
1. Certificate of utility model 3504 N, G 21 F 9/22, 16.01.97.2. USSR author's certificate N494513, E 04 H 7/00, 05.12.75.3. Reinforced concrete tanks for storage of oil and oil products. Design and construction / edited by T. T. Stulov. -M.: Nedra, 1968, S. 15, 117-160. Hervartov, protective compensatory device and compacted earthen shaft, characterized in that the protective compensatory device made in the form divided into compartments force transverse diaphragms composite toroidal shell built around a group of cylindrical tanks, section height, equal to 0.8 and 1.0 times the height of the tank, and located inside the torus at different levels along the height of the cross section of the shell protracted elements consisting of diametrically joined at the center of the torus and the arcuate covering each tank metal ties, the ends of which are anchored in the power of the transverse apertures of the shell, and the space between the tank and the shell is filled with sand or genomescan mixture, and the earth wall built around the toroidal shell to the height of the latter.
FIELD: monitoring the ecological safety.
SUBSTANCE: it is proposed a new method for monitoring the safety of sites for storage of radioactive wastes. The method is based on determination of the Cr(VI) nonsorbed ion concentration in the soils, surrounding the storage sites.
EFFECT: reliability of monitoring the safety of sites for radioactive waste storage.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: evacuation of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for container-free subsurface burial of solid radioactive wastes in abandoned deep workings of cryolite zone involves delivery of solid radiation sources pre-cooled in winter to abandoned mine workings. Radiation sources are placed in layer-by-layer manner on prepared falsework paled floor, leveled, compacted, flooded with water, and frozen by natural cold before piling radioactive wastes to full height of subsurface workings. In the process, burial ground is shaped in the form of pillar. Split ice is added in the course of placing layers of solid radioactive wastes including their forced cooling with cold atmospheric air.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: disposal of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for building radioactive waste disposal structure involves formation of horizontal helical system of round-section transport and room tunnels penetrated by single mechanized tunneling machine including erection of grade-crossing elimination structures. Helical system of tunnels is made in the form of ellipse with variable distance between adjacent tunnels of helical system. Grade-crossing elimination structures are erected at two diametrically opposite points of system where each pair of tunnels is joined to form single tunnel communicating with adjacent coupled tunnel through crossover. Tunnel-to-tunnel distance is predetermined at several points by simulation including heat and radiation load on soil mass.
EFFECT: enhanced radiation safety and reduced construction charges.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: long-term storage of radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: spent nuclear fuel storage has vertical well with bridge in top part of well, containers with spent nuclear fuel boxes disposed in well, and well ventilating system. Containers are made in the form of cylinders with perforated sections in bottom part which are vertically installed on well face. Boxes holding spent nuclear fuel are disposed within container one on top of other. At least one empty container is placed in well and bridge is installed in top part of well below upper ends of containers.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and long time of radioactive wastes isolation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: burying liquid radioactive wastes; waste recovery at radiochemical plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for burying liquid radioactive wastes incorporating hydrolyzing admixtures into deep-seated container bed includes correction of waste pH by nitric acid solutions and pre-treatment of container bed by forcing nitric acid solutions therein. Nitric acid solution is introduced into container bed in amount sufficient for neutralizing carbonates contained in soil which enters in reaction with waste and for attaining void liquid pH of 1.5, as well as into wastes until their pH is brought to 1 - 1.5. Under such conditions wastes are passed into deep-seated formations without precipitating over long distances.
EFFECT: elongated working time of well, enhanced safety of burying wastes into deep-seated beds.
1 cl, 3 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: physics; construction.
SUBSTANCE: process of crashed atomic reactor entombment includes construction of underground mortuary in the form of vertical underground excavation. Internal volume of the excavation is filled with ice which forms a new temporary ice foundation under the basis of the crashed reactor. The weight of the latter is shifted to the new ice foundation, heat is conducted to it, and gradually the height of ice foundation is decreasing till the complete removal of ice. At that, the crashed reactor is set at the mortuary made previously at the basement of excavation. Before deposition of the crashed reactor underground, solidity (thickness) of frozen soil body under the reactor basis is improved, and then, after the new ice foundation is ready, the load is increased, and the previous ground base is destroyed by adjoining of excavation ice body to the crashed reactor basis via flexible load-bearing cables laid through the vertical wells.
EFFECT: reduces amount of work in immediate proximity to a crashed atomic reactor.
FIELD: underground disposal of biologically hazardous sewage.
SUBSTANCE: process of underground disposal of biologically hazardous sewage into geological formations, which do not have distinct aquifiers above the working floor, includes drilling of injection wells and pumping sewage into the working floor. The process is distinguished by sewage pumping into working floor simultaneously with technical fluid injection into a stratum above the working floor. Pressure of technical fluid injection into the buffering floor is sustained at the level of 0.9-1.1 of sewage injection pressure in the working floor.
EFFECT: prevents disposed sewage penetration into higher aquifiers.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: construction, hydrotechnics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to cleaning methods for beds of minor rivers in permafrost zone with seasonal flow from sediments contaminated with radionuclides from radioactive solid waste handling. Removal of contaminated sediments is executed in winter by segments in downstream direction after discharge cancellation and their dewatering. Bottom ground is loosened and mechanically shaved by layers as it is freezed by natural cold with stocking it in temporary piles and subsequent transportation outside river floodplain for burying or laying in surface burial hills. To speed-up layer-by-layer freezing the net of trenches with vertical walls is cut in parallel in bottom ground depth as it freezes. Trench width is defined by parameters of equipment being used, their depth is not less than half a meter and distance between trenches corresponds to double trench depth. The invention allows to isolate from biota (for a period of not less than 100 years) the most migration suspectable solid radioactive wastes and hence to lower the risk of people irradiation.
EFFECT: lowering the risk of people irradiation.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for protection of fresh groundwater, ground and soils from pollution by toxic and radioactive substances in areas of technical wastes storage. In expected place of landfill it is created barrier, formed samples set of ground strata for depth till first water-bearing stratum of protected territory and set of local clay samples from the nearest region. Samples of ground strata are divided into layers presented by different lithological members and then territory is divided into separated sections and for each of them functioning critical time as natural geochemical barrier is defined. Then territorial sections (k) are defined, for them variation range ΔTs of territory required operation life Toper from critical time of its operating as natural geochemical barrier Tscrit exceed previously agreed acceptable value ΔTs= Toper - Tscrit > Tacc. Then it is formed database of potential contaminant migratory parameters for local clays and materials for artificial barriers, each section of being protected territory is covered by barrier material.
EFFECT: providing criterion of predictability territory operation critical time, appraisal ability of contaminants migration velocity in ground strata and increasing of being protected territory operating time.
7 cl, 2 dwg