Improvements in combustion and utilization of fuel gases
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for use in the incineration and disposal of the fuel gases. The fuel gas supplied to the combustion chamber through the inlet pipe, is a compressed mixture of air with a concentration below the lower explosive limit. The mixture of fuel gas/air flows inside the tube to pass into the combustion zone where combustion occurs in the reaction or samoshina. The product of the combustion gas passes through the tortuous path provided by the arrangement of the partitions, to the output pipe. The waste product of the combustion gas passes over the outer surface of the pipe and gives a warming heat into the incoming gas. System of a gas turbine for the disposal of spent fuel gas includes a combustion chamber, which gives the product of fuel combustion in the expansion stage of the turbine. Provided production process and energy saving. 4 C. and 16 h.p. f-crystals, 7 Il. The present invention relates to an improved combustion and utilization of the fuel gases. In one preferred example of implementation of the described methods and apparatus that use gases from mines, from organic waste and the like, to the expression "fuel gas" should be understood as the combustible gas, such as methane or melanostigma gases, such as natural gas, coal gas, gas from organic waste, gas, sewage and similar gases and gases containing carbon monoxide, gases such as blast furnaces, steel industry, power gas, etc., These combustible gases may also contain impurities such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air. In some cases, for example in the case of mine ventilation air, gases can be greatly rare and the value of such a combustible gas with air must be either below the lower explosive limit, or above the highest of the lower explosive limit of the mixture. In addition, the "fuel gas" may include a mixture with the target admixture of air with combustible gas.In this context, the fuel gas supplied to the combustion chamber, according to the present invention should be understood as a mixture of combustible gas (gas) and air, which is below the lower explosive limit of this mixture.Prior art
Many low-quality fuels such as blast furnace gas, and very sparse flue gases, for example containing methane ventilation air coal mines, siegesgesang with the extremely high cost of the adopted technologies, and/or the unavailability of appropriate technologies and cheap equipment that ensure commercial fuel use. In order to use this type of fuel, you want to compress a huge number of these fuel gases and mass flow stage compression and expansion of a gas turbine, and associated problems of incineration such that the gas turbine standard designs cannot be used.Another problem of using gas turbines to sparse utilization of the fuel gases is that essentially all of the gas must be compressed to the pressure exceeding the pressure of the combustion turbine to supply it to the turbine as fuel, and this compression requires expensive equipment and high energy consumption.In coal mines, saturated gas, the methane gas can be removed portion of the total number of methane in Carboniferous reservoir in the development of the underground way, while this part is a stream of fuel gas methane mixed with air and other contaminating impurities, such as carbon dioxide. The ratio of methane such technology is usually entilation the air shaft. The content of methane in the ventilation air in these mines typically ranges from 0.8 to 1.0%. It was proposed to use this gas, which is otherwise not used in gas turbines, in whole or as part supplied to the turbine of the air. Although it was found that a modern and highly efficient gas turbines are not suitable for such a mode, as needed total fuel ratio of methane and air to such turbines typically greater than 2% and usually closer to 3%, so that even if the feed methane in air mixture containing methane, can burn, and even with a volumetric concentration of methane in the air in quantities of 1% will be provided for approximately only one third of the needs of turbine fuel. In such a turbine can be used effectively the flow of gas from such mines, even if the problems are resolved combustion, and the gas obtained during the drainage of mines, will be used as additional fuel.Another problem of using threads such sparse fuel gas is that modern turbine high power typically used by more than 15% of the total air flow for cooling and purging. Therefore, a significant part me and wasted. In addition, it is known that methane, bypassing the stage of combustion and added to the flow of gaseous product of combustion, at intermediate temperatures can form active radicals, such as methylhydroxylamine radicals, which contribute to the conversion of nitrogen oxides formed in the stage of combustion, toxic and pronounced nitrogen dioxide.Some of the crude gases, such as gases, obtained after processing of wastewater, treatment of organic waste gases from coal seams and other similar gases may contain a high concentration of carbon dioxide in excess of 70% by volume. The combustion of such gases is very difficult, if not impossible, in conventional gas turbines and other combustion systems.In an article entitled "Elimination of methane emissions from coal mines" (journal of the Australian Institute of Energy from June 1992), written by the author of the present invention, it has been proposed to apply the methane containing ventilation air coal mines, gas turbines, however, this assumption was made before they understand all the associated problems mentioned above. Then it was proposed to use in the turbine, as well as a special control valve to change the amount of air for dilution to ensure the safe operation of the turbine, if the methane in the ventilation air exceeds the highest level. This proposed system also presented a problem, as it was relatively complex, and due to the fact that turbine, without security, works with methane content in the air is approximately 3% or above by incomplete combustion. It would be unacceptably close to the lower explosive limit of methane in air.Another problem is that if the mixture of fuel gas in air should be provided for sucking in a gas turbine or feed into the combustion chamber, and the mixture must be below the lower explosive limit explosive mixture will be in an unstable state at the point of mixing. For gas turbines and large industrial installations desirable small pressure drop in the stage of mixing, and the risk and magnitude of any possible explosion should be minimal, despite the huge volumes of air and fuel gas required for gas turbines and industrial furnaces.Despite the benefits of recycling exhaust gas Mainly the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOX) during combustion of the fuel gases is a common problem with a wide range of heating systems, such as commercial and industrial combustion chambers, furnaces, gas turbines, and so on, In many cases, the required temperature of the flue gases formed in the combustion process is much lower than the flame temperature of combustion gas, however, the level of NOX in the product gas is determined by the temperature of the flame, not the final temperature of the mixed gases. Typical of this problem that the combustion of fuel in gas turbines, where the flue gases are required at temperatures of about 850oC to 1200oC, but where NOX levels are determined by the condition of the flame in the combustion chamber, even with very modern designs of burners, which should reduce NOX in the exhaust gases to the number below 20 parts per million, a reduction of NOX emissions to below 10 parts per million is considered to be achievable only with the use of very specific combustion systems, such as catalytic devices.In catalytic combustion systems are commonly used catalysts based on noble metals such as platinum and palladium, which are tradedata in some fuel gases, one example of this is the presence of silanes in organic waste gases.The following issue combustion occurs when there is a mixture of gaseous fuel and air and the fuel level in the air below the lower Flammability limit of the mixture, and therefore the combustion is not possible with conventional, currently available non-catalytic technology, without the necessary additional fuel to initiate and maintain combustion.It is known to use air that has been contaminated by hydrocarbons in gas turbines for combustion of contaminants and use it as part of the fuel of the turbine, but usually only where the contaminating impurity is a small part of the fuel. This technology is used mainly to reduce the allocation of contaminants and cannot easily be used to provide a significant part of the demand of the gas turbine fuel, when the conventional gas turbines, due to the fact that conventional combustion chambers have certain limitations.The closest analogue of the claimed group of inventions is the United Kingdom patent N 989054, CL F 23 C 11/00, 1965, from which a known combustion chamber DoD, a method of burning fuel gases, the gas turbine system for the disposal of fuel gas for power generation, the method of disposal of the fuel gas in a gas turbine to produce useful energy. The known method does not solve the above problems.The present invention is to eliminate or at least reduce one or more of the above-mentioned problems of the prior art.Description of the invention
In accordance with the first aspect, a combustor for burning fuel gases containing tank having an inlet for supplying the fuel gas, a combustion zone and an exit, a group of hollow pipe having one end open to the supplied fuel gas and the other end open to the combustion zone, while the tubes are located at a distance from one another so that the outside of the pipes to form a path for exit of gaseous combustion product from the combustion zone, passing up out of the tank, the heat of the gaseous product of combustion is partially transferred directly to the incoming gas inside the pipes for heating, and the ratio of the supplied fuel gas with air is less than the lower explosive limit for this fuel is="ptx2">The combustion chamber may also include means partitions between the said tubes to form an output winding path. Pipes can be located longitudinally of the tank and above the inlet and outlet may be located near one end of the tank and the combustion zone is at the other end of the vessel. Pipes can be in the form of a hexagon by means of partitions, made of shells in the shape of a hexagon installed over the pipe and ensure the interconnection of adjacent sleeves. In addition, there may be provided a burner near the zone of combustion to preheat the combustion zone to a temperature of combustion before the introduction of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber.In accordance with another aspect, features a method of burning fuel gases containing the following stages: preheating the supplied fuel gas having a ratio of air less than the lower explosive limit for this fuel gas, heat, given pre-combusted fuel gas;
maintaining the heated fuel gas over a period of time sufficient for the occurrence of reaction or samoshomana;
the product of combustion of fuel gas through the winding is CLASS="ptx2">Preferably, there is a further stage of pre-heating the combustion zone to a temperature sufficient to cause combustion of preheated fuel gas, after its introduction into the combustion zone.In accordance with a further aspect, a gas turbine system for the disposal of fuel gas, with the aim of obtaining useful energy, including:
the degree of compression, receiving fuel gas and outputs the compressed fuel gas;
a combustion chamber receiving compressed fuel gas having a ratio of air less than the lower explosive limit for this fuel gas and the heated compressed fuel gas by heat transfer from the burned fuel gas before burning the heated fuel gas, the combustion occurs in the reaction or samacharam;
the expansion step, mechanically associated with the degree of compression and the host product of the combustion of fuel gas, and the expansion energy is transformed into useful rotational energy.In a preferred form, the exhaust expanded gas from the specified stage expansion through a heat exchanger to release heat compressed fuel gas before combustion. In addition, with the air compressor for the energy of rotation to provide compressed air.In the system of the gas turbine at least part of the reserve of compressed air is returned to the cooling and/or purge at least the specified connection between the degree of compression and expansion stages.The gas turbine also includes a recovery boiler, the receiving exhaust gas from the heat exchanger to generate steam for the water supplied to the boiler-utilizer.The mixture can be formed by the steps of mixing, including the pipeline for either air or fuel gas with a concentration below the lower explosive limit which is a lot of pipes, receiving fuel gas with a concentration above the highest lower explosive limit, while in the pipes, there are many holes to enable the specified fuel gas with a concentration above the highest lower explosive limit be mixed with either air or fuel gas with a concentration below the lower explosive limit.The most appropriate fuel gas contains methane.The proportion of methane to the air compressed fuel gas is preferably 2%.Supplied fuel gas may be a mixture gas from dewatering coal Shakhtar> The invention further proposes a system of a gas turbine, as set forth above, including the compressor, which is also referred to above as the degree of compression.The invention also provides a method of utilization of the fuel gas in a gas turbine to produce useful energy, comprising the stage of:
the compression of the fuel gas with the ratio of air less than the lower explosive limit for this fuel gas;
heated compressed fuel gas before combustion with heat given pre-combusted fuel gas;
the heated combustion of fuel gas in the reaction or samacharam;
the product of combustion of the fuel gas path, which is directly responsible for the direct heat exchange with feed fuel gas through the heat exchange surface;
expanding the combustion product gas to produce useful energy.It is advisable to include the next stage of heating of the compressed fuel gas by heat transfer from the exhaust gas after the expansion stage.Description of the drawings.Fig. 1 shows a side view in cross section of the combustion chamber according to the present invention;
Fig. 2a and 2b show following the 3b shows the location of the composite pipe of Fig. 3a;
Fig. 4 schematically depicts an installation for recycling gases from the drainage of coal mines and venting gas to produce electrical energy;
Fig. 5 - the same device of figure 4, showing the operating parameters;
Fig. 6a and 6b show a detail of the device for mixing gases;
Fig. 7 shows the details of the mixing zone, the gases in the device for mixing gases.A preferred example of the invention
A preferred example of the invention will now be described in more detail with reference to Fig. 1, which shows in simplified form the combustion chamber 2.Fuel gas (i.e. methane) containing flue gas at a normal level below the lowest level of explosive fed into the inlet manifold 14 of the combustion chamber 2 through line 20 to pass over the tube plate 4 in the heat transfer tube 6, where the gas must be heated to its ignition temperature before it enters the combustion zone 8. High temperature along with the amount of high-temperature combustion zone 8 provides the necessary time for the reaction and samoshomana fuel gas due to reactions caused by free radicals. Combustion thus t is th pairs. Eliminate the need to provide a flame for combustion means that there will be obtained a low content of NOX compounds, for example, up to < 5 ppm.Hot gases leaving the combustion zone 8, pass through the outer side of the heat exchange tubes, while the gases are mixed and sent to the external surfaces of the rows of partitions 10 tortuous or circuitous path before exiting through the pipe 22, by being burnt and the temperature required for filing in the expansion stage of the gas turbine.The combustion chamber 2 has a suitable covering of insulating material and has a heat-resistant internal lining, for example ceramic tiles and/or rings. If the pipe 6 is made of non-metallic material, for example silicon carbide, the pipe is cemented into a metal tubular plate 4 and the latter is provided with suitable insulation against the effects of high temperature flue gas side, the corresponding output pipe 22.The combustion chamber 2 is brought to operating temperature by the burner 12, which separately applied fuel from pipe 24 and the air from a separate pipe 26, both of which may extend from the same fuel source and B0oC), the burner 12 is blocked and is cooled by a continuous small stream of air entering only into the burner 12. The burner can also serve as an ignition burner at low nominal modes.Fig. 2 shows a typical preferred device of the combustion chamber on the basis of a simplified image of the combustion chamber 2' described above. Provided the group of heat exchanger tubes 6, the lower end of each of which is open to the feed pipe 20. The partition 10 is installed as usual, to reflect the cross flow. Figure 2b shows a similar combustion chamber 2 with extra long plates 16 mounted to ensure a continuous flow upwards, followed by a split flow downward to the zone of heat exchange.Fig. 3a shows a portion of the tubes of silicon carbide with a partition wall having the shape of a hexagon, made in concert with the pipe 6, while figure 3b shows a group of pipes 6, where the hexagonal cloisonne support 10' are staggered to provide a meandering path to the output pipe 22, which provides an effective heat exchange.Example
In one example implementation, the combustion chamber 2 is used to autofocus turbine, where is the fuel, such as methane, is fed into the turbine together with the incoming air. Turbine has the following dimensions and characteristics:
the feed gas flow of the air/methane - 17,4 kg/sec
the inlet temperature of the air/methane - 400oC
the temperature of the combustion product gas at the outlet - 850oC
the inner diameter of the combustion chamber - 1,190 mm
the analysis is saturated with water at a temperature of 24oC and atmospheric pressure of 1.6% methane (vol/vol dry basis) 98.4% of air (vol/vol dry basis)
N pipe - 1,794
the external diameter of the pipe (the location at a distance with a triangular pitch) - 19 mm
pipe length - 2,000 mm
room dividers - 5
the top of the pipe to the top of the combustion chamber - 1000 mm
Tubes have a thickness of 2 mm, made of alloy (Sandvik 253 MA), equipped with small teeth on the inside and have electroporate of Nickel. Tubular plate 4 and the partition wall 10 is also made of alloy Sandvik 253 MA. External (high temperature) pipe surface can be covered with a ceramic oxide, such as Mullite.The combustion chamber, described above, is also used in gas turbines, furnaces for refining and other industrial furnaces.In another example, reality impregnated with known catalysts, as for example, Nickel, melanostigma fuels, or known catalysts based on zinc oxide for fuels containing carbon monoxide.The following is an example implementation of the invention will be described with reference to figure 4, in relation to the use of ventilation air coal mine from polluting admixture of methane gas from the mine drainage, which shows the gas turbine 100 General type. The degree of compression of the gas turbine 102 is connected with the expansion step 104 the drive shaft 108. In turn, the stage 104 is connected to an electric generator 106 as the drive shaft 110. The output power of the generator 106 is the energy obtained from mine ventilation air and gas from the drainage, and may be fed into the electrical network, representing thus its commercial value.Ventilation air coal mine with a mixture of methane passes through the inlet pipe 250 to the device for mixing 112, which is then added an adjustable amount of gas from the dewatering of the mine supplied to another input pipe 252. The mixture then passes through the outlet pipe 254 under the influence of suction by the compressor 102 of the gas turbine.Perator 116, in which it is heated by way of heat exchange and passes through pipe 258 in the combustion chamber 114. The combustion chamber 114 has a construction in accordance with the description of figures 1-3b, and for this example, in accordance with the description of the following example. Hot (flue) gases leaving the combustion chamber 114, pass through pipe 262 to the expansion step 104.The exhaust gas from the expansion stage 104 exits through the outlet pipe 264 to pass through the heat exchanger 116, and the cooled waste gases then leave the heat exchanger 116 through the outlet pipe 266 to the atmosphere.Exhaust cooled gas turbine can flow into the boiler after exiting the heat exchanger 116 to produce steam for cooling turbine disks, bearings and other parts of the turbine, which is usually cooled by air from a compressor of the turbine, resulting in all or almost all of the air is mixed with methane (fuel gas), sucked into the turbine, passes through the combustion system.Ignition fuel for the turbine, in this case, the distillate fuel is fed into the combustion chamber 114 through line 260 together with air for the burner which is supplied through another pipe 268.In most SL what are the Main changes of the loads can be shut down individual turbines, and some changes in the target turbine load can be performed by changing the temperature set for gas emerging from the combustion chamber 114 in the output pipe 262. Load changes can also be made by changing the rate of flow of fuel through the turbine by using known means, such as the use of variable inlet vanes built into the compressor 102 and the expansion step.In the following preferred embodiment of this invention, in a gas turbine 100 shown in figure 4, essentially all of its fuel requirements are the submission of methane in the incoming air and the regulated discharge of the fuel gas into the suction stream of the compressor 102. Such turbines, such as Westinghouse CW191 PG and Solav Centaur 400 R, both of which are not currently produced, as well as turbine General Electric Frame-1, Frame 2 and Frame 5, which are considered old and outdated designs, ideal for use in implementations of the invention.Listed turbine models with modifications, involving the incorporation of the described combustion chamber 114, will not work with methane content in the intake air in excess of 2.0% of the amount that the significance of relacionado air shaft, turbine itself becomes an effective regulatory tool that is parallel to and independent of any regulatory analytical tools or other safety devices used in the mines.Figures 6a and 6b show details of the construction of the pipeline, where the incoming ventilation air mines and gas from the mine drainage is mixed in the mixing device 112. Figure 6a depicts a view in cross section along the line A-a as shown in figure 6b. Tube 250 includes many located at a distance from one another, upright hollow pipe 150, which are mutually connected by upper and lower connecting tubes 152, 154. The top tube 152 receives the feed gas from the mine drainage from the input pipe 252 for filing down the vertical pipe 150. As best seen from figure 7, each of the vertical pipes 150 is a group of small holes 160 in the perimeter from which the fuel gas from draining out to be mixed with the ventilation air of the mine. The space between adjacent tubes functions like a mixer of Venturi type, and speed of gas and air at the point of discharge of the fuel gas are to prevent mode An example implementation of the invention shown in figure 5, based on the use of turbine Solav Centaur 3000 R. In this example, the turbine speed regulation is achieved by varying the power generator 106 and the speed of gas fed to the turbine system through the inlet pipe 252 to regulate the supply of gas in order to maintain the specified temperature range for the temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber into the outlet pipe 262. The speed of flow of the components of the mine are 13,306 N. m3/air, 0,134 N. m3/with methane and 0,403 N. m3/with water vapor. The rate of flow of the gas components from the dewatering of the mine is of 0.081 N. m3/s of methane, of 0.081 N. m3/with air and 0.005 N. m3/with water vapor. Unit N. m3/s means "normal cubic meters per second, i.e., the well-known unit of measurement speed flow compared with 0oC and standard pressure. The degree of compression is the compression ratio less than 14:1, and preferably less than 10:1. The ratio of concentration of the compressed fuel gas to the air must be below the lower explosive limit, and in this example is 1.6% (volume), and preferably in the range from 1.5% to 2%. The dwell time inside the. the temperature at the outlet of the gaseous combustion products most preferably should be in the range of from 850 to 950oC, while the highest limit is 1100oC. the resulting temperature of the fuel gases from the combustion chamber 114 approximately 870oC, while the temperature of the flue gas from the compressor 104 is 455oC. Produced by the energy generator 106 is 2420 kW.The speed of the gas fed into the combustion chamber 114 via the inlet pipe 260, indicates the amount of methane in the ventilation air in the feed line 250 and a suitable warning device, indicating low gas flow or high temperature combustion will stop the turbine and will indicate the presence of abnormal and dangerous conditions in the ventilation system of the mine.In the following example implementation of the invention, the gas turbine 100 may be used for combustion gases of metallurgical plants containing carbon monoxide by means of suction air in the suction zone of the turbine. Part of the energy produced is used directly or indirectly to compress air for the purpose of separating oxygen for metallurgical operations and air separation. Then can be air, freedoms is walking in the system combustion turbine mixture of fuel and air, sucked into the turbine.In yet another example implementation of the invention using a gas turbine, the air and fuel gas discharged from the compressor can be put into contact with water to saturation and additional cooling of the mixture of air and fuel, and water can serve as waste water or industrial waste water and the like, the volume of which is reduced, as at least part of the components that cause the smell, will be delivered into the combustion chamber for burning. 1. Combustion chamber for combustion of the fuel gases containing tank having an inlet for supplying the fuel gas, the zone of combustion and output, characterized in that it contains a group of hollow pipe having one end open to the supplied fuel gas and the other end open to the combustion zone, and pipes are located at a distance from one another so that the outside of the pipe to form the output path for the combustion product gas from the combustion zone, passing to the outlet from the tank, the heat from the combustion gas is partially transferred directly to the incoming gas inside the tubes to preheat the incoming gas, moreover, the ratio of the supplied fuel gas with air is less than the lower explosive limit Digitalo fuel gas.2. The combustion chamber under item 1, characterized in that it also provides a means of partitions between the said tubes to form an output winding path.3. The combustion chamber under item 2, characterized in that the pipes are located longitudinally of the tank and the inlet and outlet are located near one end of the tank, and the zone of combustion is at the other end of the tank.4. The combustion chamber under item 2, characterized in that the pipes are in the form of a hexagon by means of partitions, made of shells hexagonal shape, mounted on top of the pipes and vzaimosoedinenii adjacent sleeves.5. The combustion chamber according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that it also contains the burner next to the zone of combustion to preheat the combustion zone to a temperature of combustion before the introduction of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber.6. A method of burning fuel gases, characterized in that it contains stages: preheating the supplied fuel gas having a ratio of air less than the lower explosive limit for this fuel gas, heat, given pre-combusted fuel gas; maintaining the heated fuel gas over a period of time sufficient d is made by direct heat exchange with feed fuel gas through the heat exchange surface.7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that it contains also the stage of pre-heating the combustion zone to a temperature sufficient to cause combustion of preheated fuel gas after its introduction into the combustion zone.8. System of a gas turbine for the disposal of fuel gas for energy, containing the degree of compression, receiving fuel gas and outputs the compressed fuel gas; a combustion chamber receiving compressed fuel gas, and the expansion step, mechanically associated with the degree of compression and the host product of the combustion of fuel gas, and the expansion energy is converted into useful energy of rotation, characterized in that the fuel gas has a correlation with the air that is less than the lower explosive limit for this fuel gas, and heated by heat transfer from the burned fuel gas before combustion of preheated fuel gas, when combustion occurs by reaction or samoshomana.9. System of a gas turbine under item 8, characterized in that the exhaust expanded gas from the expansion stage through a heat exchanger to heat the compressed fuel gas before entering the combustion chamber.10. System gas turbinellidae energy of rotation into electrical energy.11. System of a gas turbine under item 9, characterized in that it also contains an air compressor, is connected to the expansion step for the energy of rotation to provide compressed air.12. System of a gas turbine according to p. 11, characterized in that at least part of the reserve of compressed air is returned to the cooling and/or purge at least the specified connection between the degree of compression and expansion stages.13. System of a gas turbine according to any one of paragraphs.9 to 12, characterized in that it also contains the HRSG, the receiving exhaust gas from the heat exchanger to generate steam for the water supplied to the boiler-utilizer.14. System of a gas turbine according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 13, characterized in that it also includes the step of mixing with the pipeline for either air or fuel gas with a concentration below the lower explosive limit which is a lot of pipes, receiving fuel gas with a concentration above the highest lower explosive limit, while in the pipes, there are many holes to enable the specified fuel gas with a concentration above the highest lower explosive limit be mixed with either air, Lieb is on p. 14, wherein the fuel gas contains methane.16. System of a gas turbine according to p. 15, characterized in that the supplied fuel gas is a mixture gas from draining coal mines and ventilation air.17. System of a gas turbine according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 16, characterized in that the proportion of methane to the air compressed fuel gas is 2%.18. System of a gas turbine according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 17, characterized in that the degree of combustion comprises a combustion chamber according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4.19. The method of disposal of the fuel gas in a gas turbine to produce useful energy, characterized in that it comprises the stages: compression of the fuel gas with the ratio of air less than the lower explosive limit for this fuel gas; heating the compressed fuel gas before combustion heat given pre-combusted fuel gas; combustion of the heated gas through the reaction or samacharam; the product of combustion of the fuel gas path, which is directly responsible for the direct heat exchange with feed fuel gas through the heat exchange surface; and expansion of the released gas to produce useful energy.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in feeding carbon fuel to compressor inlet. Said feed is accompanied with fuel feed into main combustion chamber reduced by amount of fuel fed to compressor inlet. Fuel consumption at compressor inlet does not exceed three percent of air consumption. Fuel nozzles mounted at compressor inlet can be directed towards airflow.
EFFECT: improved thrust, reduced fuel consumption of high-rpm gas turbine engines.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: air is compressed in compressor to be fed into combustion chamber for fuel combustion. Resulted hot gas is fed for expansion to active gas power turbine to drive compressor. Converted fuel with increased absolute calorific power is afterburnt in endothermic reaction of initial fuel in steam reforming reactor. Parallel thermal cycle is conducted wherein heated mix of water with hydrocarbon fuel is fed via turbine hollow shaft into reaction chamber. Reaction chamber comprises porous carbon metal container arranged inside pressure gas turbine that stays in contact with power turbine or makes an integral part thereof. Reactor is rotated to compress said mix partially during endothermic reaction. Mix is partially heated by turbine cooling and by waste gas heat and, then, is discharged via jet nozzles to generate extra torque.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and safety.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel compression system. Gas conditioning system comprises compressor for gas compression and heating, air feed device, heat exchanger transfer of heat from hot gas to airflow, moisture separator and heater with one channel receiving the flow of saturated gas from moisture separator and another channel receiving hot airflow from heat exchanger for transfer of heat from hot air to saturated gas to produce overheated gas with temperature exceeding saturation temperature. Micro turbine engine comprises air compressor, gas conditioning system, combustion chamber for combustion of compressed air with overheated gas, power turbine, generator to produce electric power in rotation of the turbine, and recuperator heating compressed air by combustion products prior to feed into combustion chamber.
EFFECT: ruled out moisture residues in fuel consuming hardware.
17 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: power plant (112) includes gas turbine engine (116) fed with fuel through fuel feed circuit (122) passing from tank (124) located on the level of frame (110), and engine cooling circuit (118, 130) containing the first and heat exchanger (120, 132) of the engine to remove calories. Frame (110) includes source (134) of heat emissions. The fuel used to feed gas turbine engine (116) is used as heat carrier fluid medium to dissipate thermal emissions generated on the level of frame (110) on the level of power plant (112). Some amount of the heat transferred with fuel is extracted with heat carrier fluid medium of the engine cooling circuit (118, 130) and is dissipated with the first heat exchanger (120, 132) of the engine so that the temperature of the fuel fed to gas turbine engine (116) can be maintained below a certain threshold value.
EFFECT: improvement of the method.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant comprises gas turbine engine with compressor, gas turbine air preparation device, fuel system with combustion chamber, fuel feed and adjustment device, engine and actuator oil lubing system with oil cooling heat exchanger, pressure pump, fuel heating heat exchanger, all being arranged in separate adjustable circulation circuit. Additionally, said plant incorporated a heat pump. The latter comprises at least one heat exchanger, one pressure booster, one condenser heat exchanger and one pressure reducer. Evaporator heat exchanger inlet is connected to gas turbine air preparation device outlet. Evaporator heat exchanger outlet is connected to compressor inlet. Condenser heat exchange inlet is connected with fuel feed device while its outlet is connected with fuel heating heat exchanger.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, reduced influence of atmospheric air parameters, higher safety.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: system for the progressive oxidation of fuel includes an oxidation reactor that has a reaction chamber with an inlet and an outlet. The reaction chamber is configured to receive a fluid containing the oxidizable fuel through the inlet. The oxidation reactor is designed to maintain the process of flameless oxidation. The system also includes the combustion chamber with an inlet and an outlet. The inlet of the combustion chamber is in fluid communication with the outlet of the reaction chamber. The combustion chamber is configured to receive fluid from the reaction chamber and selectively heat the fluid. A method for triggering a progressive oxidation in a gas turbine and a version of a system for progressive oxidation of fuel are also presented.
EFFECT: improved control of fuel oxidation process.
31 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.
EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: combustion apparatus for fluent fuels.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying gas to be burnt out from the head of the burner of the torch plant in the combustion zone. The composition of gases is variable. The gas flow rate varies from 1m/s to 3.5 of sound speed due to generating excess static pressure of gas from 0.00001 MPa/cm2 to 3.0 MPa/cm2 by the movable control device. The gas jet is turbulent with a cone angle from 2o to 155o.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: combustion apparatus using fluent fuel.
SUBSTANCE: burner comprises casing made of a scroll, hollow shaft for fuel supply arranged inside the casing, sucking and exhausting branch pipes for air secured to the casing, nozzle mounted in the conical sleeve, diffuser, and drive. The shaft is mounted for rotation and provided with blades of the fan. The nozzle and conical sleeve are secured to the hollow shaft. The drive is secured to the casing inside the sucking branch pipe. The branch pipe is mounted with a space relation to the casing to provide a space for air flow. The shaft of the drive is hollow to provide fuel flow to the nozzle. The shaft of the drive and hollow shaft of the burner are axially aligned and interconnected. The drive shaft is provided with emulsifier for generating emulsion or suspension and supplying fuel and/or water emulsion and cock for fuel supply.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg